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Book Review Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry. Vol. 9 Bioelectrochemistry. Edited by George S. Wilson

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Books
Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry.
Vol. 9: Bioelectrochemistry
Edited by
George S. Wilson.
(Series editors:
Allen J. Bard and
Martin Stratmann.) WileyVCH, Weinheim
2002. 662 pp.,
hardcover
E 349.00.—ISBN
3-527-30401-0
The aim of the Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry (11 volumes) is to give competently written accounts of the current
state of knowledge in electrochemical
research and technology, in a form that
can also be understood by readers other
than electrochemists, and to provide a
reference source with a useful life that
should at least extend some way into the
near future. In view of the wide scope of
the subject and the considerable size of
the planned series, the overall editors
decided that the work should be broken
down quite extensively into relatively
manageable parts. Thus, they have
enlisted the help of recognized leading
scientists as editors to coordinate and
oversee the volumes dealing with different areas of electrochemistry, and—
most importantly—they have recruited
as authors specialists who can give
expert accounts of the current state of
progress in their fields.
This extensive subdividing has
unavoidably resulted in the volumes
being rather heterogeneous, and the
chapters differ considerably in their
quality and in their choice of emphasis.
Nevertheless, it seems to me that this
approach is the only possible way to
treat complex special topics with a high
3326
level of expertise covering the latest
advances.
George Wilson has succeeded in
recruiting outstanding experts to write
the chapters of this volume, but has not
attempted to group the contributions
according to topic areas. A very brief
introduction on the historical background of bioelectrochemistry is followed by an excellent chapter in which
F. A. Armstrong describes the use of
voltammetry to study redox proteins.
Starting from simple systems of redox
proteins in solution, and discussing electron transfer at different electrode surfaces, the article progresses to proteinmodified electrodes, and then to the
special properties of different prosthetic
groups. The last sections especially, on
coupled electron transfer processes and
on catalysis, deal with topics that are
currently attracting much interest.
In Chapter 2, J. Cooper discusses the
electrochemistry of single cells, with
special emphasis on microstructures
produced by lithography or by “micromachining”, and on “self-referencing
microelectrodes”. The chapter also
touches less thoroughly on some other
aspects, including measurements with
precisely positioned microsensors and
new experiments with scanning microscopy techniques, in particular SECM. In
Chapter 3, C. Ziegler is concerned with
a quite different field, beginning with a
short introduction explaining the biochemical fundamentals of electrical
transmission of stimuli in nerve cells,
which provides the basic background for
moving on to discuss artificial neurone
cultures. On the basis of several examples, Ziegler discusses the problems
associated with complex networks and
their possible applications. Unfortunately, however, she focuses almost
entirely on her own work, and fails to
mention recent studies on multielectrode arrays and on the transmission of
information from cell aggregates.
Chapter 4, by L. Gorton and E.
Dominguez, is very different from the
preceding ones, not just in its content
but in its length. The authors have taken
on the task of comprehensively summarizing present knowledge about the
electrochemistry of the NADþ/NADH
system. In this excellent chapter, with
over 450 references, they cover the topic
thoroughly, including especially the
+ 2003 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
www.angewandte.org
application of NADþ-dependent dehydrogenases in amperometric biosensors.
In Chapter 5, on electrochemical
immunoassays, A. Wijayawardhana,
H. B. Halsall, and W. R. Heinemann
give a clear and easily understandable
description of the technique. They
include tables which describe different
types of immunoassays with electrochemical detection, and these provide
a quick overview of the state of the art.
Although the chapter includes brief
descriptions of electrochemical immunosensors, some new developments that
one might expect to find mentioned at
the end are missing: for example, miniaturization, immunochips, and “lab-ona-chip” systems could have been mentioned.
The following chapter, by K. M.
Kadish and E. van Caemelbecke, does
not fit well into the overall context of
this volume, as it consists mainly of a
very detailed description of the electrochemistry of metalloporphyrins in nonaqueous systems, which is only rather
tenuously connected to bioelectrochemistry by a discussion of the electrochemical properties of heme enzymes. However, this topic has a particular relevance in the context of Chapter 7, in
which T. Malinski describes the electrochemical determination of NO in biological systems, where catalyst-modified
electrodes, especially using metalloporphyrins, play an important role. The
author explains why it is important to
determine NO, and shows that accurate
localization of NO and continuous monitoring of the level is only possible by
using electrochemical microsensors.
Examples of the determination of NO
in single cells, tissues, a beating heart,
and a brain are described, and typical
experimental results are presented in
the form of informative graphs.
Unfortunately the list of literature references is rather short. It would also
have been very useful to include a table
summarizing and comparing the many
different types of NO sensors that have
been described in the literature.
In Chapter 8, H. Shiku, H. Ohya,
and T. Matsue describe the use of
scanning electrochemical microscopy
(SECM) to study biological systems.
After briefly introducing the principles
of the method and showing how SECM
has the capability for visualizing electroAngew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 3326 – 3330
Angewandte
Chemie
chemical activity, the authors describe
results on the visualization of local
enzyme activity, antigen – antibody
interactions, localized flow through
liquid – liquid interfaces, and metabolic
activity in cells and tissues.
Chapter 9, by E. Bakker and M. E.
Meyerhoff, is concerned with the use of
ion-selective electrodes (glass electrodes, solid-state electrodes, liquid membrane electrodes, gas sensors, and ionselective biosensors) in biological fluids.
In Chapter 10, with the title “Electrochemistry in Bioanalysis”, S. R. Mikkelsen approaches the whole subject from a
different viewpoint. However, the chapter tries to cover too broad a range and
consequently lacks specific information
about the different aspects touched on.
In contrast Chapter 11, on spectroelectrochemical studies of the properties of
proteins at interfaces, is of a very high
standard, as one expects from the
author, K. Niki. He introduces the
methods
used
(surface-enhanced
Raman
scattering
spectroscopy—
SERS, electroreflectance spectroscopy,
infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, etc.) in a clear and understandable
way, then describes their applications to
studying the redox behavior of heme
proteins and flavoproteins, molecular
organization on surfaces, and the kinetics of electron-transfer processes.
In Chapter 12, E. Paleček, M. Fojta,
F. Jelen, and V. Vetterl describe the
electrochemical analysis of nucleic
acids, and give a detailed account of
the history of this work and new applications to redox studies of nucleic acids
and DNA. Chapter 13, in which F. W.
Scheller and U. Wollenberger discuss
enzyme electrodes, is rather short and
consequently does not really cover the
topic adequately. After a short introduction the authors focus on coupled
enzyme systems and possible amplification mechanisms. The tables are not very
helpful as they do not give the relevant
literature references, and consequently
this chapter does not conform to the
intended encyclopedic character of the
volume.
In a well-written and clearly understandable contribution (Chapter 14),
J. L. Peters, N. V. Kulagina, H. Yang,
and A. C. Michael describe the use of
carbon-fiber microelectrodes for the
in vivo determination of neurotransmitAngew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 3326 – 3330
ters. By exactly positioning the microelectrodes in the brain one can detect
dopamine, and also (by using suitably
modified microsensors) neurotransmitters that are not accessible to direct
oxidation. Next, in Chapter 15, J. Pellett
and M. Stankovich describe how they
use potentiometric and coulometric
titration to study electron transfer
between redox proteins and freely diffusing redox mediators. This chapter
provides a good general introduction
to methods for determining redox
potentials of enzymes, as it contains a
detailed description of the experimental
procedures and the processing of the
data.
Proteins are often integrated into
membranes, and therefore an understanding of the electrochemistry of
membranes is essential for many aspects
of bioelectrochemistry. In Chapter 16,
by H. Ti Tien and A. Ottova, an introduction to the structure and electrochemical properties of biomembranes
and analogous artificial structures such
as Langmuir – Blodgett films is followed
by an excellent description of various
experiments by which one can study the
electrochemistry of double-layer membranes. The final chapter, by E. Katz,
A. N. Shipway, and I. Willner, is concerned with electron transfer between
redox enzymes and electrode surfaces
using both freely diffusing and immobilized redox mediators. The authors summarize the present state of knowledge
about the process, including very recent
advances.
As one commonly finds in a multiauthor work, the chapters vary in their
level of treatment and quality, and the
degree of coordination between them is
slight. As well as some really excellent
articles, there are a few that do not fully
meet the high aims of the series or
concentrate too much on the authorsI
own research. Nevertheless, the volume
offers a very good overview of a wide
variety of current topics in bioelectrochemistry, and therefore it will be a
useful addition to libraries, at least for
groups actively working in this field. On
the other hand, as it will inevitably soon
lose some of its topicality in such a fastmoving area of research, it is unlikely to
be seen as a good buy for private
individuals. Some parts of the work do
not quite have the encyclopedic characwww.angewandte.org
ter that one expects, and in future
editions it would certainly be desirable
to enlarge the volume to take account of
the latest advances.
Wolfgang Schumann
Lehrstuhl f5r Analytische Chemie
Elektroanalytik und Sensorik
Universit8t Bochum (Germany)
Encyclopedia of Electrochemistry
Vol. 1. Thermodynamics and Electrified Interfaces.
Edited by
E. Gileadi and
M. Urbakh.
(Series editors:
Allen J. Bard and
Martin Stratmann.) WileyVCH, Weinheim
2002. 610 pp.,
hardcover
E 349.00.—ISBN
3-527-30393-6
Chemistry students become aware of
connections between thermodynamics
and electrochemistry in their first year
of study, when the free enthalpy of
reaction, as a special case of the free
enthalpy (Gibbs enthalpy), is considered in the context of a reaction that can
also occur in an electrochemical cell.
The direct relationship between the cell
voltage, a quantity that is in most cases
easily measured experimentally, and
DGR is emphasized as an illustration of
the advantages and capabilities of electrochemical concepts and methods. The
relationship between the entropy of
reaction and the temperature coefficient
of the cell voltage is introduced as a
further promising extension of this
approach, and it can be very useful, as
there are hardly any alternative easy
methods for determining the reaction
entropy. Later in their thermodynamics
course, when they begin to consider
mixed phases, the concepts of activity
and activity coefficients, and the
Debye – HJckel theory, students are
again made aware of the direct connec-
+ 2003 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
3327
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