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Book Review Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 1. Specialist Periodical Reports. Senior Reporter G. Eglinton

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Several annual surveys are to be found in a volume of the
Journal of Organometallic Chemistry. C . Blomberg has compiled the literature appearing on magnesium in 1974 (1 14
pp., 384 references); G . 0. Doak and L. D. Freedman have
authored three separate reviews of the 1974 literature on
arsenic, antimony, and bismuth (102 pp., 326 references; 38
pp., 116 references; and 4 pp., 26 references). Articles on ferrocene published in the same year have been collected by G.
Marr and B. W Rockett (78 pp., 209 references). There follows
a survey of the 1973 literature on nickel, palladium, and
platinum by E. Singleton, G. Cooke, and J . R. Moss (124
pp., 463 references). The volume closes with an author index.
[J. Organomet. Chem. 106, 1-486 (1976)l
[Rd 842 IE-L]
Raw materials, as the basis of industry and primarily the
chemical industry, provide the subject matter for an entire
issue of the journal “Science”. More than 30 authors express
their ideas about future supplies of all kinds of raw materials
and about possibilities of avoiding threatening shortages.-A
brief introduction is followed by five articles on economic
aspects and three about questions of energy and the environment and about the recovery of materials (and generation
of energy) from household garbage. In the next four articles
future requirements are estimated and suggestions made for
action upon eventual exhaustion of, e. g., mercury reserves.
Production of chemicals from coal is another topic considered.
There follow three contributions on prospecting for ores and
new processes for extraction and recovery of metals, and
three about materials for special purposes, e. g. in electronics.
The final six articles are about wood and plant materials.
These sources are the only ones capable of regeneration and
therefore occupy a special position. [Materials. Science 291,
631-776 (1976)l
[Rd 843 IE-L]
Rydberg states are considered in a review by R. S. Mulliken.
A complete understanding of electronic spectra and the photochemistry of atoms and molecules requires a knowledge of
the spectra of Rydberg states. Rydberg states are transversed
during the ionization process and are also of importance
for reactions in the upper atmosphere. In the case of atoms
and molecules having high ionization energies the Rydberg
spectra lie in the vacuum UV; for species with lower ionization
energies they extend into the near UV. Particular attention
is paid to H: as a prototype of a molecule and to Rydberg
states in diatomic molecules such as N2 and NO. [Rydberg
States and Rydbergization. Acc. Chem. Res. 9, 7-12 (1976);
13 references]
[Rd 844 IE-L]
BOOK REVIEWS
Technische Chemie-Eine Einfuhrung in die chemische Reaktionstechnik (Industrial Chemistry: Introduction to the
Technology of Chemical Reactions). By E. Fitzer and W
Fritz. Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1975.
1st Edit.,xiii,532pp., 150figures, 36 tables,paper,DM44.-.
This book fills a gap that has been felt for many years
in the German-language literature by chemistry students and
teachers in universities.
The volume is divided into two parts. In the first 3 chapters
(104 pp.), the economic factors affecting production are
explained and the position of the chemical industry within
the framework of world production is presented. The individual parameters affecting profits, such as the production output, the range of capacity, the site of the factory, etc. are
discussed and the criteria for the choice of the raw materials
and processes are described with the aid of examples. After
the concepts important for reaction techniques have been
explained, the industrial realization of batch, semibatch, and
flow processes is related to the properties of reactor types
important for single-phase and multiphase systems, as well
as to the individual aspects of process optimization and the
minimization of costs.
The second part (418 pp.) forms the bulk of the book, providing quantitative relationships for a mathematical treatment of
the course of the reaction. The principles of chemical thermodynamics, microkinetics and heat and material transport are
treated in Chapters 4 and 5. The behavior and the properties
of ideal reactor types for batch and continuous operation
in isothermal, adiabatic, and polytropic processes are presented in Chapters 6 to 10. Comparison of the residence-time
distributions and back-mixing for ideal and real reactors and
for the diffusion and the cell model, as well as calculations
of the yield for real reactors are carried out in Chapter 11.
Chapters 12 to 15 treat chemical reactions in multiphase
systems, the special features of heat and material transport
processes in reactions at the solid-liquid interface, and the
principles of catalytic and non-catalytic heterogeneous reac246
tions, including the relevant reactors; the various possible
methods of carrying out such reactions are discussed. Chapter
16 (by H . Gerrens) is devoted to polymerization reactions
and their industrial performance.
The book is written with didactic expertise, in readily understood, clear form, and with many illustrations and numerous
examples of calculations taken from practice, together with
their solutions; it can be recommended as a textbook, and
that not only for chemistry students, since its readership should
also include many chemists and economists.
Milos Rnlek [NB 297 JE]
Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 1. Specialist Periodical Reports.
Senior Reporter G . Eglinton. The Chemical Society, London
1975.1st Edit., xii, 199 pp., numerous figs. and tables, bound,
f 7.-.
This is the first volume of a new series of “Specialist Periodical Reports” with the subtitle “Review of Recent Literature
on the Organic Chemistry of the Environment up to the
Middle of 1973”; the next volume, which should treat also
inorganic problems, is expected by late 1976. The intended
readership goes far beyond chemists. In the frst chapter the biogeochemical cycles in undisturbed and stressed environmental
regions are treated by the use of the stable isotopes of C,
S, N, H, and 0 as examples; three chapters deal with ecotypes
determined by water, with inclusion, when necessary, of sedimentary chemistry, material balances, and the microbiology
of these areas. Two further chapters describe hydrocarbons
in marine systems, including oil-spill accidents, as well as
the behavior of DDT and PCB, with emphasis on metabolism,
distribution, and analysis. In the final chapter 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate is discussed in detail. The text of the seven
chapters is excellently documented with formulas, tables, and
more than 900 references; the large number of diverse literature
sources alone shows how much work of compilation has
gone into this volume, which is a real mine of information
for the user. The volume fulfills the function of a mediator
Angew. Chem. Int.
Ed. Engl. / Vol. 15 (1976) No. 4
between the specialists and the large circle of other scientists
who are, or may be compelled to be, interested in environmental problems.
Giinther Siebert [NB 300 IE]
Elektrolytgleichgewichteund Elektrochemie (Electrolytic Equilibria and Electrochemistry). Fachstudium Chemie, Lehrbuch 5. By G. Ackermann, W Jugelt, H . - H . Mobius, H .
D. Suschke, and G . Werner. Verlag Chemie, GmbH, Weinheim 1975. 1st Edit., 292 pp., 83 figs., 66 tables, paperback,
D M 34.-.
This book contains ten chapters : solutions, electrolyte
theory, electrochemical equilibria, electrochemical processes,
acid-base equilibria, redox equilibria, precipitation equilibria,
complex equilibria, extraction equilibria, and ion-exchange
equilibria. The classical thermodynamics of ions in solution
are treated in detail, the student being offered a good introduction; this is the strength of the book. The attached chapter
“Electrochemistry” is, however, very short, with thermodynamics in predominance; thus, there is no discussion of modern
electroanalytical methods or of industrial applications of
electrochemistry. The Debye-Huckel theory is introduced in
the form of its results only but is not derived.
Sections in small print provide the reader with additional
information, some of it on still controversial topics. It is
in particular here that the absence of literature references
proves a great disadvantage. The indicative treatment of these
fields-nonaqueous
solvents and acid-base theories, for
example-provides too little for the student.
The classifications of cations according to Schwarzenbach,
Ahrland, Chart and Davies, and Pearson’s concept of hard
and soft acids and bases are not kept separate. In Table
8.2 Ga3+ is classified as soft but on p. 142 as hard.
The thermodynamic principles of extraction, of precipitation
equilibria and ion-exchange equilibria are well treated, analytical and industrial processes being also indicated. To prevent
mere reading without understanding, questions are built into
the text and further problems are given at the end of each
chapter, which is a help for independent study.
Gerhard Gritzner [NB 303 IE]
Auswertung und Analyse kinetischer Messungen (taschentext
37) (Evaluation and Analysis of Kinetic Measurements
(pocketbook 37)). By E. S. Swinbourne. Revised and translated by 0.F . Olaj. Verlag Chemie/Physik Verlag, Weinheim
1975. x, 166 pp., 36 figures, 47 tables, bound, DM 17.80.
The two middle chapters “Regularity and Order of Chemical
Reading” (Chapter 3) and “Determination of the Rate Constants” (Chapter 4)of the book are concerned with the evaluation and analysis of kinetic measurements. In two general
chapters the reader is familiarized with the numerical and
graphical methods of data analysis and the most important
prerequisites of error theory. The final chapter 5 provides
stimulation and indicates special problems.
The book does not require any mathematical background
beyond that taught in a Grammar School and that could
not be mastered with the aid of the book itself. The many
examples worked out for the reader are useful. The clear
and simple structure of the book leads the beginner directly
to the field of application, analysis of kinetic data with the
aid of simple methods.
JosefBarthel [NB 304 IE]
Russian-English Chemical and Polytechnical Dictionary. By
Ludmilla I. Callaham. John Wiley & Sons, New York-London 1975. 3rd Edit., xxviii, 852 pp., bound, f 18.95.
This dictionary is the result of more than thirty years of
involvement with Russian technical literature. In 852 pages
Angew. Chem. Inr. Ed. Engl.
Vol. 1 5 ( 1 9 7 6 ) No. 4
printed in two columns it contains a wealth of carefully selected
Russian terms (the number of entries is estimated at 80W90000) from inorganic, organic, physical, analytical, and nuclear chemistry as well as from industrial chemistry (from the
plastics, fiber, ceramic, paper, foodstuffs, dyes and varnishes,
fertilizer, pest control, and pharmaceutical industries). Important terms from mineralogy, geology, metallurgy, electrical
engineering, computer technology, nuclear engineering, agriculture, botany, medicine, zoology, physics, and mathematics
are also included.
The contents of a dictionary can be investigated only by
random sampling, and one looks first for terms not included
in other similar works. The large majority of such tests were
satisfactorily passed : in nearly all cases the dictionary gave
an answer. Some reaction terms were missing, such as autoxidation, ally1 rearrangement, amidolysis, protonation, as well
as named reactions which present difficulties in back-transliteration since they appear phonetically in the Cyrillic (‘Uoker’=Walker). Trouble has been taken to give as many different
English meanings as possible for each Russian word. What
is particularly useful is that the singular and plural forms
are given at their alphabetical places for those nouns that
are declined in Russian in unusual ways. It is equally useful
to find a table giving the customary endings of technical
words in Russian and a collection of the possible methods
of declining and conjugating Russian words.
In the Foreword the author emphasizes very modestly that
her dictionary, like all others, cannot be complete. But the
reviewer can confirm that the terms have been selected with
great care and knowledge. All those concerned with Russian
technical literature will certainly find this volume of great
assistance.
Christian Weiske [NB 306 IE]
Techniques of Chemistry. Vol. VII: Membranes in Separations.
By Sun-Tak Wang and K . Kammermeyer. Edited by A. Weissberger. John Wiley and Sons, New York-London
1975.
1st Edit., xxii, 559 pp., numerous figures and tables, bound,
E 17.50.
Although membranes have been the subject of scientific
interest for more than a century, intensive research and development was not undertaken until a few years ago when it became apparent that they could be employed for large scale
separations of molecular mixtures. Current interest in membranes and membrane separation processes has become so
diversified that the voluminous literature is widely scattered
in specialized journals and terminology tends to be inconsistent.
By compiling a comprehensive description of all currently
known membrane separation processes and their applications,
Wung and Kurnrnerrneyer.have made a valuable contribution to
this field. The need for such a work has long been recognized.
The first chapters present fundamental definitions and
descriptions of membranes and membrane transport processes. Characteristic membrane constants are defined, together
with experimental methods for their determination. In subsequent chapters individual membrane processes for material
separation and the essential areas of their application are
briefly discussed. The book particularly emphasizes aspects of
membrane processes that have an industrial application, and
there are extensive and numerous examples of their use in
science and industry. The methods of preparing membranes
and membrane systems, however, are treated in less detail.
The book gains additional current interest owing to the detailed description and discussion of commercially available
membranes and membrane filter systems and a list of membrane manufacturers.
247
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