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Book Review Experimental Methods in Photochemistry and Photophysics. By J. F. Rabek

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however, is not serious. The individual contributions are
from competent authors. The already enormous numbers
of references at the ends of the chapters are further augmented by references in the many tables. The patent literature is also included.
The three most important aspects of the product-orientated application of transition metal compounds are expounded upon: catalytic reactions, the modes of action of
metal catalysts and reactions at coordinated organic (and
inorganic) ligands; stereochemical aspects are discussed.
It is not possible to say that this volume is indispensable,
because there are many excellent monographs which cover
some of the topics discussed. However, because of the
choice of the contributions, their quality, and the growing
interdisciplinary importance of the material, this work will
be an enrichment for every chemical library and an invaluable aid for many chemists.
Giambattista Consiglio
Technisch-chemisches Laboratorium der ETH Zurich
Volume 9
The ninth, last and thickest volume (1570 pages) of the
series is intended to make the information in the other
eight volumes easily available on the basis of several
search criteria. The user has the choice of five indexes for
this purpose: Subject Index (440 pages), Formula Index
(382 pages), Author Index (386 pages), Index of Structures
Determined by Diffraction Methods (3 12 pages), Index of
Review Articles and Specialist Texts on Organometallic
Chemistry (50 pages).
The Subject Index encompasses 30000 key-words, the
Formula Index more than 32000 typical compounds with
at least one metal-carbon bond (0or n; classified according to a modified Hill system). The Author Index contains
more than 30000 names from about 40000 literature references. The two following indexes can be used independently of the main work and constitute a useful addition.
Thus, the Structure Index compiled by M . I . Bruce (University of Adelaide) is a guide to thousands of organometallic structures elucidated during the period from 1927 to
1981 by X-ray, neutron or electron diffraction. Finally, interdisciplinary interest is excited by the presentation of a
multifaceted collection of secondary and tertiary literature
(G. B. Young, Imperial College of Science and Technology, University of London) covering all aspects of the chemistry of organometallic compounds.
All in all the chemist who works in university or in industry, or who sits at an editor’s desk has had placed in his
hands an extremely useful (yet very expensive and “unelectronic”) tool.
Otto Smrekar
Angewandte Chemie, Weinheim
Experimental Methods in Photochemistry and Photophysics.
By J. F. Rabek. John Wiley, Chichester 1982, 2 Volumes
together 1098 pp., bound, L 89.95
This book made a good impression on me at first glance.
The many illustrations awoke the expectation that here a
really versatile and experienced experimentalist had written something useful for experimental work in photochemistry and photophysics. Closer inspection quickly revealed,
however, that the author is by no means an experienced
experimentalist, but that, following a doubtful plan, he has
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made a book out of a heterogeneous literature collection.
The aims of this book and the way in which it has been
made are set out by the author in the preface: “. ..This
book is an up-to-date survey of the majority of available
methods and commercially available equipment applied in
the study of photochemical and photophysical reactions.
Each major topic is introduced separately and is self-contained. ... The material collected in this book has been prepared from hundreds of books, papers, catalogues and private information from laboratories round the world and
from my own twenty years experience in experimental
work in the photochemistry of polymers. My task was limited to the selection and arrangement of respective information to assist scientists, people from industry and students working in the field of experimental photochemistry
and photophysics ...”.
The sources of the material in the book can actually be
identified as (1) catalogues, (2) books and (3) journals, because the source of each figure or table is usually (but not
always) cited. The book also contains material that (4) cannot be traced to a single source or ( 5 ) does not refer to experimental methods.
(1) Catalogs: Here the author is, de facto, advertising
for particular manufacturers. He does not shrink from using their texts as well as their illustrations and tables. Examples : Chapter 4, “Optical Systems”, is largely identical
with the catalog “Optics Guide” issued by the Melles
Griot company, and Chapter 12.2.2, “Photomultiplier
Tubes”, is, to a large extent, identical with the catalog of
the same name issued by the Hamamatsu company. The
fact that there are also competing companies, here, for instance, Oriel, RCA and EMI, goes unmentioned.
(2) Books: Here the author seems to have inhibitions
about reproducing texts without alterations. If he has
nothing to add himself then he alters about every other
sentence slightly, whereby the text is sometimes weakened
or even falsified. Example: Chapter 27.2.2.1, “Potassium
Ferrioxalate Actinometer”, is, essentially, identical with
chapter 7-4B-2 of the book “Photochemistry” by Culvert
and Pitts. The names Parker and Hatchard are not mentioned in this book (names are not mentioned in the text,
on principle) and of the two investigations cited in the original, the author cites only the first. The original sentence
“The solid can be stored in the dark for long periods of
time without change” has been altered in “the reagent can
be stored in a dark bottle for long periods of time.” The
original sentence “Parker and Hatchard recommended
that ... a standard calibration graph .. . be prepared” has
been altered in “for the preparation of a calibration graph
... it is necessary to prepare a standard calibration
graph”.
(3) Journals: Here the author usually limits himself to
reproducing figures and tables with a few lines of text as
commentary. Example: Chapter 19.3.3, “Frequency Mixing Technique (Part II)”, reports on two publications, [l]
“Generation of Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation in PhaseMatched Cd Vapor”, A. H. Kung et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 29
(1972) 985, and [2] “Tunable Coherent Vacuum-Ultraviolet
Generation in Atomic Vapors”, R. T. Hodgson et al., ibid.
32 (1973) 343. What has Rabek made out of these publications? The commentary is only 12 lines long. The physical
basis of the method is not explained. Fig. 1 is taken from
both [l] and [2] and altered without specific mention. The
reader is left to assume that these are the original figures.
The alteration in Fig. 1 of 111 has resulted in the loss of the
important words “heat pipe oven” and the vacuum UV detection part. In Fig. 1 from [2] part of the block diagram of
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 22 (1983) No. I0
the experiment has been altered and thereby made unintelligible; further, a “Glan Prism” has been turned into a
“Glen Thompson Prism” (does Rabek think that Thompson’s Christian name was Glen?), “Sr Oven” has become
“heat pipe oven”, and the nitrogen laser wavelength, the
mention of the opposite circular polarizations of the dye
laser beams and the detection part have been lost. Apart
from this the mutilated figures take up more than twice as
much space in the book as the original figures. Rabek took
Table 1 out of [2], but left out a line, thus making the following line of the taGe unintelligible.-For comparison it
should be mentioned that a competent author like Demtroder describes the same two publications also on two
pages, but in such a manner that the reader receives a reasonable idea of the principle and the realization of the
method (W. Demtroder: Laser Spectroscopy- Basic Concepts and Instrumentation, Springer 1981, pp. 366 and
367).
( 4 ) Multiple Sources: Chapter 10.1 “Spectrometers” and
Chapter 10.2 “Monochromators” may be taken as examples. Rabek has used the catalog “Das PI-Optische System” issued by Physik Instrumente GmbH to illustrate the
construction of various types of spectrometers. On p. 193
of this catalog there are diagrams of five spectrometers.
For three of them photographs show how they can be realized by using PI components. For typographical reasons
the diagrams and the photographs are not printed side by
side. Rabek did not notice this and proceeded to make two
mistakes: Fig. 10.8 shows the catalog figure E instead of G,
and Fig. 10.12 shows G ; the photograph that ought to be
shown in Fig. 10.12, does not at all exist in the catalog. The
section 10.1.5, “Diffraction Gratings” is scanty. It is not
even properly explained what is meant by the blaze angle
of a diffraction grating. The probably most important manufacturer of optical diffraction gratings, the Jobin Yvon
company, is not even mentioned and naturally neither is
the instructive handbook on ruled and holographic diffraction gratings, published by this company. Rabek‘s incompetence reveals itself in Chapter 10.2 “Monochromators”.
In Fig. 10.16 two setups are shown that are purported to illustrate a prism and a grating monochromator. What one
sees, however, is something that looks like a prism spectrograph, and a transmission grating set up, with just the zeroth order going through the exit slit (both setups with lens
optics). Nothing is said about the two normal types of grating drive (sine drive for linear wavelength change and cosecant drive for linear wavenumber change), nothing about
problems with stray light, multiple diffraction, higher order diffraction, etc. Ten monochromator types are listed,
four of them with incorrect spelling. This enumeration is
useless anyway because nothing is said about the peculiarities of each monochromator type. The twelve literature references are, for the most part, useless: eight refer to special
constructions for the vacuum ultra-violet and for space applications; the remaining four refer to an application of
the smallest Jobin Yvon concave-grating double-monochromator, a publication from 1965 and two commercial leaflets. The Jobin Yvon company is not even mentioned
here, although it produces the largest range of grating
monochromators, and although its “high luminosity” concave grating monochromator should be suitable for many
photochemical investigations.
(5) Even the two nonexperimental chapters 1 and 20
contain errors and many inaccuracies. In 1 “Nature and
Properties of Light”, the wave number V is defined as
(wavelength) --I instead of (wavelength in vacuo) -I. In
Chapter 20, “Electronically Excited States” p. 732, final
paragraph, it says: “In an isolated molecule in a very diM) or in low-pressure vapor, the fluolute solution (rescence occurs from the vibronic state (ST) initially excited or ...” Thus the exact opposite of Kasha’s rule is
maintained.
An annotated list of all the mistakes and deficiencies
would add another volume to the two that have been published. The author has failed to achieve a single one of his
aims. Because of the arbitrary choice of manufacturers and
the uncritical representation, the book offers no assistance
in the purchase of a piece of equipment. It is not up-todate, because often the very limited capability of a particular commercial instrument is identified with the state of the
art. It is useless as a laboratory handbook, because one
must be always prepared for a distorting account of the
original literature. The book is only of limited use as a collection of literature references, as was illustrated by the example in (4). In conclusion my advice is not to buy this
book, not to read it and not to quote it (always read and
quote the original publications) and to warn students explicitly about it.
Bernhard Nickel [NB 596 IE]
Max-Planck-Institut fur
Biophysikalische Chemie, Gottingen
Advanced Sugar Chemistry. Principles of Sugar Stereochemistry. By R . s. Shallenberger. Ellis Horwood Ltd.,
Chichester 1982. xx, 323 pp., bound, E 31.50
The title of this book is somewhat misleading because it
suggests to the reader a general treatment of advanced sugar chemistry; the subtitle “Principles of Sugar Stereochemistry” describes the book‘s content much better. It
does not constitute a rival to the well-established textbooks; Shallenberger describes rather more the structure of
carbohydrates, steric questions and connections such as
conformational relationships. With the exception of the
phenomenon of mutarotation none of the reactions of saccharides are mentioned, so that the book is in competition
with the well-known work “Stereochemistry of Carbohydrates” by Stoddart that appeared in 1971 and, at the time,
filled an important gap. If the books are compared with
each other then that by Stoddart is seen to have the greater
depth in places. Shallenberger’s book is, in that the material has gelled in the last ten years, better constructed didactically. It is easier to read and patiently introduces the
beginner to the complicated stereochemical questions of
carbohydrate chemistry.
Chapters 1 to 3 deal with nomenclature, structure and
development of the monosaccharides, with stereochemical
questions particularly the question of chirality well to the
fore. Acyclic systems and their properties are discussed in
Chapter 4. Chapters 5 and 6 explain the semiacetal construction of sugars and describe the attendant conformational complications in detail. The optical activity and
structure of sugars are brought together in an excellent and
detailed manner in Chapter 7. Chapter 8 deals extensively
with mutarotation and anhydride formation. Chapter 9
contains many oligosaccharide formulas. It is a fault, however, that there is no discussion of oligosaccharide conformations, a topic which has particularly developed in the
last few years. It is debatable whether Chapter 10 on the
sweetness of sugars is necessary, since this topic is very
speculative at the moment.
All in all the book is very suitable for chemists who are
not directly involved with carbohydrate chemistry or for
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