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Book Review Experimental Organic Chemistry. By J. Baldwin

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The particularly marked growth of fluorine chemistry in the
past few years can be seen in the article: Fluorine (21 pages);
Fluorine Compounds, Inorganic (159 pages); and Fluorine
Compounds, Organic (161 pages). It is clear that the rapid development of this field has been largely due to two important
applications, i.e. the use of fluorochlorocarbons as refrigerants and the use of uranium hexafluoride for the separation
of the isotopes of uranium. The discussion of the subject is
the work of 37 authors from no fewer than 16 firms, Purdue
University, and the U S Naval Research Laboratory.
The article on elementary fluorine presents a clear picture of
properties, occurrence, production, storage, and dispatch.
I n plants producing several tons per year, the costs can be as
low as about $ 1 per Ib. I n the following article, the inorganic
fluorine compounds are described alphabetically in 27 subsections by several authors. Since n o reviews of a general
nature are included, the article gives the impression of being
somewhat lacking in coherence. On the other hand, the article
on organic fluorine compounds, has a good introduction (18
pages) and a very good section on the surface chemistry of
fluorine compounds (32 pages). All the sections are provided
with full lists of references.
The article on fertilizers has also been rewritten, and has expanded in the process from 76 to 126 pages. However, this
chapter could have been appreciably shortened or its content
increased. The section o n the nutrient function of chemicals
presents a general account, and even contains historical reminiscences, but no numerical data. It does not go into the
laws of plant metabolism or into crop yields; for example,
the antagonism of potassium and calcium with respect to the
water balance is not mentioned. The arrangement of the
article as a whole is not very good. The author deals with
questions on the structure of the industry, mixed fertilizers,
production, costs, and locations before discussing the properties of the main products. Consequently, repetitions cannot
be avoided. The author mentions several times that the
fertilizer industry has changed more since 1950 than ever
before; however, he does not specify the changes, but simply
states that products of minor importance have become more
important, the industry has became more reserch-conscious,
etc. More information could h a w been presented in a smaller
space if the arrangement had bean better and the discussion
more concrete.
The well-written article o n sitration has been substantially
retained from the first edition. I n spiteof additions to the
content, it has been possible to compress the article from 24
pages to 22, m a h l y by the omission of photographs were
diagrams were sufficient. A full and well-executed treatment
is given to flavors and spices. Flavors are those components
of foods that can be detected by their taste and smell. They
have acquired great economic importance, since next to appearance they determine the sale of foods.
The article on flavor Characterization describes the use of
modern analytic methods such as gas chromatography and
fR and mass spectroscopy for the recognition of the active
substances. The aim of a complete analysis is now very much
nearer; thus 93 “aromaphores” have been detected in and
isolated from a few ml of oil of orange. The food industry
makes wide use, not only of natural and synthetic flavors,
but also of flavor precursors (some enzyme-based) and flavor
potentiators. The chapter also contains recipes. The section
on spices contains a very instructive historical survey of the
spice trade, describes quality control, and then proceeds to
discuss the individual spices. The term “spice” is reserved for
flavorings of exclusively natural origin.
The article on fluidization has been largely taken over from
the first supplement to the first edition, with revision and
inclusion of additional material, but with no appreciable increase in size. The main new feature is the description of the
material exchange between the gas bubbles ascending in the
fluidized bed and their surroundings. The article is comprehensive and instructive, but is largely confined to the situation in America. A table is given with 101 examples of the use
of fluidized bed processes, of which there are only one each
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
VoI. 6 (1967) No. 8
from England, India, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, and five from Germany. N o mention is made of Fritz
Winkler, the inventor of the fluidized bed process, or of the
fluidized bed process for the roasting of pyrites developed by
BASF after the war and now used internationally on the
large scale.
The present volume also contains other contributions, but
these cannot all be reviewed individually. I n view of the rate
of industrial expansion, any attempt to present a survey is
very welcome. Though Kirk-Othmer is mainly confined to the
situation in the USA, it is also useful to the German reader,
since it is backed by the largest and most diversified chemical
industry in the world. It is to be hoped that the publication
will have much success in the future.
H. Saclrsse
[ N B 594 IE]
[*I Cf. Angew. Chem.
77, 359 (1965); Angew. Chem. internat.
Edit. 4 , 378 (1965).
Experimental Organic Chemistry. By J . Baldwin. McGrawHill Book Comuany, New York - St. Louis - San FranciscoToronto-London-Sydney 1965. 2nd Edit., 183 pages,
numerous figures, paper 52s.
The present volume, which is presented in brochure form,
follows an unconventional path for a practical textbook. It
begins with the isolation of caffeine from tea, explaining some
of the elementary operations such as extraction, filtration,
and sublimation. This is followed by a section on the purification of hydrocarbons, in which chromatography is used and
discussed. IR and N M R spectra are used as early as Chapter 6 for the characterization and identification of preparations, and are subsequently used repeatedly throughout the
book (with illustrations).
The experiments are grouped according to reaction mechanisms, such as nucleophilic substitution, nucleophilic addition, e1e:trophi;ic additisn and substitution and molecular rearrangements. Experiments on stereoselective reactions and
o n structure and equilibrium, which are often ignored in
practical textbooks, are not forgotten.
Further chapters are devoted to heterocyclic compounds
(synthesis of 1,2-diphenyl-5-nitrobehzimidazale),the synthesis of peptides, and ion-exchange chromatography. Each
chapter closes with a selection of questions and problems.
The experiments and preparations are so chosen that the
student has a sense of tackling current problems and that the
time required is relatively short. The appendix contains the
IR and N M R spectra of about 40 compounds mentioned i n
the book. These are accompanied only by the empirical
formulae, so that the student has ample opportunity for
practice in the interpretation of spectra.
The book by Boldwin is full of suggestions both for the demonstrator and for the student. Unfortunately, the presentation is not very suitable for bench-use. However, a copy of
“Practical Organic Chemistry” should be available in every
laboratory. Demonstrators are recommended to use various
preparations from the book as a change from the“hackneyed”
standard preparations’
H. J . Bestrncinn
[NB 593 IE]
W. Robinson. Marcel
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By .
Dekker, Inc, New York 1966. 1st Edit. xi, 204 pp., 40
illustrations, many tables, S 9.75.
Authors of monographs about rapidly developing subjects
suffer from the fact that many parts of their books are out of
date when they appear; the author of the present book about
atomic absorption spectroscopy is n o exception. He is aware
of the fact that his presentation is merely a momentary
aspect of a rapidly changing overall picture. For this reason
he has placed the greatest emphasis on the chapters headed
“Instrumental Equipment” and “Analytical Parameters”.
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