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Book Review Fortschrite der Arzneimittelforschung. (Progress in Drug Research). Volume 10. Edited by E. Jucker

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shown, together with two unidentified products (8) and ( 9 ) .
Use of maleodinitrile afforded the same compounds, yields
being 88.7, 2.2, 1.2, 2.1, 3.0,and 2.8% [for ( 8 ) + (9)I. respectively. This can be explained only by assuming an intermediate stage that permits rotation. Since ( 3 j - ( 7 ) , as well
as fumaro- and maleo-dinitrile are stable under the reaction
conditions and a zwitterionic intermediate was previously
excluded, the intermediate product must be the diradical
(10). The question whether the olefin approaches the bicyclic system from “below” (a) or “above” (b) could be
answered by studying addition of maleic anhydride to [2,3D2]bicyclo[2.1.0]pentane ( I ) ; the olefin approaches from
“below”. / J. Amer. chem. SOC.90, 4746 (1968) / -Kr.
[Rd 940 IE]
o n Pyrex glass were less than 10%. Polyethylene containers came off best when the sea water was acidified to
p H = 1.5; then, after 20 days, only about half of the scandium had been adsorbed, while the amounts for other
elements were less than 10%. / Analyt. Chim. Acta 42, 533
(1968) / -Kr.
[Rd 937 IE]
Bis(triphenylstanny1)mercury (1), the first compound containing a Hg-Sn linkage, was obtained by C. Euborn, A . R.
Thompson, and D . R . M. Wulton, as a yellow solid, o n treatment of triphenylstannane with bis[bis(trimcthylsilyl)aniidolmercury at room temperature:
2 (C6Hd3SnH
+ Hg”(Si(CH3)3)~12
+
+
H~[S~(C~HS2
) ~[(CH3)3SilzNH
~Z
The adsorption of trace elements from sea water o n to the
surface of containers has been studied by D . E. Robertson for
the radioactive isotopes 46Sc, 59Fe, 6OCo. 65Zn, W r , 86Rb,
IIoAg, 114111, 124Sb, 134Cs, and 235U, when these are added to
the sea water as soluble salts. After storage for 20 days a t the
normal p H (8.0) of sea water in polyethylene flasks, indium,
scandium, and iron were adsorbed to the extent of about 95.
45. and 40%, respectively; losses of the other elements remained below 20%. Except for scandium and iron, the losses
(0
( I ) is stable for several months in the dark a t room temperature, but decomposes rapidly in light, in solution, or when
heated. The Hg-Sn bond is not formed from triethylstannane and dibenzylmercury at 100OC or from bromotriphenylstannane and sodium amalgam, the analogy to Hg-Si
and Hg-Ge bonds failing. / Chem. Commun. 1968, 1051 /
-Kr.
[Rd 938 IE]
BOOK REVIEWS
Chromatographisches Praktikum (Practical Chromatography). By G . H e a e . Vol. 6 in the series “Methoden der Analyse in der W m i e ” (Methods of Analysis in Chemistry)
edited by F. Hecht, R. Kaiser, H . Kriegsmunn, and W.
Simon. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, FrankfurtiM.
1968. 1st Edit., 1967, 244 pp., 50 figs., 28 tables, linen.
D M 39.-.
This book gives a n introduction to the most important
chromatographic procedures and describes in the two main
chapters the chromatography of solutions (column, thinlayer, and paper chromatography) and gas chromatography.
The above procedures and their variants are described with
the aid of numerous easily reproducible examples. The author
addresses himself predominantly to chemistry and biology
students in their final year at school or the first year a t university. The comprehensive presentation of chromatographic
methods and the emphasis laid o n their essential similarity
are particularly welcome. Theoretical explanations are only
given insofar as they are necessary for the solution of examples. Anyone who has worked through the experiments
should have n o difficulty in solving problems of separation
in analogous cases.
With this selected class of readers in mind, it is of course
understandabIe that various methods important in research
(such as exchange chromatography of amino acids and
nucleotides, countercurrent distribution, etc.) are mentioned
only briefly or not at all. In conjunction with the connection
between the activity of the adsorbent and the polarity of the
substances and the eluent, so very important in practice, one
would have liked to see - besides the eluotropic series @. 27)
- a reference to the ‘microcircular technique’ (E. Stahl) which
often allows one to determine from T L C the proper conditions for separation o n a column. The ninhydrin reaction
(p. 103) is not solely a means for the detection of cr-amino
acids.
In accordance with the subtitle ‘Introduction to the Critical
Performance of Chromatographic Procedures’ the possible
pitfalls are clearly indicated in each chapter, especially in the
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Yol. 7 (1968) J No. 12
section on ‘Changes in Materials During Chromatography’.
The convincing critical assessment of Rf values is particularly
pleasing.
The reviewer finds the book very suitable as an introduction
to the field of chromatographic separation.
W. Barz [NB 752 IE]
Fortschritte der Arzneimittelforschung. (Progress in Drug
Research). Volume 10. Edited by E. Jucker. Birkhauser
Venag, Basel-Stuttgart 1966.1st Edit., 603 pp.. DM 128.-.
The introductory article, “Drug Research - Whence and
Whither”, to this new volumef21 has been written by R. G.
Denkewulter and M. Tishler. After a short historical introduction, the authors attempt to sketch out the position of
pharmaceutical research in the present day and in the future,
and to fathom and establhh the factors that could play an
important role. In so doing, they point to the uncertainty of
all predictions: “The true nature of a discovery is that it is
unexpected” (31 pages). - The article by G. Ehrhart “Considerations on the Development of Medicaments” deals with
a number of examples; the author refers to the fact that
“significant advances can only be made when new territory is
opened up by new fundamental discoveries” (13 pages). J. H. Beii and B. K. B. Lum give a 36-page review of “The pAndrenergic Blocking Agents, Pharmacology and StructureActivity Relationships”. After a critical discussion of the
receptor theory, relationships are considered between chemical constitution and exciting or blocking action, a number of
relevant compounds are listed, and their clinical pharmacology
is briefly touched upon (I 65 references).
111 Angew. Chem. 79, 911 (1967); Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
6, 892 (1967).
[2] Cf. Angew. Chem. 79, 386 (1967); Angew. Chem. internat.
Edit. 6,892 (1967).
959
A 45-page report on “Value and Valuation of Drugs” has
been written by J . Biichli. A short introduction on the development of drugs and the role played therein by the pharmaceutical industry precedes a discus5ion of methods used in
their evaluation: analytical-chemical methods, pharmacological problems regarding mechanism of action, toxicity and
side effects, and the carrying out and evaluation of clinical
tests. The chaoter (64 references) closes with a section
dealing with state controls in a number of countries. - The
article by C . A. Winter “Nonsteroid Antiinflammatory
Agents” covers 50 pages. A short introduction on the nature
and mechanism of the formation of inflammation and chemical intermediate carriers that could play a role is followed
by a description of methods for the production of inflammation in animal experiments, a special section being devoted
to arthritis, which is regarded as a symptom but not as a
primary cause. Finally, the groups of antiinflammatory compounds are discussed. The relatively sparse and uncertain
results regarding theory and therapy of diseases of connective
tissue invite further research into this important topic (64
pages, 500 references). - There follows a detailed 156-page
treatment of “The Effect of Form on the Action of a Drug”
by K.Munzel (472 references). “The therapeutic action of a
medicament undoubtedly depends mainly on its chemical
structure.. . . . . The action can, however, be influenced
decisively and changed by the form in which the pharmaceutical is administered”, as is shown with the aid of many
examples.
A review of “New Drugs” is given by W . Kunz. The many
new introductions are arranged in groups according to their
applications, and subdivided further according to parent
substance. The structural formula, trade name, and international name are given for each substance (69 pages, 419
references). The theme “Molecular Pharmacology, a Basis
for Drug Design” is dealt with in 101 pages by E. J . Ariens.
A discussion of the mode of action, based mainly on the
receptor theory, represents a starting point for positive planning (numerous structural formulas, 384 references).
The volume closes with an article by F. Labhardt dealing
with “The Application of Psychopharmaceuticals in Psychosomatic Medicine”. A short introduction on the term
psychosomatic medicine and a statement of the problems
involved precede a discussion of the most important psychosomatic disturbances and their symptoms, and of relevant
methods of investigation. There follows a consideration of
modern psychopharmaceuticals and their applications,
dosages, and side effects. Finally the author points out that,
in spite of the proportions that psychopharmacotherapy has
assumed in recent years, a certain degree of uncertainty still
surrounds its effects, a fact that invites further scientific
research and clinical observation (84 references). - A detailed
subject index for the present volume and indexes of the
authors and articles in the ten volumes that have so far been
published increases the value of the series. The production of
the book, with its many figures, tables, and structural
formulas, is once again exemplary.
0. Schaumann [NB 744 IE]
Fortschritte der Arzneimitteiforschung (Progress in Drug
Reseatclk) Vol. 11. Edited by E. Jucker. Birkhauser-Verlag,
Basel-STuttgart 1968 1st Edit., 572 pp., numerous figs. and
tables, bound DM 116.-.
In a 37-page paper entitled “Mescaline and Related Compounds” A . R . Pate1 reports on their natural occurrence, their
biogenesis, the various syntheses, their physical constants, and
the analytical methods. The behavior of mescaline in the
body and its biochemical and neurophysical action on animals and men are then discussed, as well as the theory of the
mechanism of this effect. Finally, there is a brief section o n
the derivatives of mescaline (370 references).
“The Photochemistry of Drugs and Related Substances” is
discussed by S. T. Reid with the aid of more than 300 struc-
960
tural formulas and 500 references. After a brief theoretical
introduction concerning the mechanism of photochemical
transformation, each class of compounds is discussed separately (alkenes, dienes, trienes, aldehydes, ketones, aromatics,
and finally nitrogen-containing compounds) (72 pp.).
An extensive report on “Investigations on the Biochemistry
and Pharmacology of Thymoleptics” is given by M. H .
Bicke/. With the introduction of the iminodibenzyl derivative
imipramine (Tofranil@)in 1958 as a prototype thymoleptic,
a new and successful era began in the drug treatment of endogenous depressions. The next sections give a detailed description of the testing methods, metabolism, the relationship between constitution and action, as well as the manner of
action of compounds in this class (102 pp., 475 references).
A very extensive report on “Oral Anticoagulants” is given by
E. Renk and W. G . Stoll. The chemistry of coumarin and 1,3-
indanedione is discussed first, with reference to their constitution and methods of synthesis and to the relationships
between constitution and action. This is followed by a section
on the physiology of coagulation and its inhibition by substances contained in the body, as well as the influence of synthetic compounds on this process. After a discussion of the
general pharmacology and the metabolism of anticoagulants,
the report finishes with a detailed section on their therapeutic
application (129 pp.. 899 references).
A. Kreutzberger reports on “The Amidine Structure in Pharmaceutical Research” (87 pp.). Following an historical introduction the syntheses are described and the naturally occurring amidines listed. This is followed by a discussion of their
therapeutic applications, as antidiabetics, as antiprotozoan
and antibacterial agents, as well as cytostatics, local anesthetics, and virostatics. The reading of this very full report is
simplified by the inclusion of 400 structural formulas.
The present volume is made particularly valuable by the inclusion o f a general subject index of all 11 published volumes,
which lists about 14,000 entries in 115 pages and thus makes
the whole work into an invaluable source of information.
Once again the book ends with an author index and a list of
contents of the volumes already published. The production
is again exemplary.
0 . Schaumann WB 753 IE]
The Mass Spectra of Organic Molecules. By J . H . Beynon,
R. A . Sdunders, and A . E. Williams. Elsevier Publishing
Company, &nsterdam-T ondon-New York, 1968.1st Edit.,
ix, 51U“pp., 181 figs., 20 tables, bound, DA. 97.50.
One of the first books in which mass-spectrometric methods
were collected for the chemist was J. H . Beynon’s“Mass Spectrometry and its Application to Organic Chemistry”. published
in 1960Cll. J. H . Beynon, R . A. Saunders, and A . E. Williams
have now again attempted to collect and compare the often
widely scattered information given in the literature. Comparison of equivalent chapters in the two books dealing with
fundamental apparatus and methods of mass spectrometry
shows that the new book does not replace the earlier monograph but rather supplements it. While in the former the
mass spectrometers and measuring techniques were fully
discussed in more than 300 pages, the authors summarize
this subject in the present work in 37 pages. Because of this
cramped presentation, a newcomer to the fieId receives only
an inadequate impression of the problems connected with
the recording and evaluation of mass spectra.
The book is mainly intended to give instruction and assistance in mass-spectrometric structural analysis of organic
compounds. To avoid errors, it is necessary to know the
properties of the ionic types formed in the mass spectrometer.
These are discussed in the second chapter, which contains a
full and very good section on metastable ions. The formation
of rearranged ions, which often gives rise to great difficulties
in structural analysis, is explained. At this point one would
[I] Cf. Angew. Chem. 73, 634 (1961).
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Vol. 7 (1968) I No. 12
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