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Book Review Four Books on Fullerenes.

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BOOKS
to techniques based on frictional or magnetic interactions between the probe tip
and the specimen, such as nanometerscale manipulation, optical near-field mici-oscopy. or new developments in scanning atomic force microscopy. it is, of
course. unavoidable that some restrictions must be applied in choosing the examples of applications, and how this is
done must certainly depend on the preferences of the authors of the individual sections. Here the examples are in general
well chosen and are representative of the
whole field. It is only in the final chapter.
“Biological Applications of the Scanning
Probe Microscope”, that I would have
preferred more caution to be exercised by
citing only results that are established
with reasonable certainty, especially with
regard to the imaging of DNA molecules,
siiicc here there is a very high risk of artefil c t 5.
The quality of production contributes
greatly to the book’s readability. In a few
places. however. I would have liked the
figure legends to be more precise and to
contain more explanation, and not all the
quantities that occur in the mathematical
formulas are fully explained. The extensive lists of literature references at the
ends of the chapters are excellent, as also
ai-e the index and the definitions of variables and explanations of acronyms in
the appendix. There are inevitably some
printins errors, especially in names
(Riihrer instead of Rohrer, Fostes instead
of Foster, Henkl instead of Heckl. etc.).
and thcse need to be corrected in a future
edition. A German translation would help
the book t o reach the very wide readership
that i t deserves. However. the price of the
present edition is too high for a student
textbook.
Wolfkang M . Heck1
Fakultdt fur Physik
dcr Universitiit Munchen ( F R G )
Four Books on Fullerenes
Fullerenes, ii novel soluble form of carbon. have now been available in preparative quantities for about three years. The
fascination aroused by these hollow spherical molecules has captivated scientists from
;I number of different disciplines, and many
have become involved in intensive research
on this class of compounds. The soccerball-shapcd (or football-shaped) molecule
buckminsterfullerene (C6,) has rapidly
become one of the most thoroughly studied in all parts of the world, as is evident
from the large numbers of original papers,
review articles. and conference reports
that have appeared since September 1990.
This field of study has now developed to a
stage where monographs are in order, as is
shown by the recent publication of four
books.
Buckminsterfullerenes. Edited by
PV E. Billups and M . A . Ciufolirzi.
V C H Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/
VCH Publishers, New York, 1993.
339 pp., hardcover DM 96.00.-
ISBN 3-527-89608-2/1-56081-608-2
In this book of 13 chapters some of the
physicists, chemists, and theoreticians who
have been involved in work on fullerenes
from its beginnings summarize their own
research. This multiauthor approach has
the advantage that the individual contributions are of a very high quality, but it
does mean that some overlapping of subject matter is unavoidable. The “fullerenes era“ began with the mass spectrometric investigations of the C,, cluster, as is
very nicely described by R . F. Curl in
Chapter 1. He also includes a brief account
of the discovery of the “empty” fullerenes
and of endohedral metallofullerenes. In
Chapter 2 H . W. Kroto. one of the discoverers of the fullerenes, and his coworkers
describe their research, ranging froin radioastronomical and chemical studies of
the cyanopolyynes, through the discovery
of the spherical cluster, up to the current
work on chemical modifications of the
fullerenes. They also briefly discuss the
preparation of fullerenes in an arc discharge and their separation, isolation, and
physical properties. The impressive results
obtained by the Sussex group on the halogenation of C,,, on the solid state properties, on the alkali metal superconductors,
and on the “bucky tubes” and giant fullerenes complete this chapter, which is a
miniature “fullerene story” in its own right
within the book. In Chapter 3 F. Diederich
and coworkers describe the methods used
to isolate the various fullerenes, in a lucid
presentation similar to a laboratory procedure for separation of analytical samples. The interplay between theory and
experiment has proved to be especially
fruitful in research on fullerenes. and in
the next chapter this is well illustrated by
studies to determine the structures of the
higher fullerenes such as the chiral form
C T 0o r on the isomerization of fullerenes.
Next come two purely theoretical chapters, one by Scuseria on a b initio calculations leading to structures for C,,, its
hydrogenated and fluorinated derivatives.
giant fullerenes, and dwarf fullerenes, and
the second by White and coworkers on
theoretical predictions of the properties of
fullerene derivatives. These chapters are
also of considerable interest to preparative chemists, since the observed reactivities of the fullerenes correlate very well
with the calculated geometrical and electronic structures. The next three chapters
are concerned, mainly from a theoretical
standpoint, with the important topic of
the electronic properties of C,,, which
leads up to the superconductivity of the
alkali-metal doped fullerenes. The last four
chapters are experimentally orientated :
the aspects of fullerenes treated here are
their endohedral gas phase chemistry. their
electrochemistry, and preparative organic
chemistry. After reading in this book such
items as H . Schwarz’s impressive results
on helium inclusion complexes. or F.
Wudl’s very lively account of the historical development of fullerene chemistry.
the newcomer to the field will already
have acquired a good knowledge of thc
chemical properties of C,,, .
The Fullerenes. Edited by H . W Kroto, J. E. Fisclzrr and D . E. Cos. Pergam o n , O x f o r d , 1993. 314 pp.. h a r d cover f 29.95,-ISBN 0-08-042152-0
This monograph too has been put together on the multiarrthor principle. I t
contains two introductory articles by the
editors and 23 individual contributions by
well-known researchers in the fullerenes
area, which are grouped in two sections.
Many of the names represented in the
book reviewed above occur again here.
Not surprisingly. therefore. a ~ o o dmany
of the articles in the two books are quite
similar; this is the case, for exainplc, in the
contribution by Olah’s group, although
the treatment here is considerably more
detailed. The contents of the first part of
the book are arranged in exactly the same
form as has appeared in special issues of
the journal Cczrhoii, also published by
Pergamon. The arrangement is in fact
very good. as exemplified in the article
“Some Well Characterized Reactivities of
Buckminsterfullerene (C,,)”, by Fagan
and coworkers (DuPont). which provides
impressive evidence of the capabilities of
this group. Like the previous one. this
book covers the entire field of fullercnes
research, but here the treatment is more
detailed. It is therefore intcnded not so
much for the reader seeking a general
overview of fullerenes but rather for thc
specialist wanting more specific information. However, this does not apply to every
article. For example. readers wishing to
know about the discovery of the fullerene
synthesis will find it well described in the
first article, by Kriitschmer and Huffman
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