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Book Review Fractional Solidification. Vol. 1. Edited by M. Zief and W. R. Wilcox

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Hair attempts t o provide a coherent account at the expens.:
of detail, and evaluates the literature according t o his own
concepts. This latter book is thus easier t o read. Certain
formulations, e.g. covalent -AI=O double bonds (Hair,
p. 166) should be overlooked.
Unhappily, as so often in the past, neither author does
anything like justice t o literature that has appeared in
languages other than English. All the more welcome, then,
that Little has been able to get the Soviet researchers A . V.
Kiselev and V. I. Lygin t o contribute their own wide-ranging
experience and the abundant Russian literature. The use of
IR spectroscopy in the study of surfaces can be traced
back t o work by Terenin in the early nineteen-forties.
As an introduction Hair provides several chapters o n adsorption and I R spectroscopy which Little assumes t o be already
familiar. Little describes the experimental technique in greater
detail and more thoroughly. Both authors give special
treatments of the OH groups on oxide surfaces, above
all on silica, and the surface acidity of silica-alumina
adsorption on zeolites, and the chemisorption of carbon
monoxide o n metals and metal oxides. Little deals in detail
with the adsorption of hydrogen and hydrocarbons. The
literature up t o about 1966 has been taken into account, and
Little appends a list of the most important articles published
after his book had gone t o print.
Both books can be recommended. Hair provides a good
survey of, and the results obtained with, the technique, while
Little gives more information about special problems and is,
H. P. Boehm [NB 719 IE]
moreover, less expensive.
The Palladium-Hydrogen System. By F. A . Lewis, Academic
Press, London-New York 1967, 1st Edit., xii, 17X pp.,
numerous illustrations, 45 s.
The well-known monographs o n hydrogen in metals by
Smith and by Gibb have, t o some extent, been superseded
by recent developments. The present book, by Lewis, reviews
the present state of research specifically in regard t o the
system palladium-hydrogen. This system is of particular
theoretical interest as the prototype of a simple alloy, but
it is also of practical interest as a membrane material for
fuel cells and for the purification and isotopic separation
of hydrogen.
The results of both old and recent work o n the thermodynamic, chemical, mechanical, electrical, and magnetic properties
are presented in a thoroughly comprehensive manner;
separate chapters are devoted t o the absorption of hydrogen
in palladium alloys, t o diffusion, and t o isotopic separation.
A short chapter deals with attempts t o provide a theoretical
insight into hydrogen absorption by means of model
N o final picture can be expected of a field which is in a state
of such intensive development, with active research being
conducted in numerous laboratories. It is precisely in such
laboratories that this book will be of great help because of
its complete literature survey, a factor which should also
ensure it a wide distribution.
H . Brodowsky
[NB 699 IE]
Fractional Solidification. Vol. 1. Edited by M . Ziefand W . R .
Wilcox. Marcel Dekker. Inc.. New York 1967, 1st Edit.,
xvi, 714 pages, numerous illustrations and tables, $ 28.75.
Research and production processes involving solvent-free
recrystallization from the melt are becoming progressively
more important. The editors, well known from their own
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
/ Vol. 7 (1968) I No. 6
work in this field, and twenty specialists chosen by them have
succeeded in unifying the individual methods of separation
in a n all-embracing work, thus finally closing the gap between
detailed individual works (e.g. about zone melting) and
review articles.
Part I lays down the thermodynamic basis of fractionating
crystallization from the melt, Part 11 deals with laboratory
apparatus (normal solidification, discontinuous and continuous zone melting with modifications, column crystallization, zone reprecipitation as a transition from recrystallization from solution), and Part I11 outlines industrial techniques
(particularly multiple crystallization by means of cooled
drums and the Phillips process). Industrial desalination of
sea water brings us t o the applications section (Part IV),
which deals especially with electronics (semiconductors erc.),
ultrapure pharmaceutical preparations, analysis, and special
techniques. Part V deals briefly with economic aspects.
About 1500 literature references, 40 tables, and 266 illustrations in the form of photographs, technical drawings, or
diagrams ensure comprehensive evaluation of the material.
Part VI consists of a tabular appendix of about 130 inorganic
elements, compounds, and systems (298 references), about
110 organic compounds, individual data for 250 organic
substances (1 26 references), and 71 patents to aid the chemist
[NB 701 IEI
or metallurgist in his investigation. K. M~~~
Soil Biochemistry. Edited by A . D . McLaren and G. H. Peterson. Marcel Dekker Inc.. New York 1967. 1st Edit., xiii,
509 pp.. numerous flgures, V 22.75.
This monograph represents a collective effort by 25 Englishspeaking authors. The book is in three parts: I. Isolation
and characterization of biochemical components of the soil,
i.e. nitrogen compounds, nucleic acids and derivatives, organic
phosphates, carbohydrates, organic acids, and free radicals.
Part 11 deals with metabolisms, energetic relationships such
as photosynthesis, respiration, enzymatic and chemoautotropic reactions, nitrogen-, phosphate-, and sulfur cycles, lignin
degradation and humic acid formation, microbial decomposition of phenol, decomposition of herbicides and surfaceactive agents, and enzyme reactions in the soil. Part 111
presents microbiological and biochemical aspects of the
rhizosphere, and, finally the discussion even extends to the
exploration of the surface of planets.
The number of publications, experimental results, and interpretations in the complex field of soil biochemistry has
become so vast that no individual can now embrace them
all. The authors deserve our gratitude for going t o the trouble
of sifting the literature of the past 70 years (in some parts of
the book up to 1966) and for summarizing and interpreting
2147 publications. The inclusion of not only the Englishlanguage literature but also of important references in other
languages is particularly welcome. The book, which is
entirely up-to-date, introduces the reader to the problems
involved in a succint and pregnant manner.
Despite the number of contributors involved, the book is
written in a remarkably uniform style. Its content is very
well balanced and the work can claim considerable scientific
and didactic merit. The first chapter “Introduction to the
Biochemistry of Terrestrial Soils” could, it is true, have been
omitted without loss, as it contains a n arbitrary and not
always skilful enumeration of a number of processes and
facts which are dealt with again much more soundly in later
chapters. A number of misprints will have t o be eliminated
from subsequent editions.
The two editors are to be warmly congratulated for a book
which is recommended t o all interested in the chemistry
and biology of soil.
F. Schefer
[NB 725 IE]
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