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Book Review Fresh Water from the Sea (Dechema Monographs Nos. 781Ц834 Vol

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BOOK REVIEW§
Fresh Water from the Sea (D:chem:i
Monographs Nos.
781-834, Vol. 47) in t\vo parts, 54 lectures presented a t
the European symposium “Fresh Water from the Sea” in
Athens (Greece), May 28th to June 2nd, 1962. Verlag
Chemie GnibH., Weinheim/Bergstr. 1962. 1st Edit., xii +
875 pp., numerous illustrations and tables. Clothbound,
D M 100.- (about $25.00).
At the present time, it costs about $ 1 to produce 1000 gallons
of fresh water from sea water; in favorable cases, this figure
may be reduced to about $0.40 per 1000 gal. Of the most important methods, viz. evaporation, freezing, electrodialysis,
hydrate formation, and ion-exchange techniques, the first two
have the best prospects technically. In the distillation process,
it is possible to conserve heat by evaporation in several successive stages and to prevent boiler scale formation by flash
distillation; in the freezing process, the main difficulties are
finding cheap methods of producing low temperatures and
freeing the ice crystals from brine. The sharp increase in demand for domestic water supplies due to rises in population,
industrial development, and the raising of the standard of living (present annual demand in the U.S.A. is 1000 m3 per person; estimated demand for the year 2000 is 2000 m3 per person) makes desalination of sea water one of the most important technical problems of our time.
The Greek Chemical Society and Greek Chamber of Technology invited specialists from all over the world t o the 39th
Congress of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering at Athens in order to discuss these problems. The 54
lectures of this symposium have now been printed in Dechema monographs in the lecturers’ own languages (German,
English, or French). Twenty-three articles deal with the evaporation process and 9 with the freezing process, while 20 contributions are devoted to the electrodialysis and related processes. Each paper has a summary in three languages, and
each section is prefaced with a n introductory article which indicates the present state of the appropriate technique and outlines its problems and possible developments.
Thus, this volume of Dechema monographs does not only
give a comprehensive review of this technically and economically very important field, but also reveals the very special
problems involved and makes it obvious that considerable development work will have to be undertaken before deserts can
~ [NB 00685/62
~
IE]~
be irrigated and made useful. D.~
Analyse der Metalle (Analysis of Metals), published by the
ChemikerausschuR der Ges. Deutscher Metallhutten- und
Bergleute (Chemical Committee of the German Society of
Mining and Metallurgy), Vol. 2: Routine Analysis. 2nd
Edit. Part 1 . Aluminum-Sulfur, XVI + 726 pp., Part 2:
Selenium-Zirconium, Physico-chemical Procedures, 1V +
842 pp., Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Gottingen-Heidelberg,
1961,cIoth. Price for bothvolumes: DM 158.-(about $40.-.)
The fact that Vol. 2 of the “Analysis of Metals”, covering
“Routine Analysis”, was sold out within six years of its first
appearance indicates clearly the high regard and wide
circulation that this detailed collection of analytical methods
for routine work enjoys in the laboratories of the mining and
metallurgical industries. The appearance of this second
revised edition within eight years of the first publication is
greatly to be welcomed. The established reliable arrangement
of the extensive material has been retained unaltered. Some
chapters are greatly extended, many old procedures have been
discarded, others improved, and many new methods, particularly those employing complexometric titration and photometry, have been included. Chapters on conductometric and
high-frequency titration have been added; the chapter on
“Standard Samples” has been omitted and a chapter on
“Buffer Solutions” is taken up, which contains an extensive collection of commonly used buffer solutions, with
details of their p H values and adjustable p H ranges. The
progress and development of analytical methods since the
publication of the first edition has been taken into account
in a pleasing and completely satisfactory manner. The size
of the complete volume has only increased by about 10%
despite these considerable additions and extensions. It is
certain that this second edition will quickly gain the wide
circulation it undoubtedly deserves and that its use will not
be confined to the laboratories of the branches of industry
that are immediately interested.
This positive overall evaluation, far from being undermined
by some critical remarks, should be complemented by some
suggestions for a new edition which is sure to be required
before very long. It is noticeable that in only some of the
chapters have the old methods for the determination of iron titration with titanium(II1) chloride, or colorimetric determination with potassium thiocyanate - given way to the new
photometric methods of analysis. I n various chapters
different temperatures are recommended for the ignition of
silicon dioxide (between 800 and 1200’C) and of alumina
and sesquioxides (between 900 and 1200 i 50°C). The
reviewer is well aware of the time and trouble involved in
securing the desirable improvements in the co-ordination
of the chapters as mentioned in these examples. The terms
“analytical moisture” and “analytically moist samples for
analyses” (chapter on “Solid Fuels”, p. 1144) are most unhappily chosen; they imply respectively the actual moisture
content of the air-dried sample, and the air-dried sample in
contrast to the sample dried to constant weight by heating
(mostly at 110°C).
The need for better accordance is also apparent in the
chapters on “Physic0 - chemical Procedures”. The principle
adopted in the chapter on “Spectrophotometric Analysis”
(see preamble, p. 1350) of extensively restricting the description of commercial instruments and of working out in exchange
the user’s
requirements
l
j
~
~ o n these instruments to form a
clearjudgement ought to have been applied also in the following chapters, including the chapter on photometry. The user of
the book is little served by mere enumeration of instrument
types, some of which are already completely out-of-date and
almost commercially unobtainable.
The chapter on “Potentiometry” should be expanded by
inclusion of the techniques of amperometric and voltametric titrations and entitled “Analytical Measurements
Employing Electrical End-Point Detection”, as is fittingly
required by the increasing use of these analytical methods
derived from potentiometry.
The new chapter on “High-Frequency Titration” certainly
gives an excellent survey of the literature of its applications,
with 180 references, but it goes far beyond the strict field of
metal analysis.
The reviewer, who is himself a long-standing user of the
“Analysis of Metals” manuals, hopes that the defects pointed
out can be rectified in the next edition and wishes the editor
K. E. Stumpf [NB 72/60 IE]
and authors all success.
Registered names, tmrlemarks, clc. i i s c d in this jonrnal, e w n without .specific indication thereof, are nor l o be conridered rrnprotected by l a w .
? 1964 by Verlag Chemie, G m b H . - Printed in Germany by Druckerei Winter, Heidelberg.
All rights reserved. No part of this journal may he reproduced in any form whatsoever, e . g . by photoprint, microfilm, or any other means, without
written permission from the publishers.
Editorial Office: Ziegelhauser Landstrasse 35, Heidelberg. Germany, Telephone 24975, Telex 04-61 855, Cable address: Chemieredaktion Heidelberg.
Chief Editor: W . FoerJt . Editor: H . Griinuwa/r/.
Publishers: VerlaS Chemie G m b H . (President E d i ~ a r r lKr e r i i l i u g e), Pappelallee 3, Weinheim/Bergstr.. Germany, and Academic Press Inc. (President
Walter J. Johnaon), 1 1 I Fifth Avenue, N e w York 3, N . Y . . U . S . A . , and Berkeley Square House, Berkeley Square, London, W. I , England.
Correspondence concei n ng advertisements should by addressed toVerlag Chemie, GmbH. (Advertising Manager W.Thiel), Pappelallee 3, WeinheimBergstr., Germany, Telephone Weinheim 3635, Telex 04-65 5 16. Cable-Address Chemieverlag Weinheimbergstr.
72
Angew.
Chem. internat. Edit.
Vol. 3 (1964) 1 No. I
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