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Book Review Gas Phase Reaction Rate Theory. By H. S. Johnston

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The chemical structure, physical properties, separation, determination, and biosynthesis of gallic acids and their derivatives, as well as their possible role in the organism, are
described, often too brieffy but yet in suitable form. A special
chapter is devoted to the distribution of the various bile
acids; this is the only chapter where complete coverage is
attempted and it forms a basis for a discussion of the importance of bile acids in evolution in the animal world. This
part is without doubt the most valuable contribution and
should ensure a wide readership for Haslewood’s little book,
particularly among biologists and all others whoare interested
in the history of the development of animals.
G. Snatzke
[NB 659 IE]
Gas Phase Reaction Rate Theory. By H . S. Johnston. From the
series: Modern Concepts in Chemistry. The Ronald Press
Company, New York 1966.1st Edit., ix, 362 pp., numerous
illustrations and tables, $ lo.-.
H. S . Johnston is the author of many papers o n reaction
kinetics. I n the introductory chapter of this book he separates
the concept of elementary chemical reactions from that of
physical and physicochemical reactions. The principles of
quantum mechanics and of classical and statistical mechanics
that are important for gas-phase reactions are enunciated
in six further chapters. In this part, particular attention is
paid to the one-dimensional tunnel effect, the description
of molecules by normal coordinates and of equilibria by the
distribution functions of classical and wave-mechanical
statistics. Then follows the main portion of the book, with
chapters on impact velocities, bimolecular atom-transfer
reactions, activation energies, preexponential factors of
bimolecular atom transfer, the kinetic isotope effect, threebody collision reactions with particular attention to recombination of iodine atoms, the theory of complex reactions,
and finally a summary.
The individual chapters are of a high standard and are written
with the set purpose of demonstrating the theoretical principles underlying the rates of gas-phase reactions. Carefully
selected experimental results obtained by modern methods
are compared with the conclusions drawn from theory. As
customary in books by American authors, the reader is
presented with problems o n which he can test his understanding of the subject. The excellent exposition is intended
primarily for the physical chemist and is likely to rouse the
enthusiasm of the reader for the old, but still very topical,
[NB 666 IEI
field of gas-phase reaction kinetics. H , wolf
Treatise on Adhesion and Adhesives. Edited by R . L. Patrick.
Vol. 1 : Theory. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York 1967.
1st Edit., xi, 476 pp., numerous illustrations and tables,
bound $ 21.75.
Following De Bruyne and Houwink’s monograph “Adhesion
and Adhesives” of 1951, there now appears a three-volume
“Treatise on Adhesion and Adhesives”. The first volume,
concerned with the theory of adhesion, has already been
published.
Since intensive work in this field (particularly from a technological point of view) began only after 1950, a comprehensive treatment of recent views o n problems of adhesion and
their physicochemical basis was urgently needed.
The present volume contains contributions, some in excellent
form, from nine authors who report mainly the results of
work in their own special fields. I t seems unavoidable that
this should lead to some overlap of content and to overemphasis of some problems.
After a relatively short introduction by R. L. Patrick, R . J.
Good gives a short summary of current knowledge of intermolecular interactions in the boundary region. Detail has
intentionally been omitted, since it can be obtained from
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Vol. 7 (1968) 1 No. 4
comprehensive monographs. R. R. Sfromberg deals with
adsorption of high polymers from solution o n to solid surfaces. Because high polymers undergo marked changes in
conformation during the adsorption process, there is as yet
no satisfactory theoretical treatment for this subject, particularly as regards changes in entropy. For instance, the
temperature-dependence of adsorption of polymers is not
yet fully understood.
The relation between the structure of the adhesive and its
adhesive behavior is reported by I . R. Huntsberger. The
problem of wetting receives detailed discussion, the wellknown papers by Zisman being reported. In contrast to some
other researchers, the author is of the opinion that electrostatic interaction is of negligible importance for adhesives.
Problems of adhesives that are of a mechanical or industrial
nature (elongation, strain, fracture) are treated by 7‘. Arfrey
Jr., D . H . Kaelble, G . R. Irwin, and J. L. Gardon. Clear
separation of theory from empiricism is not always achieved
in these articles, as indeed is the case generally with problems
that lead to formulas containing many parameters. The four
contributions assume specialist knowledge of theoretical
mechanics. I t would be welcomed if in later editions some
references were included in the article by T . Arfrey Jr., so as
to help the non-physicist with this field.
Finally there is a n informative and comprehensive account
of the chemistry of surfaces by F. M. Fowkes, who treats the
most important problems from a thermodynamic and molecular-theoretical point of view.
To summarize, it may be said that this book will appeal
equally to the chemist and to the technologist and engineer.
It is to be hoped that the two further volumes of the “Treatise
on Adhesion and Adhesives” will appear soon.
G . Peschel
[NB 674 IE]
The Solid-Gas Interface. Edited by E.A.FZood. Marcel Dekker
Inc., New York 1967. Vol. I, 1st Edit., 514 pp.. numerous
illustrations, bound S 21.75.
The editor has set himself the task of providing, in cooperation with recognized experts, a two-volume work giving a
survey of phenomena occurring at the gas/solid interface
insofar as these are to be ascribed to physical adsorption
and its consequences. Experimental results and theory are
both considered.
I n the first volume, which has now appeared, it is mainly the
principles and their theoretical description that are treated.
The second volume is to report recent experimental methods
and results.
After a n historical introduction by H . Taylor, E. A . Flood
treats adsorption from the point of view of Gibbs and Polanyi
thermodynamics. The Langmuir theory and the BET theory
are described by S. Brunauer, L. E. Copeland, and D . L. Kanf r o ; derivation of the adsorption isotherm and testing of its
applicability form the main part of this section.
E. L. Pace is concerned with experimental investigations of
thermodynamic values for the adsorption phase, such as heat
of adsorption, heat capacity, and entropy of the adsorbent. A
survey of the heats of adsorption measured by various
schools is provided by J. M. Ifolmes, and A. C. Zetflemoyer
and K . S . Nclraynn discuss heats of wetting and their relation
to adsorption.
Van der Waals forces arising at the solid/gas interface, and
chemical binding forces, are treated by A . D . Crowell;
questions of surface energy and surface tension of crystalline
solids are discussed by G. C. Benson and K. S . Yun. W. J.
Dunning considers the structure of the surface and its importance for adsorption.
W. A. Steele studies mobile and localized monolayer adsorption, as well as multilayer adsorption, from the standpoint of statistical mechanics, and J. M . Honig, in a highly
specialized article, places entropy at the focus of his considerations.
319
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