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Book Review Gas-Solid Reactions. By J. Szekely J. W. Evans and H. Y

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types and applications of (photo)electron spectroscopy are
to be brought again under one roof. The editors promise
that this will result in cross-fertilization of the experimental
and theoretical approaches.
After a general introduction to photoelectron spectroscopy
by the editors, R. L. Martin and D. A. Shirley describe in
Chapter 2 some aspects of the theory of photoemission and
W L. Jolly explains the model ideas used in the field of
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of inorganic substances
(Chapter 3). In the following Chapters 4 to 6 W C. Price
(small molecules), E. Heilbronner and J . P. Maier (organic
molecules), and R. L. Dekock (inorganic molecules) devote
themselves to the possible applications of UV photoelectron
spectroscopy in the gas phase. Chapters 7 and 8, on high-temperature UPS investigations ( J . Berkowitz) and coincidence
experiments ( M . E. Gellender and A . D. Baker) put the reader
in touch with special techniques of current UV photoelectronspectroscopic research.
The following sections can be particularly recommended:
Chapter 1; the considerations in Chapter 2 on the influence
of relaxation and correlation on ionization cross-sections; the
discussions in Chapter 4 on the intensity of photoelectron
spectra; the presentation of theory, experimental aspects, and
band assignment in Chapter 6, the clear description of the
angular distribution of photoelectrons in Chapter 7; and the
explanation of the connections between resolution and signal
intensity in one- and two-parameter measurements in Chapter
8. In addition, the individual chapters afford an insight into
the special types of research and photoelectron-spectroscopic
viewpoints of the authors. All in all, the reviewer has had
great pleasure from this volume and can heartily recommend
it to every chemist interested in photoelectron spectroscopy.
Armin Schweig [NB 407 IE]
Gediichtnis und Lernen in psychologischer Sicht (Memory and
Learning from the Psychological Point of View). Vol. I.
Biologie des Lernens (Biology of Learning). Vol. 11. By
H.-J. Flechtner. S. Hirzel Verlag, Stuttgart 1976. Vol. I:
2nd Edit., x, 354 pp., 5 figs., paperback, DM 25.00; Vol.
11: 1st Edit., xii, 483 pp., 34 figs., paperback, DM 25.00.
The author’s original aim was to write a “Biochemistry
of Memory”, but he collected so much material that a third
volume, “memory”, still has to appear.
The material is presented from the psychological and neurological points of view. According to Mandell, the course of
development of neurophysiology shows a “shift from electricity
to juice”. About 100 pages of the first volume are devoted
to definitions and the description of problems, while the other
250 pages deal with learning. The objective school in psychology is presented in a historical treatment. There is a clear
account of how Bechterew’s and Pavlov’s reflexology gave
rise to behaviorism. Concepts like operant conditioning and
positive or negative reinforcement, which are associated with
Thorndike and Skinner, are necessary for understanding
thought processes. The chapter entitled “Psychology of Learning” describes storage, recall, forgetting, and unlearning.
The chapters in the second volume are called “Fundamentals”, “Localization of Learning”, “Assimilation and Processing”, “Engrams”, and “Learning and Having Learned”. These
deal with the morphological, chemical, and biochemical
aspects needed for understanding the way the nervous system
operates.
What is confusing is that the numbered references appearing
in the footnotes (in Vol. I alone 1-499) are not given under
the same numbers at the end of the book (294 references
in vol. I and 422 in vol. 2). Footnotes like “a. a. 0. S. 73”
290
make things even more difficult, and the frequently used abbreviations, like TrmS for transmitter substance and SgS for
situation stimulus, should have been listed at the beginning.
However, the reader will find a great deal of valuable information in these two volumes.
Gijtz F. Domagk [NB 401 IE]
Fundamentals of Integrated GC-MS. Chromatographic Science Series, Vol. 7. By B. J . Gudzinowicz, M . J . Gudzinowicz,
and H . F. Martin. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New YorkBasel 1976. Part I: Gas Chromatography. vii, 382 pp.,
numerous figs. Sfr. 124.-; Part 11: Mass Spectrometry.
vii, 326 pp., numerous figs., Sfr. 117.-.
The first two parts of the three-part work (the third part
on the GC-MS combination has not yet appeared) are concerned in almost epic form with mainly theoretical aspects
of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.
Poorly selected practical examples with page-long reproduction of original tables without critical discussion or authors’
opinion appear to be arbitrarily chosen. Outdated methods,
e.g. the introduction of liquid samples into the mass spectrometer through a gallium sinter (Part 11, pp. 23-25), are described at length, while the important application of glass capillaries in investigations ofscarcely volatile substances and problems connected therewith are hardly touched upon. One gains
the impression that the authors have indeed collected much of
the older literature, but themselves have not the experience
and above all the ability to make critical evaluations. Otherwise we would not have, for example, formulas featuring
oxygen atoms with nine electrons (Part 11, p. 123), to select
only one crass example. Purchase of these two volumes cannot
be recommended.
Gerhard Spiteller [NB 416 IE]
Gas-Solid Reactions. By J . Szekely, J . W Evans, and H . I.:
Sohn. Academic Press, New York 1976. 1st Edit., xiii, 400
pages, bound, S 39.50.
The aim of this book is to give an introduction into the
technique of gas-solid reactions.
The work is divided into eight chapters; the first is an
introductory one and the second deals with mass and heat
transfer for a single core in a gas stream and with diffusion
processes in the pore system of a solid. It also surveys the
microkinetics of heterogeneous chemical reactions and discusses reaction-induced changes in the structures of solids.
The third chapter gives a detailed account of the way a
reaction proceeds on a nonporous single core in a gas stream,
and introduces the “shrinking-core’’model.
The fourth chapter is devoted to reactions of porous solids,
and the authors discuss here separately the reactions that
lead to complete vaporization of the solid and reactions that
give solid end products.
The fifth chapter deals with solid-solid reactions in which
a gaseous intermediate is formed.
The sixth chapter describes both some experimental techniques important in the investigation of gas-solid reactions and
some oftheir applications. We find here an account of methods
for measuring reaction rates, characterizing porous solids,
and determining diffusion coefficients and effective diffusion
coefficients.
The findings established for the single core are extended
to fixed and fluidized-bed reactors in the seventh chapter.
The eighth and final chapter deals with gas-solid reactions
of major industrial importance, such as the blast-furnace process and the gasification of coal.
Angew. Chem. I n t . Ed. Engl. 17 (1978) No. 4
Each chapter includes a long list of references covering
the literature up to 1974. The value of the book is enhanced
by the many figures, diagrams, and tables correctly fitted
into the text. The worked examples in the individual chapters
facilitate understanding of the material.
The book is a readable and comprehensive survey of the
technique of gas-solid reactions, and is recommended to
anyone who wants to understand this field.
Ruiner Moormann [NB 402 IE]
Modern Practice of Chromatography. By R . L. Grob. John
Wiley & Sons, Ltd., New York-London
1977. 1st Edit.,
xv, 654 pp., numerous figs., bound, f 16.00.
This work, edited by Robert L. Grob, is the most comprehensive existing collection of contributions on the applications of
gas chromatography. The individual chapters, written by experienced specialists, describe in three main parts (and in great
detail, but not always with consideration of the most recent
literature-capillary gas chromatography is mentioned only
marginally in the theoretical part) the theory, the technology,
and the applications of gas chromatography. About two-thirds
of the volume are devoted to theory, qualitative and quantitative analysis, description of apparatus, procedures for sample
injection, detectors, and computers. This is the first book
to collect so completely such a large number of new technical
developments. Emphasis should be laid on the chapters about
detectors, instrumentation, and data collection; great advances
have been made in recent years in these areas. The chapter
dealing mainly with applications includes trace analysis (environmental analysis), examination of foods, clinical analysis,
and analysis of drugs, for which work standard methods have
been worked out for preparation of the samples and formation
of derivatives as well as standardized conditions for separations; therein lies the particular value of this section. Minor
redundancies have not been wholly avoided in the text.
The book is supplemented by a chapter on physicochemical
applications of gas chromatography, where the posssible
application of gas chromatography to the determination of
thermodynamic quantities is pointed out, a feature rarely
known to the analyst and yet of great interest.
This volume, well worth its price, offers the user of gas
chromatography in a wide range of fields a wealth of experience and stimulation.
Wilfried A . Kijnig [NB 412 IE]
StructureSolubility Relationships in Polymers. Edited by F.
W Harris and R . B. Seymour. Academic Press, New York
1977. 1st Edit., xiii 271 pp. bound, $ 13.00.
A symposium with the same title was held by the American
Chemical Society-their 172nd-between August 30 and September 3, 1976. The revised and shortened versions of 21
lectures delivered there were collected in book form and
printed by Academic Press Rapid Reproduction. This has
given us a book which is up to date and gives a representative
cross-section of research in this field.
The summarizing contributions have retained their lecture
character; modem solubility theories are discussed in conjunction with the experimental results in easily comprehensible
form, and at the same time more emphasis is placed on outlining the problems involved, thus making them also accessible
to those who do not work in this field. In addition, the
large number of references listed make further reading possible.
The authors work in a variety of places, ranging from
industrial laboratories to universities, and therefore some of
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. I 7 ( 1 9 7 8 ) No. 4
the polymers discussed are unusual as model substances. This
is an advantage for the reader, because he can follow the
development of the problem and treatment from the specific
characteristics of the polymer in question.
The editors have succeeded in giving a picture of current
knowledge in a limited space. From the very beginning, the
book is suitable for the interested reader who works with
polymers in general, while for the specialist it presents a
broad basis for future research.
K . C. Berger [NB 404 IE]
BlutzuckersenkendeSulfonamide- Standort der modernen Substanzen im Vergleich zu alteren Antidiabetika (Hypoglycemic
Sulfonamides-Status of Modern Substances Compared
with Older Antidiabetic Agents). By E. Haupt. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim-New York 1977. 1st edit., viii, 169 pp.,
58 figs., 3 tables, boards, D M 34.-.
The author’s Habilitation Thesis, now presented in book
form, is an attempt to define the position of hypoglycemic
sulfonamides on the basis of pharmacodynamic, clinical, and
experimental-clinical investigations. The history of the discovery and development of this class of substances is reported
in an introductory chapter, where, however, the important
development work carried out during 1951-1953 at the Leipzig and Jena university clinics (literature in A . Kleinsorge,
Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 101, 467 (1 976)) was conspicuous
by its absence.
The following sulfonylurea derivatives were investigated
in the present study: tolbutamide, glibornuride, glisoxepide,
and glibenclamide. The important results include the following: no differences were noticeable on oral administration
in the kinetics of insulin secretion or in the course of the
blood sugar curves; these findings apply both to healthy subjects and to diabetics. Secondary failure of the sulfonylurea
monotherapy occurred to the same extent with all the derivatives studied; the “younger-generation’’ preparations active
in milligram doses did not differ in this respect from the
older substances. Secondary failure occurred mostly in patients
who were severely overweight. The time at which failure occurs
depends on the duration of the diabetes therapy and not
on the time of appearance of the diabetes mellitus. Each
year 5-10 % of all treatments must be broken off because
of secondary failure. In the pharmacological investigations,
glibenclamide given intravenously had a different effect from
the other substances: it induced a distinct insulin secretion,
of delayed onset and long duration, with corresponding later
decrease of blood sugar (this effect occurred in both healthy
and diabetic persons). It is still unclear why the action of
glibenclamide is “tolbutamide-like” on oral administration
and “glibenclamide-like” when injected intravenously. The
difference from literature findings that indicate specific glibenclamide action also by the oral route still requires explanation
(cf. S. Raptis et a/.: 8th Kongr. Dtsch. Diab. Ges., Munich
1973).
Clinical importance attaches to the discussion of the problem of secondary failure; it confirms the finding that the
insufficiency of pancreatic p cells, at first incomplete, later
becomes complete. An appeal is made to diabetics specialists
in clinical and general practice to compensate patients under
positive long-term treatment with weight reduction, so that
the secondary failure may be delayed.
Those interested in this book will be especially doctors
and chemists concerned with sulfonylurea derivatives in industrial and other research laboratories.
Friedrich Wi/lig [NB 415 IE]
291
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