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Book Review Glycoproteins. Their Composition Structure and Function. BBA Library Vol. 5 Part A and B. Edited by A

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and April 1971. The earlier work connected with these results
is naturally also discussed.
The first four chapters deal with the influence of one-dimensional and two-dimensional lattice defects on the structure
and behaviour of solids. Ordered nonstoichiometric phases
are described in “Shear Structures and Nonstoicheiometry”.
The shear structures can be observed directly by a high-resolution electron microscope phase contrast method, which is
described in the next chapter. This method is particularly
suitable for layer structures; in this way one can obtain a
picture of the individual carbon layers in graphite and paracrystalline carbons, but investigations on polymers and macromolecules, e.g. DNA, are also reported. It is shown in two
further chapters that dislocations are decisive for the occurrence of solid-state reactions even in organic chemistry, e. g.
in polymerizations in molecular crystals. Five chapters deal
with investigations on the surfaces of solids and their reactivity.
As a result of recent progress on the equipment side, the
methods of electronic spectroscopy are particularly suitable
for the detection of foreign atoms in surfaces and their bonding.
Photoemission, Auger spectroscopy, ESCA, and a few other
methods are described in two chapters. Progress has also
been made in the IR spectroscopy of molecules adsorbed
on metals. Two further chapters deal with isotope exchange
between gas molecules adsorbed on metals and some aspects
of the selective action of metal catalysts.
This is the start of an attempt to forge a path through the
jungle of wildly proliferating literature by means of handy
reviews published at regular intervals, which is to be welcomed
if it is kept up. The book will be of use to all workers and
institutes concerned with surface and solid-state chemistry,
though some of the authors almost exclusively cite English-language literature.
Hunns-Prtrr Boehm [NB 189 IE]
Air Pollution. Part A: Analysis. By J . 0. Ledbetter. Marcel
Dekker Inc., New York 1972. 1st ed., xii, 424 pp., numerous
figures and tables, bound % 11.75.
The concept of air pollution has not only been a focus of
public interest for some time, but is now also attracting the
interest of scientists, particularly of engineers, chemists, and
analysts. The present work is capable of providing a concep
tually and technically sound basis for the scientific treatment
of air analysis problems. It should be emphasized that the
author has not yielded to the temptation simply to give a
collection of procedures under the sub-title “Analysis”. On
the contrary, he has managed to present all the facts relevant
to the assessment of the analytical problem and to the evaluation of the analytical results in a succinct, precise, and impressive manner. In the first chapter, which deals with the background of the problem, the reader is acquainted with the
essential basic facts, definitions, and units of measurement.
The author then considers the sources of air pollution, and
takes this opportunity to survey the principal components
of air pollution.
Another chapter is devoted to the physical and chemical processes that take place in the atmosphere and that control
the distribution, the dilution, the deposition, and the reaction
of polluting substances in the atmosphere. This is followed
by a very detailed description of the mathematical and statistical methods used in the design of measuring plans and in
the interpretation of the sets of results obtained.
After a brief excursion into the physical chemistry of gases
and the physics and chemistry of aerosols, four chapters are
devoted to the actual analytical technique. The first deals
with the design of measuring plans, presents a survey of the
Anguw. Chem. inturnat. Edit. 1 Yo/. 13 (1974)
1 No. 3
technical equipment necessary for sampling, and finally raises
a number of practical points that must be noted in connection
with air sampling. The chapter on the actual measuring technique begins with a description of the main characteristics of
analytical methods, e. g. detection limits, reproducibility, and
cross-sensitivity, then touches briefly on the procedures for
the presentation of experimental results, and finally gives a
very succinct review of the physical and chemical principles
of the measuring procedures, including spectrochemical
methods, chromatographic procedures, classical wet methods
of analysis, and the methods of electroanalysis. The principles
of the evaluation of smells, noises, and radioactive radiation
are also discussed.
In two further chapters the author first goes into details of
the measurement of aerosols, particularly with regard to the
determination of particle sizes and their distribution, and
then deals with a series of specific procedures.
The work ends with a chapter on the effects resulting from
air pollution. The book is very readable and is provided
with instructive diagrams; each chapter ends with a number
of examples for practice and with references, which are unfortunately almost entirely confined to the Anglo-Saxon literature. German readers may be slightly irritated by the fact
that the selection of examples, procedures, and equipment
described in detail is essentially determined by the conditions
prevailing in the United States. Nevertheless, it is to be hoped
that this handy book will find a wide circulation among
specialists and students.
HPinz Hartkamp [NB 187 IE]
Glycoproteins. Their Composition, Structure and Function. BBA
Library, Vol. 5, Part A and B. Edited by A . Gottschalk.
Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam-LondonNew York 1972. 2nd ed., xxxviii, 1377 pp., 153 figs., 200
tables, bound, together $ 125.--.
Glycoproteins are found in bacterial cell walls and in plant
hemagglutinins, and play a very specific role as components
of animal tissue, e.g. in the proteins of serum and of eggs,
in a number of enzymes, in collagen and fibrinogen,
in thyroglobulin and the gonadotropic hormones, in the
mucins of the mucous membranes, the joints, the blood-group
substances, etc. The agglutination and virus-binding reactions
are due to the glycoproteins of the cell membranes. The relatively short carbohydrate chains of these conjugated proteins
contain eight to ten saccharide residues, and a special characteristic is that these include N-acetylamino sugars and sialic
acid. In all these cases the characteristic properties can be
destroyed by neuraminidase. The protein component is joined
to the carbohydrate component cia the amide group of asparagine or riu the hydroxyl group of the hydroxy amino acids.
The then known physical, chemical, and analytical properties of
the glycoproteins had been described in the first edition of
this work“]. The new edition, appearing six years later,indicates already by its size how much has been discovered
in the meantime. A comparison of the contents shows that
the emphasis is also beginning to shift from “static” descriptions to thc function and biogenesis of the glycoproteins.
The first part presents a detailed and critical discussion
of the methods for the determination of purity, molecular
parameters, and composition of the glycoproteins, i. 6’. amino
acid and sequence analyses, determination of amide nitrogen,
characterization and identification of the sugars by gas chromatography, structural analysis of the carbohydrate component by chemical and enzymatic methods, and the methods
for the detection of the sugar-protein linkage. A particularly
difficult problem is presented by the increasingly recognized
heterogeneity of the carbohydrate chains in these substances,
which may be regarded as stages or parallel products of their
bio\ynthesis. The analytical part is followed by a description
of the occurrence of glycoproteins in the plant and animal
kingdoms and of individual groups of glycoproteins as well
as heir isolation, structure, and biological properties. The
astonishing diversity of structure and function that was referred
to earlier becomes evident here; there are metal binders and
anti-freezes, enzyme inhibitors and cell-differentiating agents,
immunoglobulins and nerve membrane components.
The second part initially continues this description with the
mucins, blood-group substances, collagen, and sulfated glycoproteins. This is followed by the carbohydrate-containing hormones, enzymes, and other functional proteins and the virus/
cell interactions. An important part is devoted to the biosynthesis, metabolism, and turnover of amino sugars and glycoproteins. This part includes not only the individual synthesis
and breakdown steps but also the description of the specific
enzymes, e. g. neuraminidase, and the reactions catalyzed by
The individual articles are written by a number of well-known
experts in their field, sometimes with the co-authorship of
A. Gotrschalk, who in any case has carefully edited and coordinated all the contributions to give a homogeneous appearance to the entire monumental work. By means of detailed
references extending up to very recent literature, and by the
inclusion of many details, numerous illustrative tables, and
clear formula schemes and diagrams, all the material has
been worked out and prepared in such a way that this second
edition, even more than the first, has become a “handbook”,
not merely on grounds of size, but, in the best sense of the
word, because of its content. From this work one can learn
the research in this field has advanced and one can also
find out about its historical development, in which the
editor played such a great part. The production of the volumes
corresponds to their price, which wiIl unfortunately be within
the reach only of libraries and very well-endowed institutes,
though the work should be accessible to as many as possible
of those who are interested. They will find it to offer comprehensive information, sound instruction, and a wealth of
noteworthy critical suggestions.
L. Jaenicke [NB 188 IE]
[l] Cf. Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 6, 1009 (1967).
Organometaliic Compounds. Methods of Synthesis, Physical
Constants and Chemical Reactions. Edited by M . Dub.
Vol. 11: Compounds of Germanium, Tin and Lead. By
R . W. Weiss. First Supplement Covering the Literature
from 1965 to 1968. Springer Verlag, Berlin 1973. XXV,
1116 pp., bound DM 112.90.
Rodd’s Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, 2. Edit. Edited by
M . F. Ansell. Supplement to Vol. 1: Aliphatic Compounds.
Teil C : Monocarbonyl Derivatives of Aliphatic Hydrocarbons; Teil D : Dihydric Alcohols. Elsevier Scientific
Publishing Co., Amsterdam 1973. XIX, 464 pp., bound
Dfl. 120.Organic Reactive Intermediates. Edited by S. P . McManus.
Vol. 26 der Reihe “Organic Chemistry”. Academic Press,
New York 1973. X, 539 pp., bound $39.50.
Contents: Free Radicals; Carbenes; Nitrenes; Carbonium
Ions; Carbanions; Radical Ions; Arynes.
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, Vol. 40:
Ergebnisse der Mikrobiologie und Immunitatsfoschung.
Edited by W . Arber et al. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1973.
IV, 142 pp., bound DM 48.--.
Coordination Chemistry. Experimental Methods. By K . Burger.
Butterworths, London ‘1973. 372 pp., bound E 10.00.
Advances in Molten Salt Chemistry, Vol. 2. Edited by J. Braunstein, G. Mamantoc and G. P . Smith. Plenum Press, New
York 1973. XI, 259 pp., bound $23.00.
Contents : Physical Properties; Solubilities of Gases; Coordination Chemistry; Electroanalytical Chemistry.
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0 Verlag Chemie GmbH, WeinheimiBergstr. 1974.
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Angew. C h r m . i n t r m a t . Edit. J Vo1. 13 (1974)
1 No. 3
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