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Book Review Gmelin-Durrer Metallurgie des Eisens (Metallurgy of Iron). Fourth fully revised edition continued by G. Trmel and W

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BOOK REVIEWS
Leitfaden der Farbstoffchemie (A Guide to Dyestuffs
Chemistry). By P . Rys and H . Zollinger. Chemische Taschenbiicher Vol. 13. Edited by u! Foerst and H. Griinewald. Verlag Chemie GmbH, Weinheim/Bergstr. 1970.
1st Edit., xi, 220 pp., 16 illustrazions, 16 tables, paperback
DM22.-.
The present book classifiesdyes according to their chromophore systems into azo, nitro and nitroso, polymethine,
aza-[ 18]annulene, di- and triarylcarbonium, sulfur, and
carbonyl dyes. Each group has its own chapter and comprehensive introductions are given.
The more general and theoretical chapters give details of
reaction mechanisms, the relationship between chemical
composition and color, color measurements, and the
thermodynamic and kinetic principles of application.
The text is concise but clear and ample references are given.
The book is a valuable and useful piece of work, based on
the principles of modern organic and physical chemistry.
Udo Mayer
In this connection it should be mentioned that the above
approach has already found expression in another book,
“Chemie fur Mediziner” (Chemistry for Medical Students)
by K. Beyermann. A similar approach was adopted even
earlier in the brochures on laboratory work for medical
students written by K . Dimroth and C . Mahr or by G. Hartmann and s.Hiinig on the Marburg and Wiirzburg models
respectively. If we go by the criteria that form the basis of
the above concepts of medical training-and these have
for several years proved very successful-then “Dane/
Wille” can no longer meet the requirements for a modern
laboratory manual, in spite of the services it has rendered
in the past.
Theophil Eicher [NB 26 IE]
[NB 25 IE]
KleinesChemischesPraktikum(Small Chemical Laboratory
Manual). By E. Dane and F. Wille.Verlag Chemie GmbH,
Weinheim/Bergstr. 1971.7th Edit., xii, 189 pp., 23 illustrations, paperback, DM 19.80.
Significantly,the student will often refer to much used textbooks or laboratory manuals simply by the names of their
authors. This also applies to “Dane/Wille”, which is now
in its 7th revised edition. In 190pages, this attractive, handy,
and well-produced book deals with about 400 experiments
and explanations, inculcating a basic knowledge of inorganic chemistry. The subject matter is arranged according to classical principles : in the inorganic section according to the periodic system, supplemented by chapters on
atomic structure, chemical bonding, equilibrium, electrolytes, oxidation and reduction, acids and bases, and qualitative and quantitative analysis ;and in the organic section
according to the sequence of compounds by functional
groups (still usual in the majority of basic textbooks),
supplemented by chapters on plastics, chromatography,
qualitative organic analysis, resonance and substitution in
aromatic substances.
When it first appeared (1960)“Dane/Wille” heralded a new
approach for books of this type: its concise presentation
of the subject matter and its description of experiments
pointed a new way to the reform of chemistry teaching for
medical students (the methods used then varied much more
from university to university than they do now).
However, “Dane/Wille” can nowadays really be appreciated only from the historical point of view; as shown by the
new regulations for the certification of doctors, since the
book was first published the modern concept of “concentrating” the subject matter has taken precedence over the
classical principle of “spreading out” the material, because
this is the only way of bringing the teaching of fundamental
physical and chemical principles in the preclinical part of
a medical course into line with the further biochemical,
physiological-chemical, and general practical needs of the
student. Thus, for a practical course it would seem essential
to open up well-defined and specific fields of interest by
246
means of appropriate experimental work and to teach
critical assessment of the results-if possible by further
experiments. This, however, tends to shift the emphasis of
the practical and theoretical teaching of a very wide subject
to an in-depth examination of specific problems.
Gmelin-Durrer:MetallurgiedesEisens (Metallurgy of Iron).
Fourth fully revised edition, continued by G. Tromel.
Supplement to Gmelins Handbuch der anorganischen
Chemie, 8th Edit., System No. 59, “Iron”, Part A, Volumes 3 to 5, Verlag Chemie GmbH, Weinheim/Bergstr.
1968. Volume 2. General Requirements for the Industrial
Reduction of Iron Ores. Raw Materials. The Industrial
Processes Apart from the Blast Furnace, Volume 2 a :
Text Part, vi, 350 pp., Volume 2 b :Figure Part, iv, 188pp.,
452 figures cloth, together DM 492.-.
The present volume concludes the discussion of the raw
materials for the reduction of iron ores and their preparation prior to smelting. The industrial reduction methods
are then discussed, apart from those that are carried out in
the blast furnace. As in the other volumes of the 4th edition,
the text part and the figure part are separate in volume 2,
which was produced with the aid of data from the European Coal and Steel Community.
The first part contains the following sections : PhysicoChemical Principles of the Reduction; Survey of Raw
Material Requirements ; Survey of the Principal Deposits
of Iron and Manganese Ores ; Properties of Iron Ores and
Iron Ore Agglomerates that are Important for the Industrial
Reduction; Survey of the Production of Coal and Lignite
Cokes. The second part contains the sections Reduction in
the Low Shaft Furnace ;Reduction in the Electric Furnace;
The Direct Reduction Processes; The Uses of Pre-Reduced
Materials.
A very comprehensive subject index in German and English
makes it easy to find the various processes.
The literature is evaluated up to, and in some cases beyond,
Spring 1967.
Ekkehard Fluck [NB 29a IE]
Gmelin-Durrer:Metallurgiedes Eisens (Metallurgy of Iron).
Fourth fully revised edition, continued by G. ’Pornel and
W Zischkale. Supplement to Gmelins Handbuch der
anorganischen Chemie. 8th Edit., System No. 59, “Iron”,
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. / Vol. 11 (1972) / No. 3
Part A, Volumes 3 to 5, Verlag Chemie GmbH, Weinheim/Bergstr. 1971. Volume 3, Part 1. Blast-Furnace Installations. Blast-Furnace Operation. Pig Iron and ByProducts. World Pig-Iron Production Situation. Volume
3 a : Text Part, vi, vii, 320 pp., Volume 3 b: Figure Part,
vi, i, 137 pp., 304 figures, cloth, together D M 487.-.
The present volume of “Gmelin-Durrer” has been written
by engineers from West German ironworks and from the
Verein Deutscher Eisenhuttenleute in collaboration with
the Institut fur Eisenhiittenwesen der Technischen Universitat Clausthal and the Gmelin-Institut in Frankfurt. Together with Volume 4, which is still in preparation, it deals
with blast furnace installations. As can be seen from the
sections described below, Volume 3 is also concerned with
iron production practice, blast furnace products, and world
iron production data.
The first section deals with the blast furnace installation
and the topics discussed include furnace types, blast furnace
profiles, the refractory lining of blast furnaces and hot metal
ladles, the cooling of blast furnaces, blast production and
air heating, monitoring of the blast furnace operation, the
casting bay, and finally the purification of blast furnace
gases. Blast furnace operation, i. e. the practice of pig-iron
production, the production of special steels, and the treatment of the pig iron outside the blast furnace, forms the
subject of the second section. Considerable space is given
in this section to the processes for the removal of phosphorus and sulfur from the liquid pig iron. The products
from the blast furnace, i. e. pig iron, blast furnace slag, blast
furnace gas, and blast furnace flue dust, are described in the
third section. The final section begins with a comparison of
blast furnace operating results, and continues with a discussion of world pig iron production, locations of ironworks, raw material supply, raw material treatment, characteristic running parameters etc.
As in the earlier volumes of the 4th edition, the text part
and the figure part of the present volume are separate.
The literature is evaluated up to, and in some cases, beyond
1968/1969.
Ekkehard Fluck [NB 29 b IE]
Knauers Bueh der modernen Chemie (Knauer’s Textbook
of Modern Chemistry). By J . Rudolph. Droemersche Verlagsanstalt Th. Knauer Nachf., Munchen 1971.1st Edit.,
360 pp., 285 illustrations (mostly in color), bound,
D M 22.--‘“’.
This book serves two purposes. On the one hand it provides
a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of
chemistry and hence is a useful tool for the layman who,
perhaps as a student, is trying to learn some chemistry or
to refresh his memory on what he once knew but has now
forgotten. On the other hand, it guides the reader quickly
and very skilfully via the basic principles of the subject to
many modern problems which are being actively pursued in
research laboratories or which, because of their importance
in our everyday life, are felt to be in urgent need of solution.
Among the subjects treated are atomic structure, new elements, orbitals, Hiickel theory, cyclopropenylium ion and
cyclobutadiene, metal complexes, nitrogen fixation, Ziegler
catalysts, fuel cells, lead and sulfur dioxide in the air, inert
gas compounds, cyclohexasulfur, the Merrifield method,
vitamin B,,, fast reactions, and of course the genetic code
and survival of the fittest.
[*] An English translation will be published by Ruppert Hart-Davis,
London.
Angew. Chem. internal. Edri. / Vol. I 1 (1972) / No. 3
The book has no bias toward any one particular field, nor
is any attempt made to give the impression that everything
is attractive and childishly simple. The reader himself has
to make the effort to understand the meaning of orbital
diagrams, how spectra arise (also in the field of nuclear
resonance), and how the properties of alloys are described
by phase diagrams.
On the whole, the author places more value on an understanding of physical principles than on burdening the
memory with facts. For example, he attempts to explain the
procedure of X-ray structure analysisand to clarify the phase
problem. While he mentions the highly developed art of
stereospecific synthesis of complex organic molecules, he
does not adduce concrete examples or describe individual
steps in detail. His treatment of chemical reactions and
mechanisms is comparatively simple.
The book not only imparts a knowledge of facts, methods,
and applications, it also takes a stand on many modern
problems. It criticizes and gives food for thought on matters
concerning universities, research, industry, and advertising.
The author expresses sound opinions on many subjects. He
is objective and clearly has at his command an astonishing
wealth of information. Only occasionally is a scientific or
technical problem misrepresented :for example, the reasons
for the decline of coalmining (p. 143) or the use of enzymes
in detergents (p. 331). In some places one might perhaps
have expected more precise descriptions, in comparison
with other parts of the book (e.g. hydrophobic bonding,
p. 306). There are many small points, for example in the
field of chemical pedagogy (p. 161) and the training of
students with physical equipment (p. 236), but these should
not be taken too seriously because they are generalizations
based on isolated instances. It would have been better, too,
if the author had refrained from expressing opinions on
nonchemical subjects. Notable examples of this are his
statements about the type ofmen which had in earlier times
erected great cathedrals (p. 151),about the church itself (pp.
157,221), and about soldiers marching in step (p. 244). On
the other hand, the reviewer was glad to find common sense
being brought to bear on reports concerning the reputed
evil intentions on the part of some chemists and companies
(e.g. plant protection and war gases, p. 177).
The book is manageable in size, readable, and very clearly
written. It has many excellent diagrams and illustrations,
although these unfortunately d o not always appear at the
proper places. Even the specialist who finds that his particular field has not been dealt with in sufficient detail will
have to admit that the treatment of complex topics and
the introduction of the reader to the problems of today are
exemplary from the didactic point of view. A conscious
attempt has been made to avoid the style of Schenzinger’s
“Anilin”, which in its time was very successful. In the way it
is written the book is more reminiscent of Watson’s “Double
Helix”, with its open, critical, and relaxed approach.
Although the work is in the nature of a textbook, the antiauthoritarian Zeitgeist can be detected in places. This is
by no means designed simply to attract and please the
younger reader. On the other hand, the author loses no
opportunity to point out the achievements of individual
scientists, and the text is Iiberally provided with short
historical and biographical interludes.
This book has been written for a very wide readership.
Every enlightened person from the age of 14 upward should
read it. Many people who in their professional lives seem
to be far removed from the sphere of chemistry (teachers of
247
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