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Book Review Graphics and Animation in Surface Science. Edited by D. D. Vvedensky and S. Holloway

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tance in industry, and its length has been approximately
doubled compared with its predecessor in “Ullmann”.
Guides to the literature often devote very little space to
patents (perhaps as a consequence of the bias that exists
against patent information in the teaching institutions where
there is no relevant expertise), and therefore this part of the
book is nearly enough in itself to justify buying it. The discussion of legal aspects is confined to matters that are essential for an understanding. From Chapter 14 onwards the
emphasis is on patents as an information source. Chapter 15
briefly discusses some of the less obvious differences between
patents and other publications. Chapters 16-22 then deal
with the layout of patent specifications. storage of patent
information (including new storage media such as CDROM), patent searches, patent information services, and
data banks.
The book concludes in Chapter 23 (“The Future of Patent
Information Management”) by inviting its readers “.... to
soon render it obsolete by making their own creative contributions to the fascinating world of information management”. Some of the fascination that the subject holds for the
authors is conveyed as one reads this book. It is to be hoped
that the word “Management” in the title will not deter
chemists in teaching and technology from reading this book,
which will be of great value to them in view of the growing
importance of information in their day-to-day work.
Engelbert Zass
Laboratorium fur Organische Chemie
der Eidgenossischen Technischen Hochschule
Zurich (Switzerland)
Graphics and Animation in Surface Science. Edited by D. D.
Viedensky and S. Holloway. Adam Hilger, Bristol (UK),
1992. VIII, 117 pp., hardcover L 27.50.-ISBN 0-75030188-X
For many years now the computer has been an indispensable tool of experimental science, not only for the recording
and interpretation of data, but also for preparing manuscripts
and disseminating results. Recently, however, another way
of using computers has become increasingly important. This
is computer graphics, which not only enables one to present
experimental results in clever and visually appealing forms,
but also often reveals new scientific relationships not previously apparent. For example, very rapid processes can be
studied in a slowed-down presentation, allowing intermediate states to be observed for the first time. Conversely, very
slow processes can be presented as a rapid sequence of images, so that the effects of interest can be much more easily
recognized.
The advantages that can result from using such computer
graphics can be particularly well illustrated by examples
from the physics and chemistry of surfaces. That is the purpose of the book reviewed here, in which the editors have
collected together seven individual contributions on computer techniques applied mainly to various research topics in
surface physics. The results, some of which are quite spectacular, would hardly have been possible without effective
graphics and animation techniques.
The book begins with a general introduction by the editors
in which they mention, among other aspects, the application
of graphics methods to a b initio calculations of total energy,
to describing dynamic molecular processes, for Monte-Carlo
simulations, and for studying surface reactions.
In Chapter 2 N. M . Harrison gives a concise account of
the use of advanced graphics computers in surface research,
Anxew. Cliem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1993, 32, N o . 3
(<> VCH
with particular attention to technical aspects of the choice of
computer systems (hardware and software), the problems of
generating hard copies suitable for reproduction, and some
possible applications of individual graphics user packages in
surface physics.
Chapter 3 by 0. H. Nielsen has the title “Animation in
Surface Science”. In this context animation implies that experimental o r theoretical results that d o not convey a clear
picture in the form of tabulated data or a two-dimensional
diagram, or are even quite incomprehensible in these forms,
are reprocessed to yield a suitable multidimensional representation and/or a sequence of colored images (a movie) that
makes them understandable. As an example to illustrate the
use of computer animation in surface physics the author
chooses the perspective representation of a solid surface. The
rest of the chapter is mainly concerned with the computational and technical problems of animation.
In Chapter 4 M. W. Rickets deals with a more specialized
topic, describing the well known WINSOM software package and its application to some selected problems in molecular modeling, liquid crystals, potential fields, and complex
biological structures.
Chapter 5 by P. Stolze is likely to be of special interest to
surface physicists ; this emphasizes the immense value of
graphics and animation techniques for simulating dynamic
molecular processes. One aspect of this is the presentation in
graphic form of the results of numerical calculations. A very
good example is the visual representation of the trajectories
of interacting atoms o r molecules over long periods (e.g., in
a liquid o r a crystal undergoing melting). Such graphics methods have contributed especially to the understanding of crystal growth, premelting phenomena, and roughening transitions.
In Chapter 6, “Animation of Large-Scale Simulations”,
M. R. Wilby and S. Clarke are mainly concerned with the
graphical representation of Monte-Carlo simulations of the
molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) process, which is of great
technological importance. As in the previous chapter, the
aim here is to compute and display the trajectories of the
atoms taking part in the growth over a period of time for
different values of the variables, in this case the (anisotropic)
iilteraction energies with the substrate, so as to give a better
understanding of the macroscopic growth processes.
The book ends with a chapter on “Animation of Quantum
Scattering Events using Hypercard”, by D. M. Halstead and
S. Holloway. The authors discuss the theoretical problem of
quantum scattering a t potential barriers, which is important
for calculating the trajectories of molecules undergoing adsorption, for example, and they explain how the theoretical
results are presented graphically.
First, a few critical comments. The title of the book is rather
general, and appears at first to promise the reader a snapshot
of the whole topic of computer animation in surface research. However, it quickly becomes obvious that such a slim
volume can only cover a small selection of topics o r applications. Thus, some extremely useful graphics and animation
programs known to this reviewer, such as those for displaying structures of surfaces and adsorbates, o r for visualizing
lattice vibrations (phonons in the bulk and at the surface).
are not included. Again, there is no mention of programs for
the processing and display of scanning tunneling microscopy
images, probably now the most topical and fruitful of the
techniques used in surface physics. However, the editors
have taken on the risky task of opening to a wider readership
a field that is undergoing very rapid development, and the
fact that they have not only attempted this but have produced a worthwhile result is greatly to be welcomed. Every
~ ~ r t u g . ~ ~ e s c ~ l lmhH.
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Weinheim, 1993
0S70-0833/93/0303-04S3$ 10.00+ .2S/O
453
physicist and chemist who wishes to learn about computer
animation in surfiace research should buy this little book,
despite the risk that parts of it may be overtaken by computer developments within a few years. Moreover, the affordable price for this well produced book (containing many
colored figures) should have an aniniating effect on readers.
Kluus Clir~sini~nn
Institut fiir Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie
der Freien Universitgt Berlin (FRG)
The Meaning of Quantum Theory. By J. Baggoit. Oxford
University Press, Oxford. 1992. XIV. 230 pp.. hardcover
.f 11.95. ISBN 0-19-855575-X
In recent years there has been a growing trend towards the
publication of books on technical aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry for chemists with theoretical
interests. Although these differ greatly in emphasis and degree of difficulty. most of them follow a common pattern.
Their central theme is to provide the reader with quantum
theoretical methods-- thus they present quantum theory in
the form of a technological toolkit. Any reader who approaches J. Baggott’s book expecting something of this kind
will certainly be disappointed. The author’s purpose here is
to examine the meaning of quantum theory as a conceptual
structure from a scientific and philosophical standpoint. The
most important message can be summarized in one succinct
statement: the central elements of quantum theory are open
to more than one possible interpretation. Baggott illustrates
this by the example of the old controversy between, on the
one hand, the positivist school of Bohr and the young
Heisenberg. and on the other hand the realistic interpretation based on wave mechanics, as put forward by Einstein
and Schrodinger. The positivist approach to quantum theory
is a conceptual structure of a puristic kind. Baggott describes
positivism as a view based on the premise that any observation on a quantum-mechanical system involves a disturbance
of the system, and therefore the description requires a
Hamiltonian operator that includes both the quantum-mechanical system itself and the spectrometer or observer.
Baggott characterizes the realistic viewpoint by the concept of “local realities”. In this framework an experimental
system can also be described by restricting the treatment to
localized subfrdgments. Baggott explains the scientific con4roversy in terms of certain imaginary experiments of historical importance, such as the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen theorem, the Bell inequality, and the intellectual construction
known as Schrodinger’s cat.
The book is divided into five chapters. In Chapter 1 the
author summarizes the historical facts that led to the development of quantum mechanics, and discusses in detail the
wave-particle duality hypothesis of de Broglie. This chapter
provides an easily readable introduction to the theoretical
ideas, and also introduces a number of novel relationships.
Chapter 2 begins with an explanation of the operator concept of quantum mechanics. Here Baggott also describes
lucidly the considerations that led to the formulation of the
Schrodinger equation. In this chapter. which is orientated
mainly towards mathematical techniques and formalisms,
the author explains in an easily understandable way the elements of quantum mechanics, such as state vectors in Hilbert
space and the Pauli exclusion principle. Chapter 3 moves on
from the technical background to an examination of the
meaning of the quantum theory. The reader learns that the
controversies between the positivists and the realists were
often emotional and heated. Chapter 4 takes up the subject
of the conceptual “experiments” mentioned above, that were
put forward in support of either the positivist or the realist
interpretations.
Unfortunately, after about the first 100 pages, the book
loses some of its initial excitement and conciseness. In the
opinion of this reviewer, the last part could have been tightened up and condensed to about half its length. In Chapter
5 Baggott moves away from the themes of the previous chapters and focuses attention on the relationships between
quantum theory and philosophy. He also discusses, among
other topics, the ideas of Karl Popper and of Rene
Descartes. The chapter concludes with some metaphysical
considerations. The question of the existence of a deity,
which is introduced carefully and dicreetly at this point, rests
on the same philosophical basis of the debate between determinism and indeterminism as do the fundamentals of quantum theory-hence the excursions into matters of religion.
The merit accorded to this part of the book will no doubt
vary from reader to reader.
Some of the comments that Baggott includes are trenchant
and worthy of attention. One of the best passages is that on
page 79: “It would, perhaps, be very difficult for high-energy
physicists to justify the financial investments ... if they were
not convinced of the reality of the objects on which they wish
to make measurements”.
In this book Baggott presents a skillful analysis of those
concepts of quantum mechanics with which we have, in the
course of time, learned to be “comfortable”. He succeeds in
opening the reader’s mind to new questions about quantum
mechanics and thereby taking a fresh look at hitherto accepted conceptual models. The book can be recommended for
readers interested in the philosophical aspects of quantum
theory. Large parts of it are stimulating to work through.
However, this requires a good deal of concentration, apart
from the “technical information” parts. Unfortunately Baggott’s treatment is not at a consistent level throughout, but
against this it must be said that the aim was very ambitious.
The minor criticisms above should not deter anyone from
buying this interesting and stimulating book. It is desirable
that as many chemists and physicists as possible should concern themselves with aspects of quantum theory other than
technological applications. and this book offers a good introduction to the subject.
Michael C. Bolm
Institut fur Physikalische Chemie
der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt (FRG)
Transuranium Elements: A Half Century. Edited by L. R.
Mows and .
I
Fuger. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC. 1992. XXIV, 562 pp., hardcover, $99.95.lSBN 0-842 2-221 9-3
When news of Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann’s discovery of nuclear fission in 1939 reached the University of California, scientists at Berkeley began experiments to reproduce
the unexpected results. By May, 1940 Edwin M. McMillan,
an assistant professor of physics, and Philip H. Abelson, a
recent Berkeley physics alumnus, succeeded in producing the
first transuranium element (at. no. 93) by bombarding uranium (at. no.92) with neutrons from Ernest 0. Lawrence’s
cyclotron. They named it neptunium after Neptune, the next
planet after uranium. A mere seven months later, on December 14, 1940, Berkeley chemistry instructors Glenn T. Seaborg and Joseph W. Kennedy and graduate student Arthur
C. Wahl synthesized the second transuranium element (at.
no. 94) by bombarding uranium with deuterons from the
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