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Book Review Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis. By G. Ertl H. Knzinger and J

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BOOKS
known importance of chemisorption
methods for catalyst characterization
mandates more detail than is contained
in a one-line-entry.
Chapter 8 (“Heterogeneous Catalysis:
Examples and Case Histories”) analyzes
important and best-understood catalytic
processes: Synthesis of Methanol, Fischer-Tropsch Catalysis, Synthesis of Ammonia, Oxidation of Ammonia, In-Situ
Catalytic Reaction and Separation, Automobile Exhaust Catalysts, Photocatalytic Breakdown of Water and the Harnessing of Solar Energy, Catalysis Using
Microporous or Mesoporous Solids and
Modified Clays, Catalytic Processes in
the Petroleum Industry, and The Role of
Catalysis in Energy-Related Environmental Technology. In most instances,
these topics are reasonably well treated,
given the amount of space that could be
made available and the huge quantity of
technical detail which could be drawn
upon. Chapter 8 also discusses reactor
types for several large-scale processes, as
well as some promising new multipurpose catalytic reactors involving simultaneous distillation, membrane permeation, or combustion. In two cases, the
authors include a numerical example
that is most instructive. Nevertheless,
we have two critical comments. Firstly
we believe it to be a pity that the authors
did not deal with metal-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond rupture (i.e., hydrogenolysis) reactions since these are of
considerable industrial significance and
also provide some of the best available
examples of catalytic selectivity control.
Secondly we believe that in some aspects
of their treatment of ammonia synthesis,
the authors have done less than justice to
what is known about this important
catalytic process. In particular, it is now
reasonably well established that the
predominant active sites for this reaction
are the so-called C, sites. Such sites occur
on the (111) and (211) surface planes of
iron. This is inadequately dealt with, and
is not made clear that these active sites
can be counted by the use of hightemperature nitrogen chemisorption.
When dealing with the book as a
whole, we find we must take the authors
to task over the matter of referencing for
material in the text. Material (e.g.,
figures) taken unaltered from pre-existing literature is, of course, acknowledged
in detail. However, in the text itself (i.e.,
as written by the authors), citations to
the relevant literature are in general
either not provided at all (e.g., an
author’s name may be cited but without
any reference leading to the original
literature), or else an author’s name may
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be cited, together with a date, in which
case the appropriate literature reference
is likely to be found in the section
“Further Reading” at the end of the
chapter. The problem then is that the
author’s name which is cited in the text is
not necessarily the name of the lead
author in the reference, so that a frustrating search becomes necessary. Of
course, the extent to which referencing
to the literature is necessary in the text is
dependent on who is going to read it. In
our opinion, the usefulness of the book
to researchers and advanced teachers is
substantially diminished by the inadequate and idiosyncratic referencing to
the relevant original literature. Furthermore, if the generally accepted practice
had been followed, it would have been
possible for appropriate credit to have
been given to authors deserving of priority. As it now stands, these referencing
deficiencies make it difficult for us fully
to recommend the book as a reference
work. In addition, the index is less than
adequate.
Nevertheless, despite our reservations,
the community in catalysis must be most
grateful to the authors for writing a book
which illustrates the vitality in the field
in a readable manner. Anyone who has
heard it said that catalysis is a mature
field will be easily convinced, even after
only a cursory perusal of this book, that
scientists and engineers working in the
theory and practice of catalysis are
poised to discover, invent, and innovate.
With this in mind, we suggest the book
should be on the list of required reading
for people such as university deans,
industrial managers, foundation directors, and government officials in science
policy. To this end, an executive summary would have been a valuable addition to each chapter. We also highly
recommend the book as a “get acquainted” resource for senior chemistry and
chemical engineering students and their
advisors. The upbeat and inspirational
style of the book will broaden the
horizon of those looking for a challenging graduate program and an exciting
professional career. Thank you, J. M.
and W. J. Thomas, for your labor of love.
0 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, 1997
John R. Anderson
Monash University (USA)
and
Michel Boudart
Stanford University (USA)
Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis. By G.Ertl, H. Knozinger, and
J. Weitkamp. WILEY-VCH, Weinheim, 1997. 2500 pp., 2030 fig.,
500 tab., hardcover 2490.00 DMISBN 3-527-29212-8
This five-volume compendium follows
in the spirit of those edited by Schwab in
the 1940s and Emmett in the 1950s, and
the editors state
that this handbook
is the first to describe comprehensively all facets of
heterogeneous catalysis from scientific fundamentals
to industrial processes. Although an
ambitious undertaking
involving
more than 200 authors and requiring
several years, as evidenced by the variation in the most recent references cited
at the end of each chapter, the result is
remarkably successful and coherent. In
most cases, the editors have obtained
some of the most knowledgeable and
active scientists in each area to author or
coauthor a review of that subject. At the
very least, this handbook verifies the
enormous impact heterogeneous catalysis has on our society through improvements in commercial processes.
Volume 1 begins by stating general
principles related to heterogeneous catalysis, then it provides historical perspectives of catalytic science as well as
industrial catalysis. The remainder of the
volume is devoted to describing the
preparation of both unsupported and
supported catalysts, with an emphasis on
those catalysts, most important commercially, that is, metallic and bimetallic
systems and zeolites. The chapters on
zeolite acidity and basicity and on carbons are especially thorough (over
50 pages) with an excellent set of references provided in each case.
Volume 2 focuses on the characterization of both industrial-type high surface area catalysts as well as rqodel
systems. The standard methods for
measuring physical properties are reviewed, and essentially all the various
techniques that can provide information
about chemical properties are discussed.
Although a detailed introduction of the
scientific fundamentals pertaining to
each spectroscopic method could not
be given due to space constraints, sufficient background is provided along with
applications to allow the reader to understand the capability of the technique.
0570-0833/97/10923-2690$17.50+.50/0
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1997.109, No. 23
BOOKS
References to allow a more thorough
understanding of the principles involved
are invariably provided. The khapters on
vibrational spectroscopy and the use of
IR spectroscopy to characterize surface
acidity and basicity are especially informative and contain extensive citations.
The various UHV surface science technique are enumerated, and their applications to various single-crystal surfaces
of metals, oxides, and bimetallic systems,
as well as ultrathin oxide films, are
described.
Volume 3 deals with core issues related to catalytic reactions and their economic industrial utilization. These include elementary steps, mechanisms and
modeling, the effect of transport processes, deactivation and regeneration,
types of laboratory reactors, and reaction engineering. Chemisorption in
theory and practice is addressed initially.
Fundamentals of catalytic rates are reviewed, theoretical modeling of surface
reactions is discussed, and various approaches to kinetic modeling are then
covered, as well as means to evaluate the
validity of the model chosen. Although
not lengthy, these treatises are sufficient
when coupled with the references cited
to provide guidance for those interested
in kinetic modeling. Various experimental techniques for probing reaction
mechanisms are reviewed, and the reader is also introduced to some of the
conceptual aspects of heterogeneous
catalysis such as structure sensitivity,
promoters and poisons, and effects due
to ensembles and ligands, spillover, and
substituent groups. The importance of
heat- and mass-transfer limitations on
reaction rates is emphasized in a thorough mathematical approach, and criteria are provided to estimate the influence of these effects on experimental
reaction rate data. The use of different
laboratory test reactors is analyzed, and
the utilization of commercial-type fixedbed, fluidized-bed, and slurry reactors is
described in some detail. Finally, special
catalytic systems, including chemical
sensors, electrocatalysis, and supercritical media, are discussed.
Volume4 is devoted to processes of
industrial interest and addresses environmental catalysis, inorganic reactions,
and energy-related catalytic reactions.
Consequently, the status of catalytic
pollutant control from both gasoline
and diesel engines as well as that related
to stationary sources is summarized. The
principal current problem of NO, emissions is emphasized and one new technology applicable to the latter sourcegas turbine catalytic combustion-is deAngew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1997,109, No. 23
scribed. Up-to-date reviews are provided for six industrial inorganic reactions,
the most important of which are NH3
synthesis, NH3 oxidation, SO2oxidation,
and the Claus process to form sulfur.
Reviews of the last group of reactions
include those for steam and CO, reforming along with the water gas shift reaction and COS removal, CO and C 0 2
hydrogenation, methanol synthesis,
methanol to hydrocarbons, catalytic
cracking, hydrocracking and dewaxing,
catalytic reforming of gasoline, alkane
isomerization, synthesis of gasoline additives (MTBE) , hydrotreating reactions
including demetalation, isobutane alkylation, alkane aromatization, coal gasification, and coal liquefaction. Reactions associated with fuel cells and
photocatalysis are also addressed. The
sections on methanol synthesis and catalytic cracking are particularly informative and the former has an especially
good reference list.
Volume 5 concludes the series by giving detailed information about almost
thirty types of catalytic organic reactions
of industrial significance. Although all
cannot be listed here, they encompass
reactions dealing with hydrogenation/
dehydrogenation, aromatic alkylation,
hydroformylation, selective oxidation
(including ammoxidation), amination,
halogenation, metathesis, oligomerization, and polymerization. Enantioselective and immobilized enzyme catalyst
systems are also covered. These chapters
provide a summary of the chemistry
involved as well as mentioning the
principal catalysts used in each process.
In summary, the 2500 pages contained
in these volumes provide a tremendous
amount of information. The most recent
citations at the end of each section range
from 1992 to 1997 with most being 1994
or later; consequently, the reviews typically represent an up-to-date perspective on each topic. Unfortunately, a few
of the chapters do not measure up to the
high standards set by the remainder, and
one chapter provides an inconvenience
by listing references alphabetically, rather than numerically, as done in other
chapters. Nevertheless, I consider this
series to be a resource that will be
invaluable to those in academia as well
as to scientists in industrial and governmental laboratories and perhaps indispensable to researchers working in small
industrial laboratories that have limited
library facilities. The price of DM 2490
(or $1,740) is steep; however, when
viewed relative to the annual subscription cost of a typical scientific journal, it
is much more reasonable, particularly
0 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, 1997
when the contents of this handbook will
be valuable to scientists and students for
years to come.
M. Albert Vannice
Dept. of Chemical Engineering
Pennsylvania State University
Pennsylvania (USA)
Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology
and Molecular Medicine. Edited by
R. A. Meyers. WILEY-VCH, Weinheim, 1996/97. 6 volumes, hardcover
DM2940.00, 6 Vol. Set-ISBN 3527-28478-8-single
volumes DM
590.00 each., Vol. 1: 462 pp., ISBN
3-527-28471-0;Vol. 2: 480 pp., ISBN
3-527-28472-9;Vol. 3: 522 pp., ISBN
3-527-28473-7;Vol. 4: 508 pp., ISBN
3-527-28474-5;Vol. 5: 516 pp., ISBN
3-527-28475-3;Vol. 6: 495 pp., ISBN
3-527-28476-1
The first volume of this six-volume
encyclopedia appeared at the beginning
of 1996, and only 18 months later, in
early summer 1997, the work was completed with the publication of Volume 6.
It is intended to serve as a comprehensive reference source on molecular aspects of biology and medicine. The
complete work of 3000 pages (including
the index) contains almost 300 articles
on the molecular biology of living organisms.
The encyclopedia sets a new standard
in the field of molecular biology, especially in the areas of genome research
and the molecular basis of genetically
caused diseases. Several articles are
devoted to the human genome. Important analytical techniques used in biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetic engineering are described in detail,
including the latest developments. Diagnostic techniques for diseases, and in
some cases also therapeutic methods, are
described. As well as purely scientific
articles there are others dealing with
important practical aspects, as for example in the contribution on “Transgenic
Animal Patents”. However, although the
encyclopedia partly covers the molecular mechanisms of both well-established
and modern drugs, such as enzyme
inhibitors, receptor agonists and antagonists, transport blockers (uptake inhibitors), and ion channel ligands, the treatment of these aspects is rather brief and
is limited to a few articles, such as the
excellent but quite short contribution on
“Medicinal Chemistry”. Also the highly
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