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Book Review Handbook of Thin Layer Chromatography. (Chromatographic Science Series Vol. 55). Edited by J. Sherma and B

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the similarity principle has been applied in both infrared and
ultraviolet spectroscopic data correlations with solvent and
substituent effects. The principle is revealed as a powerful
tool in the organization and analysis of a very large body of
data. In Chapter 6 (Langhals) the rather vexing issue of solvent effects is addressed within the context of binary solvent
systems. This chapter contains a number of useful tables of
relevant parameters. Chapters 7 (Oszczapowicz), 8 (Jaworski and Kalinowski), and 9 (Zalewski) support the notion that similarity modeling is usually the most appropriate
means of establishing structure-property relationships in the
respective fields of gas chromatography, organic electrochemistry, and food chemistry. The former two make use of
linear free-energy relationships whereas the latter applies a
principal component analysis and also discusses the mathematical foundations of this type of approach. Chapter 10
(Livingstone) offers a general overview of quantitative structure-activity relationships and is one of the most readable
chapters in the book. Not only does it serve as a valuable
introduction to neophytes, but it also reports on a number of
significant advances made since the late 1970s. This chapter
includes a total of 513 references and an appendix listing
software suppliers. The final Chapter 11 (Charton) treats the
author’s own approach to the quantitative description of
steric effects. This chapter is also well-written and informative, containing among other things, several tables of atomic
radii and two appendixes on the parameters used in regression equations. The index to the volume is adequate, though
I would have preferred to have found more multiple entries
in it.
As a whole this work is not comprehensive in its coverage;
nor it is really suitable for use as an introductory text on the
various applications of similarity modeling. Its appeal will be
rather to those researchers and others currently engaged in
the more conventional approaches to structure-activity relationships in chemistry.
Dennis H. Rouvruy
University of Georgia
Athens, Georgia (USA)
Photochemical Technology. By A . M . Bruun, M.-T Muurette
and E. Oliveros, Translated by D . E ONis and N . Serpone.
Wiley, Chichester, 1991. XX, 559 pp., hardcover E 95.0&
ISBN 0-471-92652-3
This book on photochemistry (originally published as
Technologie Photochimique, Presses Polytechniques Romandes, Lausanne, 1986) is the first to be concerned primarily with the technical aspects of such processes, especially in
connection with organic photoconversions that have been
and are being utilized in economically viable industrial processes. I have not previously encountered a book that gives
so much valuable information on experimental procedures
and apparatus used in both laboratory scale and pilot plant
photochemical reactions. The first chapter is concerned with
photochemical principles (e.g., absorption spectroscopy,
photophysical decay processes of excited states, energy
transfer, etc.). While entirely sufficient for the purpose of this
book, this chapter is (appropriately) not as comprehensive as
treatments in other well-known photochemistry texts. The
chapter on radiometry and actinometry provides more detail
on these subjects than I have previously seen in any book,
supported by relevant theory, and many figures and tables.
The next two chapters, concerned with light sources and
filters and photochemical reactors, totaling almost one hun360
8
VCH Verlagsgeselischajt mbH. W-6940 Wernheim. 1992
dred pages, are remarkable. The information here is of enormous use to anyone planning to carry out photochemical
reactions on any scale. Detailed schematic figures of lamps
and reactors in ordinary and not so ordinary use are provided, along with extensive tables listing characteristics of various types of lamps, lasers, and filters. The extremely detailed
figures, which cannot be found elsewhere, clearly required
enormous care and effort to produce.
The rest of the book provides a wealth of information
about a number of photochemical conversions that have
found diverse industrial applications. Technological details
regarding all stages of these processes are given, with abundant references to the patent literature. Again, this kind of
information is not available in any other source, and must
have taken great effort to compile. Specifically, these chapters cover photonitrosylation, photochlorination, photobromination, sulfochlorination and sulfoxidation, photochemical desulfonation and desulfonylation, photohydrodimerization, photooxidation, and vitamins. While the
mechanistic aspects of these reactions are not the main focus,
a significant amount of such discussion is included in each
case. The economic aspects of these processes are discussed,
along with safety considerations. The wealth of useful information is staggering. The authors have clearly shown, for the
first time in my experience, the potential as well as the limitations of photochemistry on an industrial scale, and they
put the lie to the common criticism that photochemistry is an
arcane subject with no significant practical applications. The
one important subject that the authors do not treat with the
attention it deserves is solar energy conversion, which I hope
they will address in a future book or future editions of this
book.
In summary, “Photochemical Technology” is a wonderfully useful book which admirably fills an important gap in
this field. It is highly recommended to anyone involved in the
practice of photochemistry, from students to researchers to
engineers. It is an indispensable compendium of easily accessible information, presented in a clear and lucid style that
readers at all levels will appreciate. No one involved with
photochemistry should fail to include this book in their personal as well as institutional libraries. The authors are to be
congratulated for their remarkable achievement.
Duvid I. Schuster
Department of Chemistry
New York University
New York, NY (USA)
Handbook of Thin Layer Chromatography. (Chromatographic Science Series, Vol. 55). Edited by J: Sherma and
B. Fried. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1991. viii, 1047 pp.,
hardcover $ 165.00 (US and Canada), $ 198.00 (all other
countries).-ISBN 0-8247-8335-2
This book is divided into two parts: the first has 13 chapters devoted to theory and general practices of TLC, while
the second has 18 chapters dealing with applications based
on compound types such as amino acids, peptides, antibiotics, carbohydrates, lipids, natural pigments, inorganics
and organometallics, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, steroids,
synthetic dyes, and vitamins. There are also chapters on
“TLC Coupled with MS”, “Thin Layer Radiochromatography”, “Applications of Flame Ionization Detectors in
TLC”, and “Photographic Documentation”, in Part 1, and
on the application side, on polymers, toxins, and enantiomer
separations, as well as phenols, aromatic acids, and indoles
0570-0833/92j0303-0340$3.50+.25/0
Angea. Chem. Inl. Ed. Engl. 31 (1992) No. 3
which can be considered as special features and are required
to keep pace with the fast developing modern analytical
methods vis-a-vis TLC. OPLC, a relatively young thin layer
technique still gaining in improvement and popularity, gets
proper treatment in the form of a chapter.
Chapter 1 is an introduction to basic techniques, materials, and apparatus involved or required for TLC. Though
there are full chapters devoted to theory and mechanism of
TLC, sorbents and layers, optimization, development,
OPLC, and documentation, each of these, in addition to
various other aspects of TLC, has been introduced briefly in
Chapter 1, making the chapter a real introduction to present
day TLC. Similarly, sample preparation and spotting methods have been sufficiently described.
Though each step in TLC can be optimized, it is far from
simple due to the large number of variables involved. General optimization methods and specific strategies for solvent
selection have been presented in detail; they can be used to
enhance detection limits in post-chromatographic derivatization reactions or to obtain a better separation in the
chromatographic development step.
Commonly used sorbents have been characterized in terms
of their physical and chemical parameters and chromatographic properties. These include silica gels, aluminas,
kieselguhrs, cellusoses, polyamides, and Sephadexo. A brief
discussion on RP-plates, amino-, cyano-, and diol-modified
precoated silica layers, AE-, CM-, and DEAE- cellulose with
modified functional groups to be used for ion exchange
TLC, impregnated layers, precoated layer with concentrated
zones, and Chiralplates“ makes the chapter more useful and
suggests wider and versatile applications of TLC. It clearly
establishes the advancement in the technique and methodology of TLC since Stahl’s fundamental work in developing
sorbent materials for TLC which culminated in the first standard handbook (Diinnschichtchromatographie-Ein Laboratoriums-Handbuch, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 1962). Trends
and procedures in preparative layer chromatography (PLC)
have been discussed and compared for classical PLC with the
two forced-flow techniques of over-pressure-layer and rotation-planar chromatography, maintaining the importance of
PLC as a successful method for the isolation of synthetic and
natural products.
With due regard to the complexity of chromatographic
processes, limitations of the existing semiempirical models,
and the need to study and understand further the theory of
chromatography, the chapter on “Theory and Mechanism of
TLC” provides a good review of the basic knowledge about
the physical phenomenon, main concepts about efficiency of
separation, usefulness of partition and adsorption models
used in everyday laboratory practice, and attempts to enhance performance of TLC. The chapter on “Photodocumentation of Thin Layer Chromatograms” views laboratory
photography as a sophisticated methodology needed to complement the TLC and analytical process, and serves as a
good, useful guide for photographic techniques, equipment
and principles for instant photography, especially under UV
light.
TLC, like other aspects of research chemistry, is rapidly
becoming dominated by instrumentation and automation
techniques. This includes areas such as sample application
and dosage, chromatogram development, densitometric
evaluation by absorbance or fluorescence (200- 800 nm),
data acquisition, peak location and optimization, spectra
recording, multi-wavelength scanning, and integration and
calibration, as well as the use of flame ionization detectors
(though with applications limited to lipids and related substances), the application of MS with FAB or SIMS as detecAngew. Chrm. I n l . Ed. Engl. 31 (1992) No. 3
0 VCH
tors with unique and wider advantages, and the development
of the imaging proportional counter (IPC) detector for in
situ counting or radioscanning of materials labeled with isotopes without the need to remove labeled material from the
TLC plate for scintillation counting. The rapid advances in
instrumentation made over the past decade to provide fast,
quantitative analysis, as noted above, have been described
very well in the Handbook in different chapters. Unfortunately there is no reference to the instrumentation and operational costs, which seem to be high and mostly outweigh
advantages due to automation and make TLC far from a
simple and inexpensive method. An updated discussion on
such aspects would be worthwhile in such a Handbook, indicating a steady period of refinement and growth in the area.
The chapters have been contributed by recognized experts,
have a comprehensive, organized plan and present a thorough description and discussion on the topic. The references
cited are largely recent ones but also include more significant
older literature. A large number of tables and figures have
been provided, presenting various suitable TLC methods
that have been extensively tried and tested in various laboratories, mentioning detection limits, and minimizing the need
to refer to original journals. There are no printing errors. A
list of contents of individual chapters would have helped the
reader to orientate himself more rapidly to a problem of
interest within the multi-authored volume. The glossary and
the directory of manufacturers provide useful additional information. The book is a valuable source of information for
everybody (specialists and beginners) involved with separation studies in universities, industry, analytical laboratories,
clinical analyses, and in the areas of organic synthesis, protein
analysis, food and drug analysis, biosynthesis etc. Complete
addresses of contributors, suitable for correspondence, would
have probably been more meaningful, and a comparatively
low price would have encouraged individuals to own a copy.
Jiirgen Martens
Fachbereich Chemie
der Universitat Oldenburg (FRG)
Carbohydrates as Organic Raw Materials. Edited by E: M
Lichtenthaler. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/VCH
Publishers, New York, 1991. x, 367 pp., hardcover
DM 148.00.-1SBN 3-527-28280-7/1-56081-131-5
This book is essentially a summary of the sixteen papers
presented at the workshop-conference on “Progress and
Prospects in the Use of Carbohydrates as Organic Raw Materials”, which took place in Darmstadt in April 1990. It is
intended mainly for research scientists in industry who need
to be aware of the current state of knowledge on the technology of using carbohydrates as renewable raw materials.
However, the editor limits the coverage mainly to mono- and
disaccharides, and excludes starch and cellulose, which are
also very important raw materials. The title of the book leads
one to expect a more comprehensive treatment of the subject.
In fact, only two of the chapters are concerned specifically
with polysaccharides.
Each chapter is clearly set out, consisting of an abstract,
which is useful for recapitulating after reading the chapter,
followed by the main text, and lastly a bibliography, which
is quite extensive in most cases. The subject index too seems
to be comprehensive and clear. The frequent changes in the
style of the formulas, sometimes within a single chapter, have
a rather distracting effect. Synthetic chemists will find that in
some cases not enough details of reactant quantities and
yields are given.
Verlugsgeselischufl mbH. W-6940 Weinheim, 1992
oj70-0833/92/0303-0361 $3.50+ .2510
361
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