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Book Review Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie (Manual of Experimental Pharmacology). Edited by H. Herken. Vol. XXIV Diuretics

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BOOK REVIEWS
Grundlagen der analytischen Chemie (Principles of Analytical Chemistry). By F. Seel. Verlag Chemie, Weinheimf
Bergstr. 1970. 5th Edit., 387 pp., 53 tables, plastic D M
36.--.
This is the fifth improved edition of the well-known textbook which first appeared in 1955 and which caters in
particular for those chemistry students whose introductory
laboratory work consists essentially of analytical inorganic
chemistry, which is still the case at most universities. The
author provides the reader with a detailed introduction to
the principles of classical analytical chemistry, the methods
of which are based o n equilibria. Practical instructions are
intentionally omitted. Other analytical methods like instrument techniques, which are becoming more and more
important, are also purposely left out.
In the introductory chapters elementary concepts are explained and defined, and detailed treatment is given t o the
law of mass action. Finally, the principles of chemical
reaction types are discussed in the following order with
reference to the most important analytical methods: dissolution and precipitation, complex formation, acid-base
reactions, and redox processes. Appropriate space has been
allocated to the combination of these four types of reaction.
Furthermore, special chapters have been included o n the
colloidal state and adsorption, ion exchangers, reactions in
molten salts, potentiometric titration, electrolytic precipitation and, a n important improvement o n the last edition,
the thermodynamic principles of analytical chemistry in
aqueous solvents.
This book gives a very good introduction to the systematic
treatment of the chemistry of aqueous systems.
Gerhard Geier [NB 911 IE]
Methodensammlung zur Riickstandsanalytik yon Pflanzenschutzmitteln (Methods for the Analysis of Residues of
Crop Protection Products). Ed. by the Abt. “Analytik”
der Kommission fur Pflanzenschutz-, Pflanzenbehandlungs- und Vorratsschutzmittel der Dtsch. Forschungsgemeinschaft, Bad Godesberg. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim/Bergstr. 1969.1st Edit., 376 pp.. loose-leaf DM48.-.
This collection, which was compiled by a specialist commission of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German
Research Association), is the first of its kind to be published
in German. The methods discussed for determining residues
of crop protection products in foods relate to agents selected
on the basis of whether they are of “practical interest” in
the Federal Republic of Germany.
An enormous number of analytical procedures for the
determination of the residues of many important crop
protection products have been described in the relevant
literature in the last 20 years, which only goes to show that
really “good” methods are rare. It should therefore be
realized that the most important objective in selecting the
material for the present collection was not to produce a
complete survey of the literature but only to include those
methods that are based o n “experience gained in relevant
university laboratories and in relevant Federal and industrial research institutes”. Another advantage of the book
is that it gives the source for each method so that in
cases of doubt the author can be consulted or informed of
improvements.
This highly commendable approach naturally also has
disadvantages, particularly in cases where analytical techniques have undergone further development before the collection appeared. This was inevitable particularly in the case
of gas chromatography which, with the development of new
types of detectors, rapidly gained importance in the field of
residue analysis. It is to be hoped that this collection, which
968
is in loose-leaf form, will be suitably expanded (the first
supplement is at present in preparation). Future supplements will in particular have t o devote more attention, in
the interests of public analysts’ laboratories, to the simultaneous determination of several different residues, i.e. to
group or “multi-residue’’ methods.
Particularly praise-worthy is the exemplary uniform,
schematic presentation of the methods by the editors.
Structural formulas and general physical data are also given
for each active ingredient. The compounds are designated
by their common names; trade names d o not appear. In its
present form the collection already provides a wealth of
highly useful information, a t a reasonable price, for all
laboratories working on the problems of residues.
Helmut Frehse [NB 912 IE]
Handbuch der experimentellen Pharmakologie (Manual of
Experimental Pharmacology). Edited by H . Herken.
Vol. XXIV: Diuretics. Springer Verlag, Berlin--H&lbgz-New York 1969. 1st Edit., xix, 764 pp.. 124 figures,
b o u n d , D M 248.-.
The editor of this volume has drawn o n the services of ten
prominent colleagues in the field of renal physiology and
pharmacology, so that i t should attract not only pharmacologists, physiologists, internists, chemists, and pharmacists but also students of medicine and the natural sciences.
The fundamentals of renal physiology and diuretics are
given detailed treatment in twelve chapters.
I n the section “Fundamentals of Renal Physiology” the
ultra-structure of the kidney is discussed lucidly with the
aid of schematic diagrams and clear electron micrographs.
Open questions are left open, as befits a manual of this type.
The clear tables in the chemistry section of the chapter
entitled “Mercurial Diuretics” have a pleasing and striking
layout. Commercially available products are cited by their
trivial, chemical, and trade names. [It might have been
better, however, to take “Organic Chemical Drugs and
their Synonyms” (Negwer, Berlin 1967) as a recent source
book for trivial names, since it is more easily available here
than Marler (1961); also not the possibility of confusing
Diucardin and Diucardyn.] The fact that basic pharmacological investigations have been included is an asset for a
handbook of experimental pharmacology.
The era of modern sulfonamide diuretics begins with the
chapter “Renal Carbonic Anhydrase and the Pharmacology
of Sulfonamide Inhibitors”. The comprehensive data o n the
importance of carboanhydrase are reproduced completely,
concisely, and clearly. Finally, the other diuretics having
sulfonamide structures (sulfamoyl substitution) - “Thiazide Diuretics and Related Drugs” - are discussed. The
table and the description of the relationships between structure and effect are very creditable. A few printing errors! n
the text and tables and in the references should be corrected.
The difference between “potency” and “efficacy” is justifiably emphasized. Perhaps it was these technical terms that
induced the authors t o submit their contributions in
English since i t is impossible to reproduce these concepts
exactly in German without resorting to circumlocutions.
Furosemide and ethacrynic acid have been treated separately as diuretics with different modes of action. In the reviewer’s opinion there is n o justification for speaking of a n
ethacrynic acid type of saluretic action in both compounds,
since i t is well known that ethacrynic acid does not have the
same effect o n all animal species and it might lead to misunderstandings. The concepts of diuretic and natriuretic
should, in my opinion, be supplemented by the concept of
salidiuretic for diuretics with the action of furosemide or
ethacrynic acid. The introductory sentences of the chapters
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Vol. 9 (1970)1 No. I2
o n furosemide and ethacrynic acid d o not, on the basis of
my own experience, entirely fit the real facts (for instance.
notice the use of “accidentally”). The chapters o n furosemide and ethacrynic acid are laid out in the same way a n d
in clear manner. The references contain nothing later than
1967.
The mode of action and the clinical application of aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone) are explained lucidly
and reference is made to the experimental procedure for the
investigation of these substances. The pseudoantialdosterones which reduce K+ elimination or retention by the
kidneys are described with particular reference t o the two
main representatives of this group, triamterene and amiloride, whose clinical applicability has not yet been fully
demonstrated (bibliography up t o 1968). The diuretic uses
3f the glucocorticoids and the inhibitors of corticosteroid
biosynthesis are described by G. Senff (deceased). Finally,
the book deals with the use of cation exchangers as diuretics.
The reviewer agrees with the editor o n the important
historical contribution of the chapter “Xanthine Derivatives as Diuretics”.
The pleasing appearance of the printing I S somewhat marred
by the fact that art paper has been used only where histological illustrations are reproduced (production costs?).
The editor and his colleagues have succeeded in producing
a coherent and didactically well constructed book which,
in addition to its uses as a handbook, will be of great value
to both the student and the teacher of natural sciences.
Roman Muschaweck [NB 906 IE]
Organic Geochemistry. Methods and Results. Ed. by G.
Eglintnn and M . T . J . Murphy. Springer-Verlag, BerlinHeidelberqNew York 1970. 1st Edit., xxiv, 828 pp.,
246 figures, bound D M 178.--.
While biogeochemistry deals with the reIation of sediments
and minerals t o plant and animal life, organic geochemistry
concerns the characterization of organic substances as they
occur in sediments and other natural environments.
The present book attempts for the first time to give comprehensive coverage to one of the youngest and most
heterogeneous fields of knowledge on the fringes of organic
chemistry, biology, and geology: 37 authors write about
their own special fields in 31 chapters.
Chapters 2-6 present the organic chemist’s approach and
discuss the analytical possibilities for isolating and characterizing organic compounds: general methods, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, isolation of kerogen and
related substances from sediments and fossils.
Chapters 7-12 stress the biological and geological aspects:
evolution, fossilization, sedimentology, organic substances
in sediments, microbiological decomposition, and the biochemistry of the stable carbon isotopes. Chapters 13-19
give an account of the geological frequency of the classes of
organic compounds most commonly occurring in sediments, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols, fossil carbohydrates, terpenoids, carotenoids, proteins, peptides and
amino acids, and porphyrins.
Chapters 20-30 deal with the occurrence of certain compounds in specific geological situations: conchiolin in
fossils and mussel shells, organic substances in gas occlusions in minerals, chemistry of the humic acids and
related pigments, soil lipids, earth waxes, peat, Montan wax,
fossil and recent kauri resins; kerogen from the Green River
formation, crude oil, petroleum formation, carbon, importance of pre-paleozoic sediments in organic geochemistry.
Chapter 31 deals with the organic derivatives of clay minerals, zeolites, and related minerals.
In spite of the diverse nature of the material and the large
number of authors this book provides a first survey of our
knowledge of a field which in future will play a n increasingly important role not only in science but also in practice.
German Muller Mfj%J14IE]
Angew. Chern. internat. Edit. I V’0l.a h970)
1 No. 12
Elektronenspinresonanz (Electron Spin Resonance). By K.
Schefler and H . B. Stegmonn. Vol. 12 in the series
Organic Chemistry Monographs. Ed. by H . Bredereck,
K . Hafner, and E. M d l e r . Springer Verlag, BerlinHeidelberg;-ew
.. ....
York 1970. 1st Edit., viii, 506 pp., 145
figures, bound, D M 120.-.
-
^
.
a
I
Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has in recent
years gained increasing importance as a physicochemical
method of studying the paramagnetic properties of radicals.
A monograph dealing with the use of this technique from
the standpoint of the organic chemist is now available. ESR
spectroscopy can be used t o obtain information o n the spin
density distribution and thestructure, as well as thedynamic
behavior of radical molecules, e.g. in various solvents.
However, the method has been used successfully for the
detection of short-lived radical intermediates generated
chemically or by electro-, photo-, or radiation-chemical
processes.
The subdivision of the present book into two main sections
is based on the realization that an introduction to the principles of ESR spectroscopy that is to be readily understandable whilst a t the same time taking into account all the
important recent developments in the technique should be
separated from the detailed treatment of themost interesting
classes of organic radicals. In adopting this subdivision i t
is of course necessary to reconcile oneself to repetition, since
the theoretical treatment in the first part is elucidated by
reference to numerous experimental results, which then
appear again in the systematic section. In this way it may
be possible to guide someone with limited experience,
who turns to the book for the solution of practical problems, to the principles underlying the observed effects.
The chapters o n dynamic effects and o n electron-nucleus
interactions are especially pleasing. As, indeed, in the rest
of the book, extraordinary care has been taken here in
citing the original literature. On the other hand, at many
points opportunities have been missed for helping the reader
who wishes to delve further into the subject, and who would
have welcomed advice on more advanced textbooks and
monographs.
The systematic section contains a chapter o n organic
radicals in solution, the relevant data appearing in valuable
tables. Aids are given t o the identification and interpretation of ESR spectra, as well as instructions for the preparation of standard radicals.
The book is well and clearly written and the general presentation is attractive. It will prove to be a n essential tool not
just t o organic chemists bu#q%o to many others.
Klaus Eiben
[NB 905 IE]
Physikalische Chemie. Teil I: Einfiihrung in die Gastheorie,
Quantentheorie, Thermodynamik (Physical Chemistry.
Part I: Introduction to the Theory of Gases, Quantum
Theory, Thermodynamics). By G. M . Barrow. Friedr.
Vieweg u. Sohn, Braunschweig 1969. 1st Edit. 257 pp, 67
figures, 35 tables, paperback D M 19.80.
Gordon M. Barrow’s textbook “Physical Chemistry” which
is widely used in English-speaking countries, is t o be published in German in three volumes. The first part, which was
translated by G. W. Herzog, is now available. It contains an
introduction t o the theory of gases, the quantum theory, and
thermodynamics.
The first half of the book (Chapters 1 to 4) presents a n insight
and a n introduction into the actual principles of physical
chemistry and its concepts. Some general properties and concepts are first presented with the empirical gas laws. This is
followed by a discussion of the kinetic theory of gases and a n
introduction (confined to the barest essentials) to the constitution of matter and quantum mechanics and to classical and
quantum statistics. The partition function is dealt with in
rather more detail. However, it has been necessary here to
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