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Book Review Handbuch der Lebensmittelchemie. (Handbook of Food Chemistry) Vol. 5 Part 2 Fruit Vegetables Potatoes Mushrooms. Edited by L. Acker K.-G. Bergner W. Diemair W. Heimann F. Kiermeier J. Schormller and S. W

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l-(l-Adamantyl)-3-tert-butylaziridinone( I ) , a stable a-lactam,
has been synthesized by I . Lengyel and D . B. Uliss; the synthesis was prompted by the fact that tertiary substituents have
a pronounced stabilizing effect o n cx-lactams. 2-Bromo-3,3dimethyl-N-adamantyl butyramide, which was obtained (m.p.
173-174 “C, 82% yield) from 2-bromo-3.3-dimethylbutyryl
Alkylation of diazoacetonitrile and ethyl diazoacetate with
organoboranes, according to J. Hooz and S . Linke, is a new
method of increasing the length of olefins by two carbon atoms
with functional groups if organoboranes derived from olefins
with terminal double bonds or cyclopentene are used:
R,B+ N2CHCN
R = Adamantyl
(CHB)3C-HC,-,C0
R,B
N
(1)
R
chloride and I-adamantylamine in the presence of triethylamine in dichloromethane at O°C, could be cyclized with
potassium terf-butoxide in ice-cold ethereal suspension to
give ( I ) , m.p. 70°C (A,,
= 254 nm [hexanel, yield 65%).
The compound is stable in water at room temperature; complete solvolysis is effected only after boiling for 48 hours in
methanol. / Chem. Commun. 1968, 1621 -Ma.
[Rd 962 IE]
+ N2CHCOOC2HS +--NIHzO
+
Is2
-L H,O
RCHzCN
RCHzCOOCrH5
The reactions with the nitrile proceed very fast even at 0 “ C
and give excellent yields (93-100%). The second reaction
depends strongly on steric factors. For example: I-hexene +
octanenitrile, 100%; cyclopentene + cyclopentylacetonitrile,
99%; I-octene + ethyl decanoate, 78%. ’ J . Amer. chcm.
SOC.90, 6891 (1968) i -Ma.
[Rd 965 IEl
’
The formation of cycloadducts by the reaction of azibenzil ( I )
with SO2 was observed by T. Nagai, M . Tanaka, and N . Tokurrz. The four-membered cyclic sulfones (.?) and (3) were
obtained, along with ( 4 ) and (51, in boiling benzene. Diphenylketene is probably formed as an intermediate by the
Wolff rearrangement, and this then undergoes cycloaddition
(1) RC-CR
K
A,
--Z
€?C-cK
b
+
R,C=C=O + RC-CK
(6)
I1 II
0 so,
with the ketosulfene ( 6 ) . Photochemical reaction of azibenzil
with SO2 in benzene at -5 to -20 OC (mercury high-pressure
lamp) gave (3). (41, and (5) in 35, 44. and 13p< yields respectively. ;Tetrahedron Letters 1968, 6293 / -Ma.
[Rd 964 IE]
The dimerization products of a-methylstyrene in H2S@4 have
been extensively investigated by A . J . Svob and B. K . Cernicki
by means of N M R spectrometry. Separation by gas chromatography (liquid phase SE 30) yielded six components:
cis-2,4-diphenyl-4-methyl-2-pentene, 1,1,3-trimethyl-3-phentrans-2,4-diphenylylindan, 2,4-diphenyl-4-methyl-l-pentene,
and
4-methyl-2-pentene. 1,3-diphenyl-3-methyI-2-butanone,
an
oxidation
product
with
CsHs-C(CH3)zand
-CH=C-CHz-groups. ,’ Chimia 22, 434 (1968) 1 -Ma.
I
[Rd 966 IE]
New catalysts for low-pressnre carbonylation of methanol to
give acetic acid have been developed by F. E. Paulik and J . F.
Roth. A solution of an Rh compound such as RhCI3 . 3 HzO,
RhzO3 5 H20, R!ICI(CO)[P(C~HKS)~]~.
[Rh(C0)2CI]z (5 X
10-3 M) and a halogen promoter such as hydriodic acid,
CH31, Ca12 . 3 H20, 12 (0.05 M) in solvents such as benzene,
water, acetic acid, methanol, and nitrobenzene catalyzes the
carbonylation at 175 “C and 25 atm total pressure (pco < 13
atm). Appreciable carbonylat~onrates were observed even at
CO pressures of 1 atm. There is preferential formation of
acetic acid (> 99%). The active catalyst is a ds-RhI cornplex. High rates of reaction can also be achieved at low pressure with similar homogeneous catalyst systems of Ir compounds in the presence of halogen promoters, particularly
[Rd 967 ]E]
iodide. /I Chem. Commun. 1968, 1578 / -Ma.
BOOK REVIEWS
Handbuch der Lebensmittelchemie. (Handbook of Food
Chemistry) Vol. 5 , Part 2: Fruit, Vegetables, Potatoes,
Mushrooms. Edited by L. Acker. K . 4 . Bergner. W . Diemair, W. Heimann, F. Kiermeier, J . Schormiiller. and S . W.
Souci. Springer-Verlag. Berlin,Heidelberg-New York 1968.
1st. Edit., xxiv, 608 pp. 178 illustrations, bound. D M
174.60 f $ 43.65.
In modern food chemistry exclusive stress is no longer placed
on chemical analysis; rather, the emphasis has shifted to
individual factors involved in quality characteristics, to
clarification of the nature and causes of changes, and to the
determination of production and storage conditions influencing favorably the product quality. This theme finds its expression in the clearly arranged part of the new manuaI [ I ] ,
both in the layout of the individual chapters, written by
specialists, and in the way that newer methods of food
preservation and processing (e.g. deep-freezing and freezedrying) and new food sources (e.g. yeast and algae) are dealt
with. The authors treat the subject fundamentally, without
neglecting the technological aspects. Selected analytical
methods are discussed in such detail that they can be applied
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. / Val. 8 (1969) / No. 2
directly. Literature references, in some cases up to 1965, are
listed a t the end of each contribution. 136 of the total of 178
illustrations appear in the contributions by Czaja. Copious
numerical data are given in the tables. Printing errors are
few, and the reviewer has not encountered any really serious
mistakes. The very detailed subject index provides a key to
the richness of the contents (an author index is dispensed
with). The layout is excellent.
In the chapter “Fresh Fruit” ( H . Drews, 75 pp.), under the
‘‘Fruit’’ section, there is a brief account of the fundamentals
of fruit growing, the kinds of fruit, the classification of fruit
into particular groups, fruit storage methods, the changes
occurring during storage, and the chemical examination of
fruit. There are also hints of evaluation in accordance with
foodstuff legislation. The following are considered among
durable fruit goods: Deep-frozen fruit (J. Gufschmidt,17 pp.),
canned and bottled fruit ( A . S . Kovacs, 22 pp.), dried fruit
( K . Herrmann, 12 pp.), and fruit in syrup (K. Herrmann,
4 pp.). Fruit products dealt with include preserves, jams,
jellies, mousses, etc., as well as semi-manufactured products
(K. Herrmann, 45 pp.), fruit juices, unfermented wine, con-
153
centrates, and fruit-syrups ( K . Herrmann, 63 pp.), fruit juice
drinks, and other nonalcoholic drinks (S. Benk, 20 pp.). Finally there is a contribution on the microscopic examination
of fruit and fruit products (A. Th. Czanja, 52 pp.).
The section “Vegetables” is similarly arranged. The chapter
on fresh vegetables (51 pp.) is written by P . Nehring. Information on durable vegetable goods is given in the chapters:
Deep-frozen vegetables (J. Gutschmidt, 33 pp.), canned and
bottled vegetables ( P . Nehring, 38 pp.). pickled vegetables
(F. Martens, 18 pp.), and dried vegetables ( K . Herrmann.
6 pp.), tomato juices and other tomato products, as well as
other vegetable juices ( K . Herrmann, 16 pp.). One chapter
is devoted to potatoes and potato products ( H . Mohler and
H . Sulser, 34pp.), and one to mushrooms and mushroom
preserves ( W. Bctticher, 31 pp.). A contribution on the microscopic examination of vegetables, salads, seasoning herbs,
and edible mushrooms ( A . Th. Czaja, 25 pp.) completes this
field. The volume concludes with a chapter on the microbiological production of foodstuffs (E. R e i f , 14 pp.) in which
yeast above all plays an important role.
The great amount of information to be found in this volume
J. WoZf [NB759IE]
will ensure a wide readership.
Standardmethoden der praktischen Chemie (Standard Methods
of Practical Chemistry). Edited by E. Poulsen-Nautrup.
Main group: Preparation Methods of Organic Chemistry.
Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig. Issue l a : General
Working Procedure. 1st Edit., 1963. viii, 54 pp.. 46 illustrations, 19 table?; Issue l b : General Working Procedure 11.
1st Edit., 1966. viii, 54 pp., 49 illustrations, 18 tables; Issue’
l c : General Working Procedure 111, 1st Edit., 1966. viii,
50 pp.. 28 illustrations, 19 tables; Issue 2: Basic Compounds I. 1st Edit., 1963. viii, 50 pp.. 13 illustrations.,
11 tables; Issue 3: Derivatives I, 1st Edit., 1964. viii, 50 pp.;
Issue 4: Basic Compounds 11. 1st Edit., 1964. viii, 60 pp..
15 illustration; Issue 11: Azo dyes. 1st Edit., 1964. viii,
44 pp.. 13 illustrations 3 color tables. Each issue (in folder)
D M 5.90.
“Preparative Methods”, compiled by E. Poulsen-Nautrupp,is
part of “Standard Methods of Practical Chemistry”. Each
issue contains sets of detailed working instructions, printed
on individual sheets of paper, that are suitable for use in
schools. Issues la-lc relate to general techniques, including
reaction vessels, gases, and work at elevated pressures. A
thorough introduction is given to fundamental operations
such as filtration, distillation, recrystallization, etc. Issues
2-4 each contain working instructions for ten preparations.
Each sheet begins with a n equation for the reaction in question, and continues with precise directions and with a discussion of the range of applications of the reaction. Hints are
frequently given on testing the product purity or o n preventing accidents during the preparation. Issue 3 is devoted to
the preparation of derivatives. e.g. sodium alkoxides, and
chlorides, and esters. Issue 11 covers azo dyes, describing the
dyeing of wool and cotton as well as the preparation and
chromatographic examination of the dyes.
The collection is highly recommended for all schools and
technical colleges teaching chemistry. This series should also
prove invaluable to those reading chemistry as a subsidiary
H . J. Bestmann [NB 763 IEI
subject at universities.
Dictionary of Science and Technology, English-German. By
A. F. Dorian. Elsevier Publishing Company, AmsterdamLondon-New York, 1967. 1st Edit., 1238 pp.. bound,
Dfl. 80.00.
Good technical dictionaries, even in such common languages
as English and German, are such a rarity that it is no great
exaggeration to say that they d o not exist. It is thus scarely
surprising that so many attempts are made to fill the void.
The latest, published by Elsevier, contains more than 1200
pages, with some 50000 terms covering about 130 disciplines,
154
predominantly in science and technology. Only two authors
A. F. Dorian and Liarre Herzbruch, appear to be responsible
for this gigantic undertaking. The reviewer confesses that he
was surprised by this, as also by the rather curious English
foreward and its badly translated German counterpart.
It is of course unfair to judge such a vast work - its scope
extends from Baking to Ecclesiastical History and from Biochemistry to Political Economics - on the basis of its treatment of Chemistry. At the same time it is not unreasonable
to assume that the authors devoted the same degree of care
to all the fields covered.
The selection of words is sensible and modern, though here
and there somewhat haphazard. In many cases a brief English
definition of the entry is given in addition to the translation,
a very useful feature in view of the variety of subjects involved. Less pleasing is the (in the reviewer’s opinion excessive) number of instances in which inaccurate or even totally
incorrect renderings are given. These range from obsolete
spelling (Karbonat, Oxyd) and nomenclature (Oxynaphthalin, Athylmerkuriacetat), obvious printing errors (Magnesiumarseniat, Lutetium(!). arsine = Arsen), to downright
nonsense (radius = Umkreis, ethylene = schweres Kohlenwasserstoffgas, shift = Austausch, chemical intermediate =
Zwischenmittel, ethylbenzyl chloride = Benzochlorsaureathylester !!, etc.).
An insert informs the user that the publishers intend to
produce a German-English edition at the end of 1968, to be
followed by supplementary volumes at intervals of 4 or 5
years, with an improved and revised edition of the main
dictionary to appear every 8 years. The project is thus
clearly a n ambitious one; it seems most desirable, however,
that the whole responsibility should not rest on the shoulders
of just two authors, but that the help of other subject and
language specialists be enlisted as a matter of urgency.
H. Griinewald [NB 769 I€]
Nobel Lectures, Physiology or Medicine 1901-1921. Sponsored by the Nobel Foundation, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam-London-New York, 1967. 1st Edit., xii,
562, bound, Dfl. 80.00.
The present volume in the “Nobel Lecture” series published
by Elsevier comprises addresses given by the Medicine Prize
Winners between 1901 and 1921. As usual, each lecture is
preceded by the presentation speech at the prize-giving, and
biographical details complete the picture.
The book is fascinating to read even if one is not a physician.
Fundamental investigations are reported that belong so much
to the undeniable, reliable fund of knowledge of our time
that it is impossible to return to those years during which it
was all discovered and formulated, often with endless toil,
without inner participation. The volume begins with a lecture
given by Emil von Behring on the serum therapy of diphtheria,
which enabled this disease to be mastered. Sir Ronald Ross
received the prize for his discovery of the etiology of malaria;
this is followed by Pavlov’s extremely readable report about
his famous experiments on the physiology of digestion.
Robert Koch’s Nobel Lecture was entitled “The current state
of the struggle against tuberculosis” and this enumeration of
famous names and deeds could be continued. For the sake of
topicality, special mention should be made of the lecture given
by the Frenchman Alexis Carrel, who received his prize in
1912 for experiments on organ transplantation. The lecturer
distinguishes between autoplastic transplants (within the
same organism), which invariably succeed if the operation is
carried out satisfactorily, and homoplastic transplants (between different living beings of the same species), which (at
that time) always failed because even an organ transplanted
correctly from the surgical point of view was rejected after a
certain period. All this 60 years ago! It is interesting to note
that in 1935 the same Alexis Carrel developed a machine for
the sterile perfusion of isolated organs in collaboration with
the famous flyer Charles Lindbergh who tackled the mechanical problems.
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Yol. 8 (1969) No. 2
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