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Book Review Inductively Coupled Plasmas in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. Edited by A. Montaser and D. W. Golightly

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ganic and organometallic applications. These chapters
vary greatly in their usefulness, as can be seen from the
critical appraisal of individual chapters which follows.
Chapter 8 ("B-NMR) concentrates on polyboranes, giving a clear and systematic presentation of the complex
NMR spectroscopic properties of these compounds. By
contrast, in Chapter 10 (13C NMR), an attempt has been
made to summarize an enormous quantity of data. A
purely graphical presentation may be helpful for some
purposes but it precludes access to detailed information.
In the case of coupling constants only a few actual values
are given, though unfortunately marred by an error which
has been pointed out several times before: 'J(I3C,"B) in
[BMe4]" is 39.4Hz, not 22.0 Hz. Insufficient space (28
pages) has been given in Chapter 11 to the important nuclides 29Si,(77Ge), '19Sn and '07Pb. An error from earlier
work remains uncorrected here: 6(Il9Sn) in Sn(C=CH), is
-356.3, not -279. Chapter 12 (I4N and "N NMR) is a
pleasure to read. Here some important relationships between NMR parameters and structure are brought out, attention is given to the growing importance of NMR spectroscopy of solids, and reference is made to numerous recently published papers. On the other hand, in Chapter 13
the reader is in places not very well served, e.g. when 31P
chemical shifts are under discussion. The treatment of
6( 31P) values for phosphorus atoms with coordination
numbers 1 and 2 is very vague. Here the reader would be
well advised to refer instead to the excellent Chapter 3 (or
even Chapter 14) for interpretation purposes. More confusion is added when the compound [tBu-P{Cr(CO),),] is assigned to the group in which phosphorus has the coordination number 2. Compound classes which have already
been covered in detail in earlier review articles are given a
lot of space. In Chapter 14 ( 1 7 0 NMR) scant reference is
made to boron-oxygen compounds, for which a large
number of "0 chemical shifts were reported in the period
1980-83 alone. In Chapter 16 I9F NMR spectroscopy, in
keeping with its relative importance, and in view of the existence of various review articles, some of which are now
quite old, is discussed very briefly. The help which the experimental chemist is given towards interpreting his data is
rather limited. For example, it is stated that in compounds
with the general formula XF, the shielding of the I9F nucleus decreases with increasing n, and that this behavior is
not unlike that of the 31Pshielding in PC13, [PC14]@,PCl,,
and [PCI,]" (even though the shielding increases in this
case!). Chapters 19-21 (110 pages) on the NMR spectroscopy of transition metal nuclides are satisfyingly comprehensive in the information which they give. There is currently an upsurge of interest in this topic, and the data presented here will be of considerable value in helping future
research. The interpretation of NMR parameters for these
nuclides is very complex. It is therefore quite appropriate
in view of the present state of research that in these chapters most of the pages are occupied by data and graphs.
In each chapter the arrangement of the material essentially follows a constant pattern, treating in turn chemical
shifts, coupling constants and relaxation behavior. For
newcomers to the field especially, this makes it easier to
begin using NMR data to obtain information, and this is
especially helpful when one is concerned with the less
common nuclides. The structure of the book as a whole is
similar to that of the work which paved the way in this
field ( R . K . Harris and B. E. Mann (Editors): NMR and the
Periodic Table, Academic Press, London 1978). In this context the striking resemblance between several chapters in
the two books is not solely due to the fact that parts of
Angew. Chem. Inr.
Ed. Engl. 27(1988) No. 10
them have been written by the same authors. Most of the
chapters include references to the applications of NMR
spectroscopy of solids (sometimes under the heading
"Miscellaneous"), but the great upsurge which is occurring
in the development of this technique is not conveyed to the
reader. The large quantity of NMR data from measurements in solution is for the most part clearly presented (in
the form of tables and graphs). The last two chapters (22
and 23) have been included so as to complete the broad
coverage of the book; they deal briefly with NMR spectroscopy in inorganic biochemistry, and with biomedical
aspects. The effort which has been made to soften the
otherwise rather abrupt conclusion of the book by including references to the literature in these two areas makes a
favorable impression.
To cover multinuclear NMR in a single book was a formidable undertaking. The problem of condensing as much
material as possible into a small space (for which even 639
pages is insufficient!), while maintaining the required
standards of quality, topicality and breadth of coverage,
has no perfect solution. Nevertheless, there are grounds
for criticism when the literature coverage in the majority of
the chapters extends only up to mid-1983. The cosmetic
remedy of fitting in individual more recent references afterwards cannot hide this defect. If one regards this book as
an attempt to organize the ever faster growing avalanche of
NMR data into manageable channels, then despite certain
reservations one must on balance give it a positive vote.
The NMR literature market cannot at present offer any
other comparable work. In view of these comments, the
book is definitely a worthwhile purchase as a work of reference for chemists in academic departments and industry,
whether or not NMR spectroscopy applications are in the
foreground of their interests. For both undergraduate and
graduate students too, this book could fill a troublesome
gap, provided that the high price is not prohibitive.
Bernd Wruckmeyer [NB 884 IE]
Laboratorium fur Anorganische Chemie
der Universitat Bayreuth (FRG)
Inductively Coupled Plasmas in Analytical Atomic Spectrometry. Edited by A . Montaser and D. W. Golightly.
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, WeinheimIVCH Publishers,
New York 1987. xxiii, 660 pp., bound, DM 220.00.ISBN 3-527-26529-5/0-89573-334-X
Inductively coupled high frequency plasmas (ICPs),
which were first used in the early sixties as radiation
sources for emission spectrometry, by Greenfield in Great
Britain and by Fassel in the United States, have developed
to become the basis of a powerful analytical method for
multielement determinations. ICP emission spectrometers
are now available from more than fifteen manufacturers
throughout the world. ICPs are also used as atom reservoirs for fluorescence spectrometry, and as ion sources for
mass spectrometry, and systems for these types of measurements are also commercially available. ICP spectrometry
is now used as a routine method in many analytical laboratories, together with other elemental analysis methods such
as atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), X-ray spectrometry, and electrochemical and chromatographic techniques. Its fields of application include biology and medicine, the analysis of ores, minerals, soils and ceramics, environmental analysis, and checking the purity of chemicals
and of metals. This book, which is the second comprehensive treatment of ICP to appear within a short time, follow1387
ing the two-volume work by Boumans on ICP atomic emission spectrometry, therefore meets a considerable need on
the part of analysts. The editors Montaser and Golightly,
by bringing together a group of eminent authors in this
field, have produced an account of the fundamentals of
ICP as a technique of optical emission spectrometry
(OES). The book also deals with the use of ICPs as ion
sources for mass spectrometry and as atom reservoirs for
atomic fluorescence work.
In the introductory chapter (15 pages) a brief account is
given of the important advantages which the introduction
of ICP, compared with other types of electrically generated plasmas, has brought to the analysis of liquids. The
chapters which follow are arranged in four parts. The first
part (304 pages) deals with ICPs as radiation sources for
optical emission spectrometry. This begins with a chapter
on basic plasma spectroscopy rather than on analytical
plasma spectrometry. Next a chapter on emission spectrometers deals with the construction and performance criteria of modern sequential and simultaneous spectrometers, together with trends for their future development. A
further chapter discusses elementary aspects of high frequency generators for I C P spectrometry, and gives characteristic data on plasma torches and nebulizers. The chapter
on the analytical capabilities of ICP deals with optimization techniques such as simplex procedures, the relationship between operating conditions and analytical performance. Limits of detection, quantitative analysis, and calibration in ICP-OES are treated thoroughly. The problems
of choosing suitable spectral lines and of spectral interferences, which are very important in analytical practice, are
clearly and concisely treated in one chapter. In a further
chapter, using analytical results on actinides as an example, it is impressively demonstrated that optical ICP
atomic spectrometry using high resolution spectrometers is
very effective even with difficult matrices. In another
chapter on the spectroscopic properties of the inductively
coupled plasma, the reader is given a clear understanding
and a good review of this aspect of the literature on ICP,
which also is of importance to analytical chemists.
The second part (75 pages), deals with the analytical capabilities of ICPs in fields other than optical emission
spectrometry. The first chapter of this section gives an ac-
count of the principles of atomic fluorescence spectrometry and the most recent results from ICP atomic fluorescence. The chapter on ICP mass spectrometry too gives an
indication of future developments, and provides an insight
into a technique which is now being used more and more
for multielement determinations in the sub-pg/mL range
of concentrations.
The third part (101 pages), on sample introduction, gives
a clear description in three chapters of the various methods for generating aerosols from liquid and solid samples,
and for introducing gases into the ICP. Two further chapters report on important developments such as ICPs with a
gas consumption of less than 2 L/min, and ICPs which operate with gas mixtures and with gases other than argon;
the development of ICPs of medium power (0.6- 1 kW) and
medium gas requirement ( < S L/min), which are now
available from several manufacturers, is briefly touched
on.
In the final part (29 pages) the analytical capabilities of
ICP spectrometry are described. The reader is referred to
important published work in various areas of application.
Also in this part the performance of ICP spectrometry is
compared with that of other atomic spectrometry techniques, such as AAS, D C P (directly coupled plasma) and
X-ray spectrometry, and problem-orientated developments
of ICP-related techniques are described; these topics are
treated in a clear, but quite brief manner. An appendix,
which is especially useful for users of the technique, lists
data on prominent ICP emission lines, as published by
Winge, Peterson and Fassel.
The information which this book on ICP spectrometry
contains will certainly be greatly welcomed by the circle of
analytical chemists, built u p during the past fifteen years,
who now use the technique. It also provides research
scientists engaged in further development of ICP with a
good review of the current state of the art and useful literature references. Because of its presentation and the
amount of detailed information included, the book is a
standard work on this important elemental analysis technique.
J . A . C. Broekaert [NB 890 IE]
Institut fur Spektrochemie,
Dortmund (FRG)
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