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Book Review Infrared Spectra of Adsorbed Species. By L. H. Little supplementary chapters by A. V. Kiselev and V. I

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need no explanation. There are 462 pages, containing almost
1000 examples selected from the literature between 1964 and
1966. The value as specifications for synthesis goes beyond
that of individual cases, and can thus serve as a
welcome stimulus for original work. Embraced are starting
materials, products, and methods spanning the whole of
organic chemistry. It is evident that the synthesis of
carbocyclic and heterocyclic compounds is progressively
gaining in importance. Reading the “Trends in Synthetic
Organic Chemistry” (7 pages, 86 refs.) is particularly stimulating; this contains well-defined novel syntheses. A well
arranged and very detailed subject index (112 pages) considerably assists orientation, especially if the classification
system used is not to the readers’s liking.
It is necessary once agairi to consider whether the mass of
information compiled between the covers of the 21 volumes
would not be even more accessible with the aid of a cumulative index in the form of a punched card register.
S. Hunig
[NB 722 IE]
Hyperfine Interactions. Edited by A . J. Freeman and R. B.
Frankel. Academic Press. New York-London 1967, 1st
Edit., xvi, 758 pages, $ 16.00.
The present book is part of a report of a NATO Advanced
Study Institute meeting held between the 8 and 26 August,
7966, in Aix-en-Provence, France. The reader is spared a
word-for-word rendering in that each lecture has been
rewritten in the form of a readily understandable report after
the meeting. Thus, even the layman can obtain an insight
into the complex material presented.
The book consists of 25 contributions by specialists on
aspects of hyperfine interactions such as nuclear spin resonance, paramagnetic resonance, atomic radiation resonance,
perturbed angle correlations, dynamic polarization and
relaxation, optical hyperfine structure determinations, specific heats of nuclear spin systems, and the Mossbauer effect.
Individual, more theoretical articles concern the HartreeFock theory of the hyperfine interaction in atoms and
magnetic compounds, the calculation of the magnetic hyperfine structure constants of the ground state of light atoms
and also the conductivity electron density and spin density
effects of dislocations and localized moments in metals.
The discussion concentrates on hyperfine interactions in
inorganic solids and in individual atoms. N o description is
given, however, of hyperfine interactions in organic molecules
and radicals, which are important for chemists interested in
analytical aspects. Bleaney presents a didactic introduction
to paramagnetic resonance, Narath to nuclear spin
resonance in solids, Abragam and Kirsch dynamic polarization and relaxation, Mossbauer and Clauser the Mossbauer effect, and Cohen the perturbed angle correlations
of nuclear gamma rays.
Gschwind contributes a more detailed account of the paramagnetic resonance of ions in the excited state, and of
electron spin-nuclear spin double resonance (ENDOR),
Steudel deals with optical hyperfine interaction measurements
using a double Fabry-PBrot interferometer, Budnik, Skalski,
and Shaltiel nuclear resonance in metals, Dekker, de Waard,
Housley, Gonser. and Walker the Mossbauer effect and
Matthias, Kurlsson, and Murnik perturbed angle correlations.
Lounasmaa, Stone, and Lubbers discuss the specific heat,
cooling effects, and orientation of nuclear spin systems.
This conference report provides a wide survey of the current
position and problems of hyperfine interactions in solids,
atoms, and ions and can therefore be confidently recommended to the solid state physicist, the physical chemist, and the
inorganic spectroscopist.
The analyst working with organic materials will find it of
little interest because, as mentioned above, the hyperfine
interactions of organic compounds have been omitted.
F. Kneubiihl
486
W B 707 IE]
Introduction to the Principles of Heterogeneous Catalysis. By
J . M. Thomas and W . J . Thomas. Academic Press. LondonNew York 1967. 1st Edit., x, 544 pp., numerous illustrations and tables, 120 s.
The scientifically very stimulating and technically very
important field of heterogeneous catalysis has been the
subject of several large collective works and a number of
periodical publications (Congress Reports, Advances) during
past decades. For some time, however, no modern monograph
has been published that embraces the overall field. This is all
the more surprising in that research in this sector, both i n
academic and in industrial laboratories, has assumed very
large proportions and is still growing. In addition, universally
applicable results have been obtained in many of the subsidiary fields.
In view of the accumulated literature it is not merely remarkable but also in a sense praiseworthy that the two Welsh
authors, both students of K . W . Sykes. should have undertaken to fill the gap. J. M . Thomas is responsible largely for
the scientific, and W. J. Thomas for the technical chapters.
The authors have succeeded in covering all the important
aspects while still adhering to their avowed principle that
brevity is the key to understanding: Introduction; Adsorption; Experimental Aspects; Pore Structure and Surface;
Lattice Dislocations; Geometric, Electronic and Related
Factors; Selective and Polyfunctional Catalysts; Mechanism
of Typical Reactions; Reactor Design. In all chapters extensive reference is made to the original literature, so that the
work, though intended as a textbook for undergraduates and
young researchers, can also be used as a work of reference.
Naturally, it is possible to disagree on the relative prominence
given to various subjects, e.g. the overemphasis placed o n
adsorption at the expense of mixed catalysts, or the electronic
factor; however, the book presents the most important things
consisely but understandably throughout. The stimulating
effect of such books has been proven by experience, and
Thomas-Thomas will be of incalculable value to all who
work in, or who wish to take up, this field. Printing and
presentation are commensurate with the price and up to the
publisher’s usual standard.
G , - M . Schwab
[NB 706 IE]
Infrared Spectra of Adsorbed Species. By L. H. Little, supplementary chapters by A . V. Kiselev and V. I . Lygin, Academic
Press. London-New York 1966. xii, 428 pages, numerous
illustrations, 100 s.
Infrared Spectroscopy in Surface Chemistry. By M . L. Hair,
Marcel Dekker Inc., New York 1967. xiii, 315 pages,
several illustrations, $ 15.75.
The chemistry of solid surfaces has attracted increasing
attention in recent years, owing largely to the investigation
of heterogeneous catalysis reaction mechanisms and of intermediate products. Quite apart from pure scientific interest
a knowledge of the state of the surface and its reactions is
becoming increasingly important for other investigations, e.g.
the study of pigments and the incorporation of fillers in
polymers. I R spectroscopy furnishes a great deal of information about functional groups o n surfaces, their interaction with adsorbed molecules, and about the groups
formed. The same technique can be applied to the study of
thin metal films and finely divided metals deposited o n
carriers.
Almost simultaneously, two books have appeared which aim
at describing the method, its potentialities, and its limitations,
as well as that which has already been achieved. Comparison
of the two works reveals that Little’s book contains a good
deal more text than is suggested by its extra hundred pages.
Closer line spacing and fuller pages are responsible, but the
penalty is that reading becomes much more tiring. Little
gives a more comprehensive selection of literature references
and includes many papers which contribute to the study of
surface chemistry without I R measurements. Furthermore,
his book reproduces many more spectra. By way of contrast,
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 1 Vol. 7 (1968) J No. 6
Hair attempts t o provide a coherent account at the expens.:
of detail, and evaluates the literature according t o his own
concepts. This latter book is thus easier t o read. Certain
formulations, e.g. covalent -AI=O double bonds (Hair,
p. 166) should be overlooked.
Unhappily, as so often in the past, neither author does
anything like justice t o literature that has appeared in
languages other than English. All the more welcome, then,
that Little has been able to get the Soviet researchers A . V.
Kiselev and V. I. Lygin t o contribute their own wide-ranging
experience and the abundant Russian literature. The use of
IR spectroscopy in the study of surfaces can be traced
back t o work by Terenin in the early nineteen-forties.
As an introduction Hair provides several chapters o n adsorption and I R spectroscopy which Little assumes t o be already
familiar. Little describes the experimental technique in greater
detail and more thoroughly. Both authors give special
treatments of the OH groups on oxide surfaces, above
all on silica, and the surface acidity of silica-alumina
adsorption on zeolites, and the chemisorption of carbon
monoxide o n metals and metal oxides. Little deals in detail
with the adsorption of hydrogen and hydrocarbons. The
literature up t o about 1966 has been taken into account, and
Little appends a list of the most important articles published
after his book had gone t o print.
Both books can be recommended. Hair provides a good
survey of, and the results obtained with, the technique, while
Little gives more information about special problems and is,
H. P. Boehm [NB 719 IE]
moreover, less expensive.
The Palladium-Hydrogen System. By F. A . Lewis, Academic
Press, London-New York 1967, 1st Edit., xii, 17X pp.,
numerous illustrations, 45 s.
The well-known monographs o n hydrogen in metals by
Smith and by Gibb have, t o some extent, been superseded
by recent developments. The present book, by Lewis, reviews
the present state of research specifically in regard t o the
system palladium-hydrogen. This system is of particular
theoretical interest as the prototype of a simple alloy, but
it is also of practical interest as a membrane material for
fuel cells and for the purification and isotopic separation
of hydrogen.
The results of both old and recent work o n the thermodynamic, chemical, mechanical, electrical, and magnetic properties
are presented in a thoroughly comprehensive manner;
separate chapters are devoted t o the absorption of hydrogen
in palladium alloys, t o diffusion, and t o isotopic separation.
A short chapter deals with attempts t o provide a theoretical
insight into hydrogen absorption by means of model
representations.
N o final picture can be expected of a field which is in a state
of such intensive development, with active research being
conducted in numerous laboratories. It is precisely in such
laboratories that this book will be of great help because of
its complete literature survey, a factor which should also
ensure it a wide distribution.
H . Brodowsky
[NB 699 IE]
Fractional Solidification. Vol. 1. Edited by M . Ziefand W . R .
Wilcox. Marcel Dekker. Inc.. New York 1967, 1st Edit.,
xvi, 714 pages, numerous illustrations and tables, $ 28.75.
Research and production processes involving solvent-free
recrystallization from the melt are becoming progressively
more important. The editors, well known from their own
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
/ Vol. 7 (1968) I No. 6
work in this field, and twenty specialists chosen by them have
succeeded in unifying the individual methods of separation
in a n all-embracing work, thus finally closing the gap between
detailed individual works (e.g. about zone melting) and
review articles.
Part I lays down the thermodynamic basis of fractionating
crystallization from the melt, Part 11 deals with laboratory
apparatus (normal solidification, discontinuous and continuous zone melting with modifications, column crystallization, zone reprecipitation as a transition from recrystallization from solution), and Part I11 outlines industrial techniques
(particularly multiple crystallization by means of cooled
drums and the Phillips process). Industrial desalination of
sea water brings us t o the applications section (Part IV),
which deals especially with electronics (semiconductors erc.),
ultrapure pharmaceutical preparations, analysis, and special
techniques. Part V deals briefly with economic aspects.
About 1500 literature references, 40 tables, and 266 illustrations in the form of photographs, technical drawings, or
diagrams ensure comprehensive evaluation of the material.
Part VI consists of a tabular appendix of about 130 inorganic
elements, compounds, and systems (298 references), about
110 organic compounds, individual data for 250 organic
substances (1 26 references), and 71 patents to aid the chemist
[NB 701 IEI
or metallurgist in his investigation. K. M~~~
Soil Biochemistry. Edited by A . D . McLaren and G. H. Peterson. Marcel Dekker Inc.. New York 1967. 1st Edit., xiii,
509 pp.. numerous flgures, V 22.75.
This monograph represents a collective effort by 25 Englishspeaking authors. The book is in three parts: I. Isolation
and characterization of biochemical components of the soil,
i.e. nitrogen compounds, nucleic acids and derivatives, organic
phosphates, carbohydrates, organic acids, and free radicals.
Part 11 deals with metabolisms, energetic relationships such
as photosynthesis, respiration, enzymatic and chemoautotropic reactions, nitrogen-, phosphate-, and sulfur cycles, lignin
degradation and humic acid formation, microbial decomposition of phenol, decomposition of herbicides and surfaceactive agents, and enzyme reactions in the soil. Part 111
presents microbiological and biochemical aspects of the
rhizosphere, and, finally the discussion even extends to the
exploration of the surface of planets.
The number of publications, experimental results, and interpretations in the complex field of soil biochemistry has
become so vast that no individual can now embrace them
all. The authors deserve our gratitude for going t o the trouble
of sifting the literature of the past 70 years (in some parts of
the book up to 1966) and for summarizing and interpreting
2147 publications. The inclusion of not only the Englishlanguage literature but also of important references in other
languages is particularly welcome. The book, which is
entirely up-to-date, introduces the reader to the problems
involved in a succint and pregnant manner.
Despite the number of contributors involved, the book is
written in a remarkably uniform style. Its content is very
well balanced and the work can claim considerable scientific
and didactic merit. The first chapter “Introduction to the
Biochemistry of Terrestrial Soils” could, it is true, have been
omitted without loss, as it contains a n arbitrary and not
always skilful enumeration of a number of processes and
facts which are dealt with again much more soundly in later
chapters. A number of misprints will have t o be eliminated
from subsequent editions.
The two editors are to be warmly congratulated for a book
which is recommended t o all interested in the chemistry
and biology of soil.
F. Schefer
[NB 725 IE]
487
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