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Book Review Infrared Spectroscopy of High Polymers. By R. Zbinden

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BOOK REVIEWS
Anorganische Chemie [Inorganic Chemistry]. By K . A. Hufmann. Edited by U. Hufrnann and W. Riidurff. Verlag
Friedrich Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig 1963. 17th completely revised and extended edit., XI1 + 862 pp., 122 figs.,
10 colored spectra, linen D M 28.- (about S 7.-).
Even the exterior of this new edition of “Hofmann-Rudorff’
differs from its predecessors; the format of the book is
larger, and the typographic appearance has been improved.
The individual chapters are now organized more clearly;
simultaneously, numerous significant transpositions and
revisions have taken place in many sections, with great
benefit to the book as a whole. Numerous illustrations have
been modernized or replaced, without significant increases
in the length of the book. The well proved division into
metals and nonmetals has been retained, and a good supplementary chapter deals with organometallic compounds,
water-like solvents, the solid state, catalysis, molecular
structure, atomic nuclei, and extraterrestial chemistry.
After an introduction comes the discussion of the elements
oxygen and hydrogen and of the properties of water, including osmosis, the ionic theory, the law of mass action and its
applications, followed by sections on the rare gases and the
periodic system, and explanations of ionization, oxidation,
and reduction. Next nitrogen and its compounds and the
Group VI elements and their compounds are discussed. Sections o n atomic structure and the chemical bond follow.
The reviewer suggests that in future editions, atomic structure
and the fundamentals of the chemical bond should be
described immediately after the laws of stoichiometry, for
then numerous phenomena such as oxidation and reduction
and concepts involved in the ionic theory can be explained
and derived in the logical manner.
The treatment of the chemical bond, particularly in complexes, where recourse is made to valence bond methods and
the ligand field theory, is particularly good. The descriptions
of the elements and their compounds are mostly brought up
to date. A few minor errors may be referred to here: nitrous
acid is known in the gaseous - i.e. the free - state; the
so-called stannic acids are not oxide hydrates; the dark red
polyvanadate that occurs transiently o n acidification of
vanadate solutions is not an octavanadate, but probably a
dodecavanadate; the existence of trichromate and tetrachromate ions is very questionable; in the formula Cr 0 5 ,
the ligand occupying the fourth coordination site (ether,
pyridine, ere.) is missing; Mn3Q ions and not M n 0 4 Q are
formed during the oxidation of manganese(I1) sulfate with
peroxodisulfate in the presence of Ag@ ions.
All in all, this is a praiseworthy textbook which will certainly
gain many new friends in addition to its old acquaintances.
0. Glemser
[NB 3541212 IE]
Chemisches Praktikum fur Mediziner und Studierende sonstiger
an Chemie interessierter Wissenschaften (Practical Chemistry for Medical Students and Students of Other Sciences
Affiliated to Chemistry). By R . Schwarz and P . W . Schenk.
Verlag Johann Anibrosius Barth, Leipzig 1964. 13th Edit.,
152 pp., 3 figs., stiff covers, DM 4.20 (about S 1.10).
The group of students for whom this book is intended consists mainly of medicine and biology students. Consequently
the principles of chemical education conveyed - experiments
in the chemistry of the individual elements, wet separation of
cations, anion analysis - are tailored t o fit the needs of this
group. However, there is a lack of experiments acquainting
the student with biochemically important methods of analysis
(e. g. adsorption and extraction, including chromatography,
pH measurements and titrations using the glass electrode,
colorimetric and photographic experiments, ion-exchange
techniques. ere.). Instead of a chapter on the standardization
of sodium hydroxide solutions for titrations with oxalic acid,
Angew. Chern. infernat. Edit.
/
Vol. 4 (1965)
Nu. 6
a short note on commercially available ampoules containing
standardized solutions would have sufficed .- The theoretical discussions are sometimes good (e. g . bases) but often
too short ( e . g . the chemical bond). I t might be more advantageous to omit this chapter on the chemical bond and refer
the student to good textbooks - for it is not intended to spare
the student the study of these - and instead to give a more
profound treatment to topics (e. g. the law of mass action, the
ionic theory, buffers, and pH) that are of prime importance
for medical and biology students. The formula for nitric acid
with two double bonds should be modernized.
Crlrich Schmidt [NB 320/178 IE]
Diuretics. Chemistry and Pharmacology. By G. de Stevens.
Vol. I of the Series: Medicinal Chemistry. Edited by G . de
Stevens. Academic Press, New York-London 1963. 1st Edit.
XI11 + 186 pp., numerous illustrs., linen $7.00.
George de Stevens, who is well known o n account of his fundamental work on diuretics, presents with his monograph on
the pharmacology and chemistry of diuretics the first volume
of a new series o n medicinal chemistry.
The book is divided i n t o nine chapters. Following general
physiological and pharmacological considerations, xanthenes
and pyrimidines, triazines, organomercury compounds, sulfonamides, thiazides and hydrothiazides, aldosterones, and
compounds which d o not belong to any of these classes are
dealt with in seven separate chapters. The final chapter is
devoted to therapeutic applications of diuretics for treatment
of hypertonic disturbances.
The first chapter contains two sections, one on the functions
of the kidneys, and the other on the pharmacological use of
diuretics. The latter section ( 2 pp.) is unfortunately far too
short and does not d o justice to the vast importance of this
field. - The xanthenes and pyrimidines receive attention o n
about 15 pp., the triazines on 6, and the organomercury compounds on 10. In view of the diminished practical importance
of these groups, this treatment is absolutely adequate. Sulfonamides, thiazides, and hydrothiazides are dealt with
thoroughly o n about 70 pp., and the aldosterone derivatives
on about 25, with coverage of all aspects. The concluding
chapter o n the therapeutic applications of diuretics for
reducing high blood-pressure is well written and gives valuable
information and incentives for further work on this extremely
important field of indications.
In contrast to the series “Fortschritte der Arzneimittelforschung” founded in 1959 and the series “Progress in
Medicinal Chemistry” started in 1961, de Stevens appearently
wants to treat a single field of chemico-medical research in
each individual volume. The volumes planned for the future
will sometimes deal with research topics that have so far not
been reviewed comprehensively, and hence the series is to be
welcomed. However, monographs on analgetics and psychopharmaceuticals are stated to be in preparation, and it is
therefore questionable whether this duplicity and overlapping
of topics with analogous articles which have, in some cases,
been published only recently is worthwhile and advantageous.
However, if we are to restrict our criticism t o the present first
volume, then the author/editor is to be commended for his
comprehensive and fine presentation of this difficult material,
and the publishers for the purposeful outlay and orderly
E. Jucker
[NB 329/187 IE]
appearance of the book.
Infrared Spectroscopy of High Polymers. By R. Zbinden.
Academic Press, New York-London 1964. 1st. Edit., XI1 +
264 pp., numerous figures and tables, linen, $9.50.
This book is a valuable aid to chemists and physicists who wish
to apply infrared spectroscopy for studying the structures of
polymers. The first of its five chapters gives a general survey
539
of the fundamentals of the subject matter dealt with in the
subsequent sections. Thereafter, selection rules, the calcuiation ofstructural vibrations, and theinfrared dichroism ofhigh
polymers are discussed in detail. Here some knowledge of the
fundamentals is assumed, and only references to standard
textbooks on this subject are given. The list of references at
the end of each chapter and in the appendix is remarkably
comprehensive, but only goes up to the beginning of 1961.
The section on the analytical applications of infrared spectroscopy to high polymers is unfortunately restricted to 12
pages and deals with relatively trivial examples; it is therefore
not up to the standards of the other chapters. Extension of
this part would be desirable. The parts of spectra used as
illustrations are occasionally unsatisfactory because of poor
measurement technique and reproduction.
Special praise must be given to the complete and comprehensive manner in which the calculation of the normal vibrations
of linear high polymers is derived from theory and illustrated
with examples. To those intending to d o work in this field the
book can be recommended.
H. Giinzler
[NB 3361194 IE]
Recent Progress in Microcalorimetry. By E. Culvet and H . Prnt,
edited and translated from the French by H. A . Skinner.
Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-New York-Paris 1963.
1st Edit., XI1 + 178 pp, numerous illustrs., linen E3.0.0
(about 88.25).
This book is a revised transcription and partly mere translation into English of the volumes “MicrocalorimCtrie; Applications physico-chimiques et biologiques”, Masson Ed.,
Paris 1956, and “Rtcents Progrks en MicrocalorimBtrie”,
Dunod Ed., Paris 1958. It is divided into three parts:
1 .apparatus and microcalorimetric methods,2.physico-chemical applications, and 3. biological applications.
Part 1 gives a terse description of the principle and construction of differential calorimeters of the Tian-Calvet type. The
theory of the gain and loss of heat in calorimeters, the methods
for determining the constants which occur in the equations for
thermal equilibrium, and the evaluation of the thermovoltages registered are lucidly described. In explaining the construction of the calorimeter and its accessories, particular
attention is paid to details which make the calorimeter a
precision instrument. - In the second part of the book, a host
of examples of applications are given: measurements of specific heats, thermal conductivities, heats of mixing, heats of
reaction, e f c . with samples weighing only a few milligrams.
The high sensitivity and precision of the calorimeter are particularly striking in studies of absorption kinetics. - The third
part of the book deals with applications in zoology and
botany; here the thermogenesis of insects and of germinating
seeds are worthy of mention.
The book is a kind of progress report from the Institute of
Microcalorimetry and Thermogenesis in Marseilles (France)
which propagates the use of the microcalorimetric methods,
but it will be of service to anyone interested in the construction and use or improvement of calorimeters of any type.
H. Schreiber
[NB 3191177 IE]
Computation of Molecular Formulas for Mass Spectrometry.
By J. Lederberg. Holden-Day Series in Physical Techniques
in Chemistry. Edited by C. Djerussi. Holden-Day, Inc.,
San Francisco-London-Amsterdam 1964. 1st Edit., VII +
69 pp.. paperback, S 4.25.
High resolution mass spectrometry can be used to determine
the masses of ions with molecular weights of up to about
1000 with a n accuracy of a few thousandths of a mass unit.
This permits to cut down to relatively few the many molecular
formulae which can be assigned to an ion whose molecular
weight is not known with such precision. However, for this
purpose, all the molecular formulae differing in a thousandths
of a mass unit, which are possible for a whole mass number,
must be tabulated. As the molecular weight increases, the
540
number of the molecular formulae also increases, and thus
the size of the tables becomes larger and larger. Lederberg
has found an amazingly simple method of limiting the tables
to 48 pages by taking recourse to a few mathematical operations, which can be mastered in a few minutes. Consequently,
his book becomes an indispensible tool in all laboratories in
which organic compounds are investigated with highresolution mass spectrometers. This verdict of the reviewer
is not at all modified by the fact that the example used for
demonstration on p. 8 is rather unfortunate: a structural
formula is derived for the compound C I H ~ ~ Nwhich
O~
contains two pentavalent carbon atoms, and in which one
carbon atom is missing.
G . Spireller [NB 346/203 IE]
Gas Analysis by Gas Chromatography. By P. G. Jeffery and
F. J. Kipping. International Series of Monographs o n
Analytical Chemistry, Volume 17. Edited by R . Bekher and
L. Gordon. Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-EdinburghNew York-Paris-Frankfurt 1964. 1st Edit., XI + 216 pp.,
68 figures, 1 1 tables, linen E3.10.0 (about $10.00).
Because it is so difficult to survey the literature on gas chromatography, every monograph covering some specialized
section of this field is to be welcomed. However, a monograph
on gas analysis using gas chromatography should fit the specific needs of gas analysis alone and keep any discussion of the
well known fundamentals of gas chromotagraphy as short as
possible. This is not the case in all parts of this book. On the
other hand, a comparison of the value of gas chromatography
with that of other physical and chemical methods of gas analysis would have been useful.
The book is doubtlessly useful for the gas analyst because of
the large number of practical examples; nevertheless it can be
recommended only with some reservations:
The treatment given to methodical questions is often neither
thorough nor critical ( e . g . calibration procedures, sample
injection). The discussion of instrumentation does not d o
enough justice to commercially available apparatus and overlooks special set-ups such as multicolumn chromatographs,
apparatus for reaction gas chromatography, rtr. There are
no numerical data given for the response factors of the mcst
important gases in detectors such as heat conductivitycellsand
flame ionization detectors, and comparative data for the properties of the various detectors such as sensitivity, linear
dynamic range, dead volume, etc. are lacking as well. Too
much space is allocated to argon detectors.
G. S c h o m b i q
[NB 3371195 1EJ
Nucleophilic Substitution at a Saturated Carbon Atom. By
C. A . Bunfon.Volume 1 of the Series: Reaction Mechanisms
in Organic Chemistry. Edited by E. D . Hughes. Elsevier
Publishing Co., Amsterdam-London-New York 1963. 1st
Edit., X + 172 pp., 4 figs. 9 tables, linen DM 22.50 (about
5 5.75).
It is a commonplace statement to remark that the flood of
chemical publications - even on a limited topic - has
nowadays become almost unsurveyable for the individual.
The consequent necessity of procuring information through
review articles has led t o the ever increasing appearance of
specialized series within recent years, so that the publication
of a n e w series of monographs can be justified only by excellent presentation of the subject matter.
The series on mechanisms in organic chemistry initiated in
1963 has made a promising start with this first volume, which
deals with substitutions at satura!ed carbon atoms. The book
is divided into six chapters; three of these deal with the
fundamental phenomena, structural effects, and the stereochemistry of substitutions, while the other three (about onethird of the book) deal with solvent, salt, and catalytic
effects. Here the reader finds all the significant results, and
despite the straightforwardness and lucidity of the discussion,
at least attention is called to controversial interpretations.
The book is therefore not only suitable as a n introduction to
Angew. Chem. internut. Edit.
1 Vol. 4 (1965) 1 No. 6
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