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Book Review Inorganic Chemistry. An Industrial and Environmental Perspective. By T. W. Swaddle

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BOOKS
for the manufacture of resins such as indene-cumraone resins, petroleum-based
resins, dicyclopentadienes, or polyterpenes (14 pp.); 3. resin manufacture including resin modification (21 pp.); 4.
resin structure and properties (34 pp.); 5.
applications (80 pp.); 6. chemical composition and resin selection (6 pp.); 7. quality
and quality assurance (2 pp.); 8. toxicology and legal aspects (4 pp.); 9. economic
aspects (4 pp.). Instead of writing a concise manual, the authors have preferred to
summarize their extensive practical experience. The applications section describes
some specific formulations, and offers advice on incorporating hydrocarbon resins
in formulated products.
In conclusion, this very specialized
book represents a valuable asset for everybody who does not have hands-on experience with hydrocarbon resins and is planning to exploit the potential of hydrocarbon resins in formulated systems or to
solve quality control problems. Unfortunately, there are only 46 literature references, which is not adequate to give access
to more detailed information on specific
topics.
Rolf Miilhaupt
Institut fur Makromolekulare Chemie
der Universitat Freiburg (Germany)
Chemometrics in Environmental Analysis. By .
I
W Einax, H. W Zwanziger
and S. Geiss. WILEY-VCH, Weinheim, 1997. 384 pp., hardcover DM
238.00.-ISBN 3-527-28772-8
Chemometrics is a relatively new discipline that is undergoing great developments, not least in its applications to environmental analysis using automated
multielement and multicomponent instrumental methods. Modern analytical techniques generate a vast amount of data,
and to digest this and arrive at a description of complex environmental processes
requires powerful mathematical and statistical methods. For this reason, chemometrics is important to everyone working in
the area of environmental analysis.
From the first chapter the reader learns
that chemometrics may be defined as a
chemical discipline in which mathematical
and statistical methods are used to design
measurement procedures and experiments
or to choose the best alternatives, and
then to analyze the resulting data so as to
extract the maximum amount of chemical
information. From this definition one can
already form a first impression of the potential applications of chemometrics.
The book is divided into two main
parts. The first part consists of five chap2250
0 WILEY-VCH
ters that are essentially concerned with
methods, dealing with the mathematical
fundamentals of chemometrics and illustrating these with examples from environmental analysis. The second part (four
chapters) is more problem-orientated,
and describes applications of chemometrics, dealing in turn with specific types of
problems related to the interpretation of
analytical data or with sampling strategies.
About one-half of the first part is
devoted to methods for the analysis of
multivariate data and of time series. As
well as graphical methods such as boxwhisker plots, Chernoff diagrams, and
time series plots, the authors describe in
detail the most important mathematical
methods (cluster analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, multivariate variance analysis, smoothing and
filtering, regression and correlation techniques, ARIMA modeling, etc.). The
methods are illustrated and put into a
practical context by including examples of
applications in environmental analysis,
with numerical data (e.g., comparative
studies of analytical results from different
laboratories, or the variation with time of
the nitrate concentration in a drinking
water reservoir). This makes the book especially interesting for the analyst who
has not yet begun to make serious use of
chemometrics.
This first part also familiarizes the reader with all the important aspects of the
statistics of experimental data, factorial
and sequential design of experiments, and
the planning of sampling procedures. Designing a system to give truly representative sampling is a very important aspect of
environmental analysis, and accordingly
it is considered in more detail, with up-todate practical examples, in the second
part.
The second part of the book, entitled
“Case Studies”, has separate sections
devoted to the three main environmental
matrices: atmosphere, hydrosphere, and
pedosphere. These are followed by a further section on the applications of chemometrics in food research and in optimizing
an analytical method. Each section begins
by describing a topical problem in environmental analysis, then explains how
various chemometric methods can be used
to plan the sampling procedure, analyze
the data output, and interpret the results.
The chapter on the pedosphere (soil) contains a discussion of the problems that
arise in studying the deposition of heavy
metals, including the planning of methods
for representative sampling, the minimum
number of samples needed, and comparing the burden of pollutants at different
Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, 1997
sites. The chapter describes how these
problems are approached using chemometric methods such as principal components anaysis, MANOVA, and discrimination analysis. From this part of the
book the reader gains an appreciation of
the scope of chemometrics, and is prompted to refer back to the first part to learn
more about the methods applied here.
Each chapter includes a list of references, extending up to 1995 in most cases.
This should be useful also for readers who
already have a good knowledge of chemometrics.
In summary, this is a very clearly written and easily readable book. The typesetting is clear, including the mathematical
formulas, and the figures help the reader’s
understanding, although they are not of a
uniformly high quality. It can be thoroughly recommended for all analytical
chemists who wish to learn about chemometrics and its applications to environmental analysis, without having to work
only through a rigorous mathematical description of the methods.
Christian Zwiener
Engler-Bunte-Institut der Universitat
Karlsruhe (Germany)
Inorganic Chemistry. An Industrial
and Environmental Perspective. By
I: PV Swaddle. Academic Press, San
Diego, 1997. 428 pp., hardcover
$65.00.-ISBN
0-12-678550-3
Writing a new book on inorganic chemistry is an ambitious task, as there are already such a large number of comprehensive treatments of the subject. Nevertheless, Thomas W. Swaddle has set out to
do just that. He teaches as Professor of
Inorganic Chemistry at the University of
Calgary (Canada), and this is his second
book on the subject. Although it was originally conceived as a textbook for undergraduates, the author intends that in its
now completed form it will also enable a
broader public to appreciate the role of
inorganic chemistry in modern life and its
importance for industry and care of the
environment, as well as being a convenient reference source for scientists, technologists, and students.
The 19 chapters cover a wide range of
topics in general and inorganic chemistry.
As well as explaining important concepts
of thermodynamics and kinetics, the
book contains several rather theoretically
oriented chapters discussing the crystal
structures of metals and salts, the main
types of defects present in non-ideal
solids, and some aspects of electrochemistry and complex chemistry. The author
0570-083319713620-2250 S 17.5O+.SO/O
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1997,36,No. 20
BOOKS
then builds on this basic knowledge by
describing the types of inorganic reactions
that occur and their practical applications, such as the separation and refining
of metals, corrosion and corrosion protection, the principles of batteries and fuel
cells, and the manufacture of industrial
diamonds. The reader is introduced to
topics such as zeolites and their uses in
washing powders and as catalysts, and to
inorganic fertilizers, building materials,
and different types of explosives, to mention just a few examples. Catalytic processes are discussed in detail in the chapters on “Inorganic Solids as Heterogeneous
Catalysts” and on “Organometallics”.
Some examples of other topics covered in
the book are water treatment processes,
the greenhouse effect, the depletion of the
ozone layer caused by the use of CFCs,
and technologies for reducing emissions
of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in flue
gases.
The standard of writing and production
is excellent. The principles are clearly explained and are illustrated by interesting
examples. Consequently the book makes
agreeably easy reading and invites browsing. At the end of each chapter there are
some exercise problems and a very comprehensive list of references for further
reading, enabling the reader to build on
the foregoing material. On the other
hand, the discussions are often rather superficial and seldom go much beyond
providing a basic knowledge. The choice
of topics seems a little haphazard and
could not be described as comprehensive.
The reader seeking an overview of the
most important compounds of a particular element, or of t.he different processes
for manufacturing ii given product, will be
disappointed in many cases. Moreover,
finding such information is made more
difficult by the fact that the material is not
arranged under elements or compound
classes. For examp[e, a-sulfur (SJ, polysulfanes, and po1:ythioacids appear in
Chapter 3 (“Catenation: Inorganic Macromolecules”), oxides of sulfur in Chapter 8
(“The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Pollution”), and sulfates in Chapter 9 (“N, P
and K in Agriculture”). The manufacture
of sulfur and sulfuric acid is described in
Chapter 10 (“Sulfur and Sulfur Compounds”), but the main emphasis in this
chapter is on paper manufacturing processes based on sulfur compounds. Lastly
we find sulfides in Chapter 17 (“Extractive Metallurgy”). Many inorganic substances, including some that are of great
technological importance, are not covered
at all. Thus, although Chapter 3 treats
diamond and the fullerenes in great detail,
some other forms of carbon such as
Angew. Chem. In*. Ed. En$:/. 1997, 36, No. 20
graphite and carbon black are mentioned
only briefly or not at all.
To summarize, this book can provide
the newcomer to inorganic chemistry with
a good first insight into a variety of interesting topics, but it cannot be recommended as a comprehensive textbook nor
as a work of reference.
Steffen Husenzuhl
Degussa AG, Hanau (Germany)
NMR Data Processing. By J: C. Hoch
and A . S. Stern. John Wiley & Sons,
Chichester, 1996. 196 pp., hardcover
& 50.00.-ISBN 0-471-03900-4
Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy generates time domain signals that have to be transformed to obtain
a spectrum. The present book shows in a
convincing manner that there are other
ways of doing this besides the usual Fourier transformation, and that they can
sometimes even yield better results.
The book begins with a flashy introduction about NMR signal processing, featuring Richard Ernst, 26 years before his
Nobel Prize award, performing the first
pulsed Fourier transform NMR measurement. It is pointed out that the signal processing methods now used in multidimensional NMR spectroscopy have only
become possible as a result of the breathtaking development of computer performance during the last 20 years. The time
domain signal or free induction decay
(FID) is then introduced.
Chapter 2 deals with the fundamentals
of digitization in the time and amplitude
domains in the context of Fourier transformation, and introduces all the important concepts such as the Nyquist frequency, aliasing and folding, and ParceVal’s theorem, which are discussed using
only a minimum of mathematics. The fact
that the FID and the spectrum form a
Fourier pair has a number of important
consequences that are discussed. These include, for example, the relationship between sampling rate and spectral range,
the equivalence between phase correction
in the spectrum and a shift of the time
coordinate in the FID, and between convolution of the spectrum and multiplication of the FID by a time-dependent function, and the Hilbert transform which,
when applied to the real component of the
spectrum, allows one to restore the imaginary component (provided that no information has been discarded). This chapter
is really great for the reader who wishes to
understand how Fourier transformation
works, without having to deal with more
mathematics than is absolutely necessary,
0 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Welnheim, 1997
Chapter 3 gives some examples, with
special emphasis on zero-filling and
apodization. The different functions that
can be used, and their relative merits with
regard to resolution versus signal-to-noise
enhancement, are discussed. Some topics
that have only come into prominence
quite recently, such as oversampling, are
also covered. Phase correction, quadrature, baseline, and solvent-induced artifacts are treated at length. However, modified pulse sequences for reducing such
artifacts are only mentioned briefly, as detailed treatments would be beyond the intended scope of the book. There is also a
subchapter dealing with the transformation of multidimensional data.
In Chapter 4 we move on to non-FT
methods of signal processing, which have
now been in use for over ten years. One
such method is linear prediction, which
again is introduced with only a minimum
of mathematics. The underlying principle
is explained and the most important equations are given. The two alternative modes
of linear prediction are described. In the
first of these, linear prediction of the FID
in the forward or backward direction is
used to generate a new FID which, after
conventional Fourier transformation,
yields a spectrum with improved resolution, and possibly also improved signalto-noise ratio. The second mode is the direct evaluation of the spectrum by linear
prediction (parametric approach). The
most important recipes are discussed
(least squares, Hankel-SVD method,
minimum variance estimate, Burg
method). The chapter could profit from
the inclusion of more figures; for example, the regularization could have been
explained more clearly with the help of a
figure. Another criticism is that only one
example is given to show the result of applying linear prediction to a two-dimensional COSY experiment. The fact that
linear prediction is widely used in multidimensional NMR spectroscopy is not obvious from this book.
Chapter 5 is devoted to the maximum
entropy reconstruction method (MaxEnt), an area in which the authors are
themselves actively involved. The method
is introduced using a lot of mathematics in
a concise form. The underlying principle,
in which a synthesized spectrum is fitted
to match the experimentally observed
FID, is clearly explained. The many examples will be a valuable aid for the reader who is mainly interested in the application of the MaxEnt method. In contrast to
apodization methods and Fourier transformation, the MaxEnt method can
achieve an increase in the signal-to-noise
ratio at the same time as jmprovjns the
0570-0833/97/3620-2251 $17.50+.50,0
2251
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