# Book Review Inorganic Chemistry. An Industrial and Environmental Perspective. By T. W. Swaddle

код для вставкиСкачатьBOOKS for the manufacture of resins such as indene-cumraone resins, petroleum-based resins, dicyclopentadienes, or polyterpenes (14 pp.); 3. resin manufacture including resin modification (21 pp.); 4. resin structure and properties (34 pp.); 5. applications (80 pp.); 6. chemical composition and resin selection (6 pp.); 7. quality and quality assurance (2 pp.); 8. toxicology and legal aspects (4 pp.); 9. economic aspects (4 pp.). Instead of writing a concise manual, the authors have preferred to summarize their extensive practical experience. The applications section describes some specific formulations, and offers advice on incorporating hydrocarbon resins in formulated products. In conclusion, this very specialized book represents a valuable asset for everybody who does not have hands-on experience with hydrocarbon resins and is planning to exploit the potential of hydrocarbon resins in formulated systems or to solve quality control problems. Unfortunately, there are only 46 literature references, which is not adequate to give access to more detailed information on specific topics. Rolf Miilhaupt Institut fur Makromolekulare Chemie der Universitat Freiburg (Germany) Chemometrics in Environmental Analysis. By . I W Einax, H. W Zwanziger and S. Geiss. WILEY-VCH, Weinheim, 1997. 384 pp., hardcover DM 238.00.-ISBN 3-527-28772-8 Chemometrics is a relatively new discipline that is undergoing great developments, not least in its applications to environmental analysis using automated multielement and multicomponent instrumental methods. Modern analytical techniques generate a vast amount of data, and to digest this and arrive at a description of complex environmental processes requires powerful mathematical and statistical methods. For this reason, chemometrics is important to everyone working in the area of environmental analysis. From the first chapter the reader learns that chemometrics may be defined as a chemical discipline in which mathematical and statistical methods are used to design measurement procedures and experiments or to choose the best alternatives, and then to analyze the resulting data so as to extract the maximum amount of chemical information. From this definition one can already form a first impression of the potential applications of chemometrics. The book is divided into two main parts. The first part consists of five chap2250 0 WILEY-VCH ters that are essentially concerned with methods, dealing with the mathematical fundamentals of chemometrics and illustrating these with examples from environmental analysis. The second part (four chapters) is more problem-orientated, and describes applications of chemometrics, dealing in turn with specific types of problems related to the interpretation of analytical data or with sampling strategies. About one-half of the first part is devoted to methods for the analysis of multivariate data and of time series. As well as graphical methods such as boxwhisker plots, Chernoff diagrams, and time series plots, the authors describe in detail the most important mathematical methods (cluster analysis, principal components analysis, factor analysis, multivariate variance analysis, smoothing and filtering, regression and correlation techniques, ARIMA modeling, etc.). The methods are illustrated and put into a practical context by including examples of applications in environmental analysis, with numerical data (e.g., comparative studies of analytical results from different laboratories, or the variation with time of the nitrate concentration in a drinking water reservoir). This makes the book especially interesting for the analyst who has not yet begun to make serious use of chemometrics. This first part also familiarizes the reader with all the important aspects of the statistics of experimental data, factorial and sequential design of experiments, and the planning of sampling procedures. Designing a system to give truly representative sampling is a very important aspect of environmental analysis, and accordingly it is considered in more detail, with up-todate practical examples, in the second part. The second part of the book, entitled “Case Studies”, has separate sections devoted to the three main environmental matrices: atmosphere, hydrosphere, and pedosphere. These are followed by a further section on the applications of chemometrics in food research and in optimizing an analytical method. Each section begins by describing a topical problem in environmental analysis, then explains how various chemometric methods can be used to plan the sampling procedure, analyze the data output, and interpret the results. The chapter on the pedosphere (soil) contains a discussion of the problems that arise in studying the deposition of heavy metals, including the planning of methods for representative sampling, the minimum number of samples needed, and comparing the burden of pollutants at different Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, 1997 sites. The chapter describes how these problems are approached using chemometric methods such as principal components anaysis, MANOVA, and discrimination analysis. From this part of the book the reader gains an appreciation of the scope of chemometrics, and is prompted to refer back to the first part to learn more about the methods applied here. Each chapter includes a list of references, extending up to 1995 in most cases. This should be useful also for readers who already have a good knowledge of chemometrics. In summary, this is a very clearly written and easily readable book. The typesetting is clear, including the mathematical formulas, and the figures help the reader’s understanding, although they are not of a uniformly high quality. It can be thoroughly recommended for all analytical chemists who wish to learn about chemometrics and its applications to environmental analysis, without having to work only through a rigorous mathematical description of the methods. Christian Zwiener Engler-Bunte-Institut der Universitat Karlsruhe (Germany) Inorganic Chemistry. An Industrial and Environmental Perspective. By I: PV Swaddle. Academic Press, San Diego, 1997. 428 pp., hardcover $65.00.-ISBN 0-12-678550-3 Writing a new book on inorganic chemistry is an ambitious task, as there are already such a large number of comprehensive treatments of the subject. Nevertheless, Thomas W. Swaddle has set out to do just that. He teaches as Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at the University of Calgary (Canada), and this is his second book on the subject. Although it was originally conceived as a textbook for undergraduates, the author intends that in its now completed form it will also enable a broader public to appreciate the role of inorganic chemistry in modern life and its importance for industry and care of the environment, as well as being a convenient reference source for scientists, technologists, and students. The 19 chapters cover a wide range of topics in general and inorganic chemistry. As well as explaining important concepts of thermodynamics and kinetics, the book contains several rather theoretically oriented chapters discussing the crystal structures of metals and salts, the main types of defects present in non-ideal solids, and some aspects of electrochemistry and complex chemistry. The author 0570-083319713620-2250 S 17.5O+.SO/O Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1997,36,No. 20 BOOKS then builds on this basic knowledge by describing the types of inorganic reactions that occur and their practical applications, such as the separation and refining of metals, corrosion and corrosion protection, the principles of batteries and fuel cells, and the manufacture of industrial diamonds. The reader is introduced to topics such as zeolites and their uses in washing powders and as catalysts, and to inorganic fertilizers, building materials, and different types of explosives, to mention just a few examples. Catalytic processes are discussed in detail in the chapters on “Inorganic Solids as Heterogeneous Catalysts” and on “Organometallics”. Some examples of other topics covered in the book are water treatment processes, the greenhouse effect, the depletion of the ozone layer caused by the use of CFCs, and technologies for reducing emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in flue gases. The standard of writing and production is excellent. The principles are clearly explained and are illustrated by interesting examples. Consequently the book makes agreeably easy reading and invites browsing. At the end of each chapter there are some exercise problems and a very comprehensive list of references for further reading, enabling the reader to build on the foregoing material. On the other hand, the discussions are often rather superficial and seldom go much beyond providing a basic knowledge. The choice of topics seems a little haphazard and could not be described as comprehensive. The reader seeking an overview of the most important compounds of a particular element, or of t.he different processes for manufacturing ii given product, will be disappointed in many cases. Moreover, finding such information is made more difficult by the fact that the material is not arranged under elements or compound classes. For examp[e, a-sulfur (SJ, polysulfanes, and po1:ythioacids appear in Chapter 3 (“Catenation: Inorganic Macromolecules”), oxides of sulfur in Chapter 8 (“The Atmosphere and Atmospheric Pollution”), and sulfates in Chapter 9 (“N, P and K in Agriculture”). The manufacture of sulfur and sulfuric acid is described in Chapter 10 (“Sulfur and Sulfur Compounds”), but the main emphasis in this chapter is on paper manufacturing processes based on sulfur compounds. Lastly we find sulfides in Chapter 17 (“Extractive Metallurgy”). Many inorganic substances, including some that are of great technological importance, are not covered at all. Thus, although Chapter 3 treats diamond and the fullerenes in great detail, some other forms of carbon such as Angew. Chem. In*. Ed. En$:/. 1997, 36, No. 20 graphite and carbon black are mentioned only briefly or not at all. To summarize, this book can provide the newcomer to inorganic chemistry with a good first insight into a variety of interesting topics, but it cannot be recommended as a comprehensive textbook nor as a work of reference. Steffen Husenzuhl Degussa AG, Hanau (Germany) NMR Data Processing. By J: C. Hoch and A . S. Stern. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1996. 196 pp., hardcover & 50.00.-ISBN 0-471-03900-4 Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy generates time domain signals that have to be transformed to obtain a spectrum. The present book shows in a convincing manner that there are other ways of doing this besides the usual Fourier transformation, and that they can sometimes even yield better results. The book begins with a flashy introduction about NMR signal processing, featuring Richard Ernst, 26 years before his Nobel Prize award, performing the first pulsed Fourier transform NMR measurement. It is pointed out that the signal processing methods now used in multidimensional NMR spectroscopy have only become possible as a result of the breathtaking development of computer performance during the last 20 years. The time domain signal or free induction decay (FID) is then introduced. Chapter 2 deals with the fundamentals of digitization in the time and amplitude domains in the context of Fourier transformation, and introduces all the important concepts such as the Nyquist frequency, aliasing and folding, and ParceVal’s theorem, which are discussed using only a minimum of mathematics. The fact that the FID and the spectrum form a Fourier pair has a number of important consequences that are discussed. These include, for example, the relationship between sampling rate and spectral range, the equivalence between phase correction in the spectrum and a shift of the time coordinate in the FID, and between convolution of the spectrum and multiplication of the FID by a time-dependent function, and the Hilbert transform which, when applied to the real component of the spectrum, allows one to restore the imaginary component (provided that no information has been discarded). This chapter is really great for the reader who wishes to understand how Fourier transformation works, without having to deal with more mathematics than is absolutely necessary, 0 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Welnheim, 1997 Chapter 3 gives some examples, with special emphasis on zero-filling and apodization. The different functions that can be used, and their relative merits with regard to resolution versus signal-to-noise enhancement, are discussed. Some topics that have only come into prominence quite recently, such as oversampling, are also covered. Phase correction, quadrature, baseline, and solvent-induced artifacts are treated at length. However, modified pulse sequences for reducing such artifacts are only mentioned briefly, as detailed treatments would be beyond the intended scope of the book. There is also a subchapter dealing with the transformation of multidimensional data. In Chapter 4 we move on to non-FT methods of signal processing, which have now been in use for over ten years. One such method is linear prediction, which again is introduced with only a minimum of mathematics. The underlying principle is explained and the most important equations are given. The two alternative modes of linear prediction are described. In the first of these, linear prediction of the FID in the forward or backward direction is used to generate a new FID which, after conventional Fourier transformation, yields a spectrum with improved resolution, and possibly also improved signalto-noise ratio. The second mode is the direct evaluation of the spectrum by linear prediction (parametric approach). The most important recipes are discussed (least squares, Hankel-SVD method, minimum variance estimate, Burg method). The chapter could profit from the inclusion of more figures; for example, the regularization could have been explained more clearly with the help of a figure. Another criticism is that only one example is given to show the result of applying linear prediction to a two-dimensional COSY experiment. The fact that linear prediction is widely used in multidimensional NMR spectroscopy is not obvious from this book. Chapter 5 is devoted to the maximum entropy reconstruction method (MaxEnt), an area in which the authors are themselves actively involved. The method is introduced using a lot of mathematics in a concise form. The underlying principle, in which a synthesized spectrum is fitted to match the experimentally observed FID, is clearly explained. The many examples will be a valuable aid for the reader who is mainly interested in the application of the MaxEnt method. In contrast to apodization methods and Fourier transformation, the MaxEnt method can achieve an increase in the signal-to-noise ratio at the same time as jmprovjns the 0570-0833/97/3620-2251 $17.50+.50,0 2251

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