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Book Review IntegralStructural Polymer Foams. Technology Properties and Applications. Edited by G. Henrici-Oliv and S

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specific compounds covered in the volume. For those developing a new EIA method, this volume provides a variety of approaches to immunoassay and may be a suitable
starting point for the development of a new assay. Workers
unfamiliar with immunochemistry may find this volume
difficult to read and should see chapter 2.7 of volume I, if
not a general textbook description of the science involved
in order to be familiar with some of the terminology
The appendix to this volume contains lists of symbols,
quantities, units and constants; abbreviations for chemical
and biological compounds; and formulae useful in spectrophotometry. It is not as extensive as in previous volumes.
Anyone regularly using immunoassay methods in their
work should have this book. Those needing to understand
the nature and application of EIA and the practical aspects involved would d o well to read part o r all of volume
Mark A . Findeis, George M . Whitesides [NB 787 IE]
Harvard University, Department of Chemistry
Cambridge, MA 02 138 (USA)
Infegral/Structural Polymer Foams. Technology, Properties
and Applications. Edited by G. Henrici-Olive and S. 01ive. Springer, Berlin 1986. xxii, 295 pp., bound, D M
198.00.- ISBN 3-540- 15038-2
Integral polymer foams, o r structural polymer foams (these
being the names used in Europe and in the USA respectively), have a cellular structure, with the density increasing outwards from the core to a rigid skin, thus imitating
the structure of wood o r bone. Integral polymer foams are
often used as a wood substitute.
F. A . Shutov and many other authors from Germany, the
USA and elsewhere were involved in putting together this
very carefully written book. It deals with the basic relationships between the morphology and properties o n the one
hand, and the formulating, the equipment and its setting
up, and the manufacturing variables on the other. The applications are discussed, together with a summary of the
molding of the materials and marketing problems. An economic analysis of commercial processes for marketable
materials is also included.
The book deals with the starting materials, the technology of integral polymer foams, and applications using polyurethanes, polystyrenes, polyvinyl chloride, polyolefins,
ABS copolymers, polyphenylene oxides, polycarbonates,
polyamides, polyesters, polyacetals, polyimides, epoxides,
phenyl resins, and other starting materials. It ends with a
chapter on rigidity calculations, molding techniques, and
considerations affecting manufacturers and users.
Useful features are the numerous figures illustrating
equipment, the engineering drawings, flow diagrams and
schematic diagrams, together with detailed indexes of
manufacturers, processes, products, abbreviations, a contents list, and an excellent subject index.
The book is suitable both for those concerned with the
production of these materials and for users, and also for
students of the science, technology and applications of polymers.
Frank Wingler [NB 785 IE]
Central Research Laboratory,
Bayer AG, Leverkusen (FRG)
Angew. Chem. Inr. Ed. Engl. 26 (1987) No. 4
Radicals in Organic Synthesis: Formation of Carbon-Carbon Bonds. By B. Giese. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1986.
XIII, 294 S., Paperback, $ 25.00.--ISBN 0-08-032494-0
During the last decade organic free-radical chemistry has
undergone a remarkable metamorphosis from a rather prosaic area of limited utility for the construction of carboncarbon bonds, except in polymers, to one of major synthetic importance with methods capable of providing chemo-, regio- and stereo-selectivity far beyond the most optimistic expectations of early workers in the field. Professor Giese, one of those who has played a significant role in
bringing about these developments, now provides a timely
account of the mechanistic basis and synthetic applications of free-radical methods, abundantly illustrated with
examples from the recent literature.
The book opens with a short introduction in which well
earned credit is rightfully accorded to those physical-organic chemists whose studies in this area laid that kinetic
and mechanistic base upon which the present cornucopia
of synthetically useful methods so firmly rests. The main
substance of the book is contained in the following four
long chapters, each of which deals with a major topic and
is subdivided into a number of smaller sections.
In the first of these chapters (Basic Principles) the subsections cover general aspects of syntheses with radicals,
elementary reaction steps between radicals and non-radicals, and the comparison of radicals and ions in synthesis.
The Author wisely advises the reader to study this chapter
carefully since an understanding of the factors which affect the relative reactivities of radicals is essential to the
successful application of radical reactions in synthesis.
This point is nicely exemplified by a thorough examination
of the way in which a knowledge of the rate constants for
the individual steps in the reaction of alkyl halides with
activated olefins in the presence of trialkylstannane allows
the choice of optimum experimental conditions. Another
particularly useful topic in this chapter deals with the frontier-orbital approach to radical addition processes.
The next chapter provides a comprehensive account of
the intermolecular formation of aliphatic carbon-carbon
bonds. It is mainly devoted to addition processes subdivided according to the nature of the reagent (tin hydrides,
mercury hydrides, etc.) which reacts with the adduct, but
there is also a small section covering synthetic applications
of radical-radical reactions. Pleasing features of this and
following chapters are the diversity and number of illustrative examples, drawn for the most part from the very recent literature. Indeed dramatic evidence of the level of
current activity in this area is provided by the fact that 55%
of the 250 or so papers cited in this chapter have been published during the last six years.
The proportion of very recent papers cited is even higher
in the next chapter which deals with intramolecular formation of aliphatic carbon-carbon bonds. The many examples in this chapter of the formation of bi- or tri-cyclic ring
systems, often related to such important natural products
as triquinanes, cephems, and pyrrolizidine alkaloids,
clearly shows why this radical methodology is currently attracting so much interest. By comparison the formation of
bonds to aromatic systems is somewhat neglected. However, chapter 5 which deals with this topic, indicates the potential synthetic utility of SRNlreactions, of additions involving aryl radicals, and of homolytic substitution in both
aromatic and heteroaromatic systems.
The last chapter (Methods of Radical Formation) is
quite different from those that precede it. It does not provide a full discussion of the ways in which radicals can be
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