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Book Review Interfacial Phenomena. By J. T. Davies and E. K. Rideal

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two different polysaccharides, and by the numerous products
which contaminate it. I t is therefore to be welcomed that a
volume on starch has been published in the series o n “Methods in Carbohydrate Chemistry”. Sixty-one authors combine
to discuss the entire field in six chapters: 1. Production of
starch and its fractions; 2. Chemical analysis; 3. Physical analysis; 4. Microscopy; 5 . Degradation reactions; and 6. Derivatives and modifications (oxidation products).
A great advantage of the book is that the individual sections
have been written by acknowledged experts and that the
practical procedures given can be repeated without reference
to further literature. However, the divison into very short contributions has also some disadvantages which cannot be overlooked. For example, there is unavoidably a lack of objectivity, since understandably, every contributor places his method in the forefront. One result of this is that, as in the volume
on cellulose, German publications are hardly mentioned, although this would in fact be highly justified. The uniformity
also suffers as a result of the book having so many authors;
thus, sometimes only starch is discussed, and at other times
only amylose and amylopectin are considered, without any
recognizable organizing principle. This finds its expression in
the highly differentiated and frequently inadequate characterizations given; data o n the degree of degradation effected by
the individual reactions or o n the characterization by viscosity measurements throughout would greatly simplify use of
the volume.
The treatment of the physical methods does not appear to be
very fortunate; the basic priniples of diffusion, light scattering,
and ultracentrifugation are described, topics which can be read
up in many monographs, but practically no examples are
given. It would be more important for the reader if tables of
substances that have been investigated by these methods were
compiled.
The book is suitable as a guidebook for introductory preparative work in the field of starch. For more intensive work on
the subject, other monographs or original publications must
be consulted.
E. Husemnnn [NB 282/140 IE]
Complexation in Analytical Chemistry. A Guide to the
Critical Selection of Analytical Methods Based on Complex Formation Reactions. By A . Ringborn. Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry and
its Applications, Vol. XVI. Edited by P.J. Elving and I . M.
Kolrhoff: Interscience Publishers, a Division of John Wiley
& Sons, New York-London 1963. 1st Edit., x + 395 pp.,
numerous illustrations and tables, linen S15.00.
This excellent book by the well-known Finnish analyst deals
with complex formation in aqueous solution using a theoretical approximation which permits simple prediction of important quantitative data with sufficient accuracy to satisfy
the practitioner, e.g. on the most favorable experimental conditions, on the effect of interfering side-reactions in conventional analytical procedures, or on suitable methods for solving a particular analytical problem. Here the concept of “complex” is used in a rather broad sense and encompasses inter
nlia acids and bases as well. Complex formation is discussed
with regard to masking, complexometric titrations, acid-base
titrations, ion exchange, extraction, and electrochemical and
photometric analysis. In these sections the theoretical basis
of each method is discussed without giving comprehensive
literature surveys or special working procedures. The application of the approximation method is illustrated by numerical examples. An appendix comprising eighty pages contains
stability constants e f c .
For the analyst who has a good knowledge of the theory of
aqueous electrolyte solutions, this very valuable book will
help him to avoid much experimental groundwork in appraising any specific analytical procedure. For those who are
less familiar with the field, especially students, i t will serve as
a n easily inteiligible introduction to the subject, since the text
is lucid and readily comprehensible.
We/-rterFischer [N B 243/ 10 I I€]
Angew. Cheni. interncrt. Edit. / Vol. 4(1965)
No. 3
Interfacial Phenomena. By J . T. Davies and E. K . Riderr/.
Academic Press, New York-London 1963. 2nd Edit., viii
+ 480 pp., numerous illustrations and tables, linen $15.00.
This book deals with the phenomena associated with the interfaces between non-miscible liquids, between liquids and gases,
and between solids. The treatment is intelligible even to those
who are not experts in this field, and the text is supplemented
by abundant references; it is directed mainly at chemists and
biologists. The principal theme is about the fundamental
problems of interfacial phenomena; the more technical aspects
of the subject fade somewhat into the background. Theory
and experimental methods are discussed in detail. Separate
chapters are devoted to electrostatic and electrokinetic
phenomena, adsorption at interfaces, the properties of
monomolecular layers (including the damping of waves),
reactions at interfaces, and diffusion through interfaces. The
final chapter deals with the most important properties of disperse systems and with adhesion insofar as they are related to
the fundamentals disclosed earlier in the book. This chapter
includes a discussion of aerosols, emulsions and suspensions,
and phenomena such as foaming and lubrication, and also
wetting problems are analysed. A . Snupe [ N B 272/129 I E ~
Interpretation of Mass Spectra of Organic Compounds. By H .
Budzikiewicr, C . Djernssi, and D . H. Williams. Holden-Day,
Inc.,SanFrancisco 1964. 1st Edit., xiii+ 271 pp., numerous
illustrations, linen $8.75.
The impetus for the publication of this book came f r o m
the papers (over fifty in number) which appeared over
somewhat less than three years. In these papers Djercrs.,i
and Budzikiewicz have discussed their work on mass spectrometric investigations of organic compounds. The book is
directed exclusively towards the organic chemists, and typical mass spectrometric fragmentations, e.g. of alcohols,
ethers, thiols, carbonyl compounds, amines, amides, halides,
and nitriles, are described i n detail with recourse to the
complete literature. The sections on heterocyclic and aromatic compounds are particularly good.
The only departure from the general approach adopted in the
book is the too detailed discussion of a few highly specialized
classes of compounds (cyclic ketones and amides). The sections o n tobacco alkaloids and steroids are superfluous, since
the same authors have announced their intention to publish
separate books on these subjects. However, it might have
been expected that the pioneer work by Stenhagen and R~vknge
would have been discussed more thoroughly.
In order to give as uniform a presentation of fragmentation
reactions as possible, the concept is adopted at the outset
that in compounds containing a hetero-atom, the electron
which is split off during ionization is removed only from the
hetero-atom. Although this is usually true for simple molecules, the validity of this assumption cannot be generalized,
particularly for larger molecules. The attempt to explain
all fragmentations using this scheme leads to reaction
mechanisms such as that given on page 5 where an electron
pair and a single electron inexplicably migrate in the same
direction, or to the postulation of degradation reactions
(p. 90, decomposition of compound LI) for which simpler explanations are at hand (cf. H . Audier, M . Fetiron, and W .
Vetter, Bull. SOC.chim. France 1963, 1971).
The arguments presented in the text are supplemented by a
wide selection of mass spectra. A short subject index provides
an aid to rapid reference.
G , Spite,/er [N B 252/ 1 10 1El
Chemical Kinetics of Gas Reactions. By V . N . Kondmt’ev,
translated from the Russian by J. M . Crabtree and S . N .
Ctnruthers, edited by N. B . Sloter. Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-New York-Paris 1964. 1st Edit., xi + 812 pp.,
200 figs., 62 tables, linen 43.5.0 (about $15.00).
The kinetics of chemical reactions in the gas phase has made
tremendous theoretical advances and has been applied t 3
various new fields within recent years. Theoretical treatment
267
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