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Book Review Introduction to Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. (Series Analytical Spectroscopy Library Vol. 3.). By G. L

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The author also uses apt and racy quotations to break down
any atmosphere of authority other than that based on facts
(although for some tastes these may contain too many Americanisms). In this way the previously tiresome duty of doing
exercises is transformed into a welcome activity.
In his 70 exercises, many of which are very tough nuts to
crack, the author covers a remarkably wide range of topics
in organic chemistry. In the answers he analyzes the basic
essentials of problems that are concerned with stereochemistry, mechanisms, spectroscopy, and especially synthesis. By
including many references he encourages the reader to follow
u p each exercise by looking into the problem in more detail
with the help of the original literature, and to form his o r her
own opinion on the basis of the experimental facts. This is
definitely to be recommended, since the author also interprets observations for which the original papers offer no
explanation. In the interests of topicality he even exposes
himself to the risk of being overtaken by events. This i s the
case, for example, in Exercise 7, which concerns an unsuccessful attempt to synthesize compound 246. This compound
has since been successfully prepared (Am.
.I
Chem. SOC.109
(1 987) 2857), and the author’s speculations concerning the
thermal decomposition of 246 (p. 105) can now be compared
with the actual behavior of 246.
It is not unreasonable to recognize in the exercises the
author’s favorite hobby-horses, and also the school of chemistry from which he comes. There one often works with numerical values, in order to at least arrive at a qualitative
understanding, if a quantitative treatment is not possible.
This philosophy has prompted the author to include an appendix in which are tabulated bond enthalpies, stabilization
energies, strain energies, the dependence of equilibrium ratios and product ratios on the difference in free enthalpies
and free activation enthalpies respectively, and other quantities, all of which one often needs but never has to hand. The
widespread use of kinetics, which is generally too little used
in organic chemistry, and which the author therefore actively
promotes, is again a feature carried over from his training.
However, in accordance with his present research interests
the majority of the exercises are concerned with problems of
synthesis, especially natural products syntheses involving
tricky stereochemical requirements. Several of these relate to
natural products that have only recently been isolated, and
thus the synthetic routes suggested in the answers are still
awaiting experimental verification.
However, into this wine one must now pour a little water.
There are a considerable number of errors, including some
which alter the meaning, and some of the interpretations can
be countered by alternatives that are at least equally valid.
Here are some samples to illustrate these points: In Answer 3
(p. 90) formulas 3 and 205 d o not match up with the problem
(p. 5). In Answer 6 (p. 102) the word “Tautomerie” in the 5th
line should read “Mesomerie”. The suggestion for converting 248 into 12a and 12b (Answer 7, p. 106) seems very
unlikely. In Problem 22 (p. 23) only the initiated are likely to
realize that P(cyclo-C,H
actually means HP(cyc10C,H, ,)z. The explanations for the formation of the dibromide 75 from 403 (Answer 33, p. 165) and of the lactones 183
and 184 (Answer 7, pp. 247, 248) violate the principle of
Occam’s Razor. A carbon atom is missing from the precursor of 114 (Answer 44, p. 188). On p. 60 (Problem 5 5 ) reference is made to Perylen, but in the answer (p. 210) we instead
find “Piperylen”. In the preparation of 177 (Answer 66,
p. 245) the final step requires 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran, not cyclohexene. In Answer 69 (pp. 254 f.) the configurations in
formulas 615-617 are incorrect, causing confusion. Since
the book is intended primarily for advanced readers (final
Angrw. C‘hrm. hi.Ed. Engl. 29 (1990) No. 6
$2
year undergraduates and graduate students ), any compromise in the care of presentation detracts from the aims of the
book as a learning aid. In the preface the author playfully
lays the blame for any remaining errors onto his friend who
has read the proofs. With a wink, one should compare this
with the principle followed by the author’s teacher, that in
publications no part of the task should be left to chance, least
of all to a friend. Lastly, a word of criticism to the publishers:
the inadequate standard of production of the book means
that the frequent leafing to and fro between the problem and
answer sections soon leads to loose pages.
However, only he who never attempts anything makes no
mistakes. With this motto in mind, the book’s shortcomings
need to be set against the gain in knowledge and pleasure
afforded by this “Denksport”. The result of this is a balance
well on the positive side, and therefore every advanced student of organic chemistry is warmly recommended to carefully work through the book. Moreover, the price does not
present a serious obstacle to buying one’s personal copy.
Manfred Christ1 [NB 101 3 IE]
Institut fur Organische Chemie
der Universitlt Wurzburg (FRG)
Introduction to Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission
Spectroscopy. (Series: Analytical Spectroscopy Library,
Vol. 3.). By G. L. Moore. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1989.
340 pp., hardcover, DFI 190.00.-ISBN 0-444-43029-6
This book of 15 chapters deals with the basic principles
and analytical capabilities of optical emission spectroscopy
using a n inductively coupled radiofrequency plasma (ICPOES). It is practically orientated, and provides the analyst in
a straightforward way with the knowledge needed for optimizing the variables, recognizing sources of systematic errors, and performing analyses. The book is therefore intended mainly for technicians in analytical laboratories. The
author has successfully translated his experience in emission
spectroscopy into a lively and readily understandable, but
nevertheless accurate, account of the subject.
The first chapter treats atomic spectra and classical spectroscopic analysis, with special emphasis on the capabilities
of all the different types of excitation sources that are now
available for emission spectroscopy (electric arcs, spark discharges, glow discharges, lasers, microwave plasmas). The
account of the development of the ICP source and of the
excitation mechanisms is limited to that needed for optimizing the adjustment of the ICP and performing ICP analyses.
The following chapter is concerned mainly with the design of
optical spectrometers for both sequential and simultaneous
analysis, and with their performance data. Generators for
ICP spectroscopy are treated only briefly, whereas the various alternative spectrometer arrangements in commercial instruments are clearly described in detail.
In the chapter on the analytical performance characteristics of ICP-OES, the method is compared with atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and
DCP-OES (DCP = direct current plasma). The capabilities
of ICP sources with low gas throughput and working with
organic solutions are also discussed. The chapter on nebulization techniques describes the use of pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulizers for producing aerosols, and techniques for
working with microsamples. The reader is referred to relevant literature, including recently published work.
The chapters that follow are concerned more with matters
of practical detail. The chapter on sample preparation tech-
VCH VerlugsgesellschuftmbH. 0-6940 Weinheim, 1990
oS70-US33l90lOn(~6-07(~3
8 03.50f .25KJ
703
niques is concerned with digestion and extraction methods
for multielement analyses, the decomposition of organic matrices, and conventional methods such as acid digestion at
both atmospheric and high pressures; also discussed are sintering techniques, fusion with fluxes and microwave digestion. Special attention is given to digestion methods for geological samples.
The chapter on alternative techniques for sample introduction describes the capabilities of the hydride method and
of electrothermal vaporization, of the direct introduction of
powders in a gas jet- of techniques using suspensions, of
direct sample insertion and of spark ablation. In the chapter
on quantitative analysis by emission spectroscopy, methods
of calibration using synthetic standards, certified reference
materials, and standard addition are described. The meanings of the terms detection limit, determination limit and
precision are explained. In describing the various analytical
applications of ICP-OES, environmental analysis receives
relatively little attention, but this is compensated by the detailed discussions of development trends in on-line analysis,
automation of sample handling, etc.
The discussion of random and systematic errors is clear
and straightforward. The usual statistical test procedures are
described, as also is the importance of the spectral background and the methods used to measure it. The use of an
internal standard is not so necessary in ICP-OES as in arc
and spark emission spectroscopy, with which the author is
equally familiar, but nevertheless it can be useful in ICP-OES
for correcting fluctuations in the rate of sample introduction,
especially for high concentrations.
In the chapter on optimization of the operating variables,
the several different versions of the simplex procedures are
described. Here the author makes full use of the experience
gained from his own work, and presents this in a clearly
understandable form. A simple computer program for simplex optimization is also given.
The most complex problem encountered in the analysis of
real samples is that of interferences and the choice of suitable
emission lines. Nebulization interferences and matrix effects
arising from the plasma are briefly described. The relationship between interferences and optimization of variables is
discussed with regard to source power and height of observation. The analytical errors caused by background and interfering lines depend critically on the spectrometer resolution
achieved in practice. This dependence on resolution, although understood, is often complicated, and instead of
treating it in detail the reader is referred to relevant literature.
The chapter on combined techniques, in which ICP-OES
is coupled to various other analytical methods, describes in
particular the coupling to electrothermal vaporization and
the ICP-mass spectometry technique. The power of detection, the effects of other elements on the observed signals and
the spectral interferences which occur in ICP-MS for the
lighter elements are critically discussed.
The book is especially suitable as an introduction and
learning aid for practical ICP spectroscopy in the laboratory,
and it contains an adequate number of relevant literature
references for this purpose. For practical work it would perhaps also have been useful to include data on emission lines
commonly used in ICP-OES. The spectroscopic fundamentals can be found in the standard works by Boumans and
Monfaser. This book by Moore is likely to be of special
interest to technicians and geology students, since it contains
more of relevance for these groups than for environmental
analysts or users in the ultra-pure chemicals or biological
fields, a fact which is not surprising in view of the author’s
704
0 VCH
VerluRsResellschaft mhH, 0-6940 Weinheim, I990
own field of work. Thus, for example, there are no chapters
on the problems of trace analysis in relation to reagent purity
and purification, on working in dust-free environments, nor
on blanks and their relationship to ambient concentrations.
The book makes easy reading and has a pleasing format. It
will undoubtedly find a lot of use in the laboratory and in the
vicinity of the ICP spectrometer. For many newcomers to
ICP-OES as a modern multielement analytical technique it
will ease their introduction to the subject.
Jose A . C. Broekaert [NB 1036 IE]
Institut fiir Spektrochemie
Dortmund (FRG)
Photoinduced Electron Transfer. Parts A-D. Edited by M.A.
Fox and M . Chanon. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1988. Part A:
Conceptual Basis. xviii, 640 pp., DFI 360.00.--ISBN
0-444-871 22-5; Part B: Experimental Techniques and
Medium Effects. xviii, 748 pp., DFI 410.00.-ISBN 0444-871 23-3; Part C: Photoinduced Electron Transfer Reactions-Organic Substrates. xviii, 754 pp., DF1410.00.--ISBN 0-444-87124-1 ; Part D : Photoinduced Electron
Transfer Reactions-Inorganic
Substrates and Applications. xviii, 790 pp., DFI 425.00.-ISBN 0-444-871 25-X,
hardcover, set: DFI 1350.00.--ISBN 0-444-87121-7
The type of elementary reaction described as photoinduced electron transfer (PIET) has been studied both theoretically and, to a now increasing extent, experimentally.
One factor that has contributed to this considerable growth
of interest is the rapid progress achieved in the area of ultrafast techniques such as picosecond laser spectroscopy, which
provides remarkably short time resolution in studying the
dynamics of molecules and thereby of fast chemical processes. For the synthetic chemist the main significance of PIET
studies lies in the enticing prospect of gaining a better understanding of such reactions so as to be able to develop more
efficient catalytic and energy conversion processes; this is the
reason for the current attraction of this area of research.
M.A. Fox and M . Chanon, as editors of this very comprehensive work, have tried to bring together in four volumes as
many different aspects of this interdisciplinary fieid as possible. The 2600-page work consists of individual chapters in
the form of photographically reproduced manuscripts by 46
authors or author groups. Starting from an essentially theoretical conceptual basis (Vol. A), Vol. B deals with the experimental techniques and with medium effects, then Volumes C
and D describe actual examples in organic and inorganic
chemistry respectively, and some particular areas of application such as solar energy conversion and information storage.
In the excellent introductory chapter of Volume A M .
Chanon, M . D. Hawley and M . A. Fox give a general
overview of PIET processes and a clear account of the relevant physical quantities. This is followed by a very technically orientated chapter by J. P. Schermann, J P. Astruc, C.
Desfrangois and R. Barbe describing electron transfer between excited atoms and molecules. Some theoretical aspects
based on the Marcus equation are explained and discussed in
two articles by K. E Purcell and B. Blaive, and by M . R.
Wasielewski and E Wilkinson. The clear presentation by
D. C. Mauzerall of the problem of reverse electron transfer
deserves special mention. Another well-organized chapter is
that by G. Jones ZZ on the photochemistry and photophysics
of organic charge transfer complexes. Next come articles on
0570-0833190/0606-0704$03.50+ .25!0
Angew. Chem. I n t . Ed. Engl. 29 (1990) N o . 6
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