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Book Review KirkOthmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th Edition. Series editor J. I. Kroschwitz. Vols. 3Ц10

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BOOKS
cussion of the methods for achieving synthesis and structural recognition in complexation. The dependence of binding
power on structure is discussed at length.
as it depends on many factors including
size and stereoelectronic complementarities, topology of the host, solvation effects, the nature and the number of binding sites, and preorganization of the partners involved.
In Chapter 1 the authors define the
terms “host” and “guest”, and the concept of host-guest complexation, terms
which form the basis of the design of container molecules. The first section is concerned with fundamentals, namely the
molecular receptors based on crown ether
structures. Because of the importance of
structural recognition in complexation,
the authors discuss crystal structure and
molecular modeling, including examination of CPK molecular models, as the
necessary tools of the supramolecular
chemist (“the crystal structures and
molecular modeling connection”).
Chapter 2 deals with synthesis, complexation, and molecular structures of
spherands and their relatives. Spherands
and hemispherands provide a series of
preorganized hosts whose complexing
properties are the basis of the principles
of complementarity and preorganization,
which respectively govern structural
recognition and binding power. The wideranging importance of chiral recognition
is emphasized by devoting a separate
chapter to this topic. Chapter 3 provides a
survey of the results in this field, extending from 2,2’-disubstituted-l,l’-binaphthy1 corands as resolving agents for primary amine salts to the concepts of a
“resolving machine” and chiral catalysis ;
this chapter is highly recommended for
chirophiles. Chapter 4 (“Partial Enzyme
Mimics”) discusses the use of binaphthyl
corands and preorganized hosts as organic catalysts. The authors describe their
approach and results for a transacylase
mimic based on their synthetic hosts. The
different factors that influence the catalytic reaction are examined, and in this
context the authors report on the effect of
preorganization and on the design of
more elaborate host molecules that could
stabilize transition states. The introduction of cyclic urea units has been a
further step in the design of such molecular receptors, and they have been applied
in the approach to a serine protease
mimic.
Chapters 5 and 6 introduce the reader
to the concept of container molecules
through the chemistry of cavitands. These
are rigid hollow organic hosts containing
an interior cavity large enough to form
2564
((3 VCH
complexes (caviplrxes) with organic
guests. The tetraresorcinol cyclic oligomer is the building block of this widely
developed chemistry. It forms the basis of
the numerous molecular receptors that
were obtained by substituting the phenol
groups with bridging units leading to cavitands (bowl-shaped receptors described
in Chapter 5 ) and other vases, kites, and
velcrands (Chapter 6). All these molecular vessels have specific complexing properties that are related to their molecular
size and the nature of the substituents that
allow the formation of enforced cavities.
These chapters are devoted to the synthesis, solid state structures. and formation
of complexes.
The last four chapters are concerned
with the most recent molecular containers, the careerand.?, and their complexed
forms, the carcepk~sc~s.
Over a hundred
pages are devoted to the molecular design
and architecture of these structures. This
new family of synthetic hosts is actually
the most sophisticated one. I t arose from
the logical approach of the Cram group to
the design of preorganized molecular systems with highly efficient complexing
properties. The carcerands are essentially
closed surface molecular spheres whose
guest molecules are permanently encapsulated during synthesis to form carceplexes. The question regarding the properties of the inner part of the molecule has
been examined, and a new phase of matter was proposed on the basis of the special status of the imprisoned guest. The
authors report on the movements and the
particular reactivity of the encapsulated
guests. Hunicarccwinds containing portals large enough for encapsulated guests
to escape from their host are described.
Complexation-decomplexation processes in these systems are temperature-dependent, and have been studied mainly by
NMR spectroscopy.
The book is readily understandable
and the numerous three-dimensional structures of molecules presented
throughout the ten chapters make reading them even more enjoyable and instructive. This is not only a highly recommended reference book on container
molecules, it is also an important contribution to modern organic chemistry
which any chemist. even a newcomer to
the field, would be well advised to own.
As you leaf through this book, you
will be impressed and fascinated by the
beauty and the importance of the work
and ideas that were developed by the
Cram group. This monograph is recommended to all who are concerned with
synthesis and applications of supermolecules. as well as advanced students
V~rlu~s~esrlI.si~liufi
mhH. 0.69451 Wcvnheiin. IYYS
and academic and industrial chemists interested in the progress of the chemical
sciences.
Jean-Pierre Dutasta
CNRS
Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon
Lyon (France)
Kirk/Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. 4th Edition. Series
editor: J. I . Kroschwitz. Vols. 3-10.
Wiley, Chichester, 1992-1994. 10501316 pp., hardcover, 195.00 g p e r v o l ume.-ISBN 0-471-52671-1, -52672X, -52673-8, -52674-6, -52675-4,
-52676-2, -52677-0, -52678-9
Since the first two volumes of the 4th
Edition were reviewed a further eight have
been published. Thus the publishers have
kept to the timetable that was originally
announced.
The numbers of individual contributions contained in Volumes 3 - 10 range
from 21 in Volume 10 to 38 in Volume 4.
In accordance with the usual practice followed in Kirk-Othmer, the volumes
present the various articles in alphabetical
order and describe products and classes of
compounds (from antibiotics to fire retardants) together with the relevant manufacturing processes, basic chemical engineering operations (distillation, filtration.
drying, etc.), analytical and measurement
methods, computer-based techniques
(CAD, expert systems, chemometrics,
etc.), and other topic areas concerned
with industrial production, such as
availability of raw materials, energy management, and criteria for economic evaluation.
The choice of articles to be included has
taken into account the most important
advances in science and technology. Thus,
for example, there are new chapters on
biotechnology, biosensors, and carbon
fibers. Topics that have declined in importance, such as benzidine, crotonaldehyde,
and cork, are no longer covered by separate articles.
The marked upsurge in the importance
of environmental protection since the
third edition is reflected in the inclusion of
a separate chapter on “Environmental
Impact”. Environmental and safety aspects are also treated in detail in the articles on the relevant types of substances
(e.g. dyes). There are also separate articles
on important environmental protection
methods (e.g. combustion technology).
In general the articles are well written
and clearly understandable. Attention is
drawn to new developments in manufac-
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.
1995. 107, Nr. 22
BOOKS
turing processes (e.g. the synthesis of
ethylene from methane by oxidative coupling). to new product types (e.g. fullerenes). and to relevant developments in basic science and technology (e.g. the use of
pervaporation as a separation method for
the removal of‘ alcohol from whisky).
The literature references and the data
that are included are up-to-date. The few
exceptions to this. for example in the
chapter on “Azine Dyes” which includes
no references later than 1987, and in that
on energy management where the data on
energy consumption by industry in the
USA extend only up to 1988, only emphasize the general rule.
The illustrations (reaction schemes, diagrams. etc.) are clear and well presented.
Where necessary for clarity. use has been
made of three-dimensional illustrations
(e.g. i n descriptions of apparatus) or of
color (e.g. in the chapter on color photogrdphy). In contrast to the previous two
volumes, the use of abbreviations has
been reduced to a sensible level, and those
used are fully explained.
To summarize. after looking through
the first ten volumes it is clear that the
fourth edition of Kirk-Othmer is again a
work of reference o f world class. providing expert and comprehensive coverage of
the field ofchcniical technology. Libraries
concerned u ith science and technology
are recommended to buy it.
Frirdbert Necs
BASF Aktiengesellschaft
Ludwigshafen (Germany)
Inorganic Experiments. Edited by
J. D.
Woollins. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, 1994. 286 pp.,
hardcover DM 148.00.4SBN 3-52729235-7
The editor of this book. J. D. Woollins,
has succeeded in enlisting no less than 71
authors from throughout the world as
contributors. The
result is a collection
of 64 laboratory
recipes for preparations to be carried
out in inorganic
chemistry student
practical sessions.
The experiments are
grouped into three
categories. described
as ”introductory” (1 6), “intermediate”
(23), and “advanced” (25). This classification is intended as a guide both to the
learning content and to the need for specialized apparatus. Most of the descriptions follow a set pattern, consisting of a
short introduction, sometimes with an explanation of the teaching objective, a
paragraph (highlighted) on safety precautions and health risks, the actual experimental procedure, and relevant literature
references. Some of the experiments are
valuable new material in works of this
kind, for example those on the preparations of siloxane polymers, of arsenium
cations. and of liquid-crystalline metal
complexes, and the magnetic studies on
exchange coupling in bimetallic paramagnetic complexes. Highly topical experiments such as these cannot be found in
standard works on preparative inorganic
chemistry, such as Br~iuersH a n d h c h or
Inorganic Sjwtlwres. On the other hand,
some other experiments are “old friends”,
such as the preparations of Fremy’s salt,
ferrocene. and potassium peroxochromate. In his preface the editor explains
that he deliberately avoided trying to introduce a uniform style. so as not to lose
the lessons that can be drawn from comparing the procedures in the various laboratories. Nevertheless, the book would
have benefited from the imposition of a
small degree of uniformity and editorial
tidying-up. One occasionally encounters
local peculiarities that are incomprehensible, as when a glass beaker is cleaned by
using a “policeman”, when “methylated
spirits” is used as a solvent. and where one
is continually instructed to proceed “carefully” or “cautiously” without a more
specific explanation of what this means.
The concentration of aqueous ammonia is
specified in three different ways (in O/O, in
vol, and as 0.880, the latter being presumably the density). Some of the experiments described could only be performed
in a small number of laboratories, such as
the preparation of metal carbonyls by reductive carbonylation in an autoclave under CO a t high pressure. Some could not
be carried out at allbfor example. where
one is instructed to condense 1.73 g of a
gas from a pressurized vessel into a solution maintained in a frozen state by liquid
nitrogen, without explaining how such a
precise dosage is to be achieved. Some of
the experiments lack safety recommendations, while for others there are no literature references.
However, the descriptions of most of
the experiments are good. The introductions explaining the learning points, the
exercise problems, and the notes on identification of the products (mainly by spectroscopy) are useful. Undoubtedly one of
the book’s particular strengths is the topicality of many of the experiments in the
“advanced” part. many of which are very
attractive for use in advanced practical
sessions. The book is of interest to all college and university teachers and assistants
responsible for practical classes in inorganic chemistry. Those interested in discovering what is being done in other laboratories, or who can benefit from a little
gold-mine of ideas for new practical exercises, should certainly buy this book.
However, many of the procedures need to
be thoroughly checked before introducing
them into one’s course.
Jokunt~esBeck
Institut fiir Anorganische
und Analytische Chemie
der Universitiit Giessen (Germany)
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