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Book Review Kristallisation. Grundlagen und Technik. (Fundamentals and Techniques of Crystallization). By G. Matz

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and +3OoC. The heat of evaporation of NOBr at the boiling
point and under atmospheric pressure is 7.2 kcal/mole. /
Trans. Faraday SOC.65, 2350 (1969) / -Hz.
[Rd 141 IE]
The reaction of NzO with copper surfaces has been studied by
J . J . F. Scholten and J . A . Konvalinka; a surface oxide is
formed and nitrogen is desorbed. The activation energy of
this reaction increases with the degree of covering of the surface. The transition from surface oxidation to internal oxidation involves an incubation time at not too high a temperature.
At 90 “C and 200 torr N20 a coverage degree of 1 [one atom
of 0 per two atoms of Cu) is found. Since further uptake of
oxygen is strongly hindered (activation energy cu. 20 kcal/
mole) this reaction is suitable for the reproducible determination of the areas of free copper surfaces in catalysts./
Trans. Faraday SOC.65, 2465 (1969) / -Hz.
[Rd 142 IE]
BOOK REVIEWS
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Edited by R. C. Weast.
49th Edit., The Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio,
1968. 2096 pp., bound, DM 89.80.
It is no simple matter to revise a handbook that has appeared
in 48 editions[*] since 1913. Apart from minor corrections,
most of the data and numerical tables retain their validity for
years on end. At the same time increasing space has to be
found for new material as science progesses and new methods
are developed. The crucial problem therefore becomes the
size of such a work, notwithstanding the use of lightweight
paper. The present 49th edition of the “Rubber Handbook”,
with its total of nearly 2100 pages, is certainly as large as it
could be without becoming unwieldy, and it is gratifying to
learn from the Foreword that the publishers are thinking in
terms of an appreciable reduction in size. Among the measures taken with this in mind is a table, published for the first
time, giving the names of all publishers, institutions, laboratories, erc. having compilations of physical, physicochemical, or chemical data that are not of sufficiently general
interest to be included in the handbook itself. The present
edition does in fact again contain some 200 pages of new
tables, in particular in the following fields: X-ray data for
minerals, wavelengths of characteristic X-rays of elements,
properties of semiconductors, heat capacity of organic compounds, physical properties of pigments and commercial
plastics, density of heavy water, and viscosity of water between 0 and 100OC. A number of tables have been brought
up to date by the inclusion of new data.
The usefulness and reliability of the work have been established beyond doubt over numerous editions. At the same time
one continues to hope for a complete revision of the largest
table in the book (500 pages), i.e. the table giving the physical
properties of organic compounds. In its present form this is
below the standard of the rest of the book with regard to the
presentation of the formulas and the utterly impractical
arrangement of the compounds (even after 20 pages of instructions it is difficult to find a substance, or even to establish
whether it is in fact listed somewhere in the table). Perhaps
the imminent 50th edition may be seen by the publishers as a
suitable occasion for rearranging the whole table, a step
which is in any case desirable from the point of view of saving
space. In all other aspects the handbook is, as always, highly
H. Griinewald IJVB 841 IE]
commendable.
In the section on carbon the author had to face the difficulty
of deciding where to draw the line, for the book would have
been extended indefinitely if it had covered all methods of
organic elemental analysis for all organic compounds. The
choice made was to treat combustion methods relatively
shortly and methods of determining C02 in greater detail. In
addition, special methods (spectral analysis, activation
analysis, X-ray scattering, P-back-scattering) and determination of carbon in many materials (metals, carbides, ores, soils,
etc.) are also discussed. Finally there follow chapters on the
analysis of some simple compounds (hydrocarbons, ethylene
oxide, CO, COS, COClp, HCN, HCNO, HCNS, HCOOH,
CH3COOH, and oxalic acid).
Thematerial on CO and C02 and the chapters on combustion
methods and on the determination of HCN, HCNO, HCNS,
COS, and COCl2 can be seen as particularly valuable reviews and one is very grateful to have these facts collected
from the scattered literature of these compounds. However,
it could be maintained that the “purely organic” compounds should have been omitted; at the least their selection
is arbitrary and their discussion in this book is unexpected.
The section on silicon deals in detail with the determination
of SiOz in silicates and fluorspars and of silicon in metals,
Sic, and organosilicon compounds; gravimetric, titrimetric,
and photometric methods are discussed. It is welcome that
the numerous variants of these procedures have been put
together clearly. It should also be emphasized that many experimental details are given, which greatly increases the value
of this section to the practising chemist.
However, several important methods are missing. That
determination of silicon by atomic absorption or gas chromatography is not mentioned may be because these methods
were perfected after the manuscript was complete; but that
cannot explain the absence of determination by spectrography, X-ray spectral analysis, and activation analysis processes that are not wholly unimportant.
R.Bock
[NB853IE]
Knstailisation. Grundlagen und Technik. (Fundamentals and
Techniques of Crystallization). By G . Matz. SpringerVerlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1969. 2nd Edit., vii
418 pp., 174 figs., 55 tables, bound DM 72.-.
+
Handbuch der analytischen Chemie (Handbook of Analytical
Chemistry). Edited by W. Fresenius and G. Junder. Part 111:
Quantitative Bestimmungs- und Trennungsmethoden.
(Quantitative Methods of Determination and Separation).
Vol. IV aa: Elemente der vierten Hauptgruppe I: Kohlenstoff, Silicium (Elements of the Fourth Main Group I:
Carbon, Silicon). Compiled by H. Grassmann and W. Prodinger. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-NewYork 1967.
563 pp., IlOfigs., paperback, DM 153.-;
1st ed., viii
bound DM 158.-.
+
[*] Cf. Angew. Chem. 81, 90 (1969); Angew. Chem. internat.
Edit. 8, 86 (1969).
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. / VoI. 9 (1970) 1 No. I
The theory and the techniques of crystallization have received
much attention in the past twenty years. As a result, a wide
variety of better single crystals can now be grown, and many
crystalline substances with the required particle size and
particle-size distribution can be obtained on a large scale by
mass crystallization.
While several good books exist on the art of growing single
crystals, this is the first comprehensive and up-to-date book
on mass crystallization. In fact, the book deals mainly with
the designing and the operation of mass crystallizers, and
gives only a sketchy account of the theory and techniques of
growing single crystals.
85
Though this is the second edition, the book is completely new
in scope and subject matter. It is a successful book, which
gives the first comprehensive account of industrial mass
crystallization and its theory, and which thus fills a gap in
German and other literature.
The first chapter, giving the basic definitions, covers only five
pages and is not very satisfactory. This is followed by another
short chapter (4 pages) on the methods of crystallization. The
bulk is made up of Chapter 111 on the fundamentals of crystallization (170 pages) and Chapter IV on the techniques of
crystallization (200 pages), both of which are successful.
The third chapter deals first with nucleation, growth, and
crop-formation, involved in any crystallization whether the
product is a crystalline mass or a single crystal. The author
surveys all the important theories, namely the VolrnerBecker-Stranski equations for nucleation, the Gibbs-Wulff
minimum requirement for crop-formation, Frank’s theory of
spiral growth, the Kossel-Stranski molecular theory, with its
far-reaching deductions for nucleation and growth, and the
Nernst-Berthoud diffusion theory (Berthoud‘s name should
be retained here, and Berthoud’s diffusion layer should be
more clearly distinguished from the two-dimensional Volrner
diffusion). This chapter also covers the basic forms of crystallization, i.e. crystallization from solution (thermal precipitation, salting-out, freezing-out, and fractional precipitation),
from melts (e.g. by cooling and zone crystallization), by
sublimation (under vacuum, with a carrier, in a fluid bed,
and fractional sublimation), and crystallization of adducts.
All the forms of crystallization are illustrated by examples
and clear diagrams. Their theories are developed mathematically, with special reference to mass crystallization. As a
result, the latter is given a broad and firm theoretical basis.
Besides some general technological problems concerning e.g.
heat transfer, particle size, particle-size distribution, and
crust-formation, Chapter IV is mainly concerned with the
industrial apparatus and methods o f mass crystallization.
The author describes in 160 pages 74 typical examples of
industrial crystallizers for e.g. solution, fusion, and sublimation crystallization, and gives clear diagrams for various
modes of operation, unit processes, and overall schemes. In fact, this chapter determines the character of the whole
book.
This is a good book, despite minor flaws in composition, uniformity, and information, which can always be found in the
first comprehensive book on any wide field. It has been
written for experienced industrial chemists and technologists
dealing mainly with mass crystallization, and is likely to
provide a good guide in this field for a long time. It is thoroughly recommended to all who are involved or interested
in industrial crystallization processes.
A . Neuhaus [NB 848 IE]
Comprehensive Biochemistry. Edited by M . Florkin and E. H.
Stotz. Vol. 17: Carbohydrate Metabolism. Elsevier Publishing Corp., Amsterdam 1969. 1st Edit., xiii + 292 pp.,
59 figs., 30 tables. bound Dfl. 47.50; subscr. price Dfl. 38.-.
Cleavage and oxidation of sugars have been regarded as
contrasting metabolic reactions - especially since Pasteur
established the antagonism between aerobiosis and fermentation. It remained for modern biochemistry to show that
there is here no fundamental difference but that we have a
regulation phenomenon. Oxidative degradations are repressed
in the absence of oxygen, and the electrons are removed by
internal oxido-reduction.
As is well known, the fundamental reactions have been laid
bare largely among microorganisms. The metabolism of
carbohydrates has been treated in very great detail in several
recent collective works, but in almost all these cases the main
emphasis has been on synthesis and degradation of carbohydrates in mammals. The same limitation applies to this
volume of “Comprehensive Biochemistry” 113. It begins with
a short chapter on absorption, digestion, resorption, and
transport of mono- and di-saccharides and the control of
these processes; here R . K . Crane describes in a few pages the
most important facts that prove a carrier mechanism.
Then E. Helmreich gives an excellent and critical review of
the control of synthesis and degradation of the polysaccha.rides glycogen, starch, and cellulose. A large but deserved
space is naturally devoted to phosphorylase and its regulation by the reactants; the literature is covered up to 1968 in
this section. - In a further 70 pages I. A . and 2. B. Rose
describe the different steps of glycolysis; the enzymes are
characterized by their kinetic data, which are important for
the overall reaction. - The oxidation of glucose 6-phosphate
and the relevant pentose cycle are reported by S. Pontremoli
and E. Grazi; in this short section particular attention is paid
to differentiating the forms of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase that have genetic importance. The “shunt” proper is
only briefly mentioned.
The central nervous system obtains almost all its energy from
a rapid degradation of glucose. The distinguishing feature of
metabolism in the brain is control of these processes; they
are clearly explained by H . S. Bachelard and H. Mcllwain. Conversion into aldonic and uronic acids is a further special
area of carbohydrate metabolism; this has been given an exhaustive chapter in which 0.Touster shows how the sugar
acids are formed from metabolic carbohydrates and which
special reactions are effective for the purpose. - Amino sugars are present as glucosaminoglycanesin the cell membranes
of lower and higher organisms. A . S. Stoolmiller and A .
Dorfman present a good review of this complex area.
In comparison with other reports of carbohydrate metabolism, greater stress is laid in this book on additions to and
subtractions from the system, as well as its ramifications, so
that the value of the volume is increased - it can also be
regarded as an extension of other presentations. The various
sections are well chosen and are written by experts in the
particular fields. The literature is covered mostly up to the
end of 1967. A missing chapter on oxidative degradation of
carbohydrates has had to be postponed to the next volume,
which, it is hoped, will appear as sdpplement with the minimum of further delay.
L. Jaenicke [NB 851 IE]
[I] Cf. Angew. Chem. 81, 952 (1969); Angew. Chem. internat.
Edit. 8, 995 (1969).
Registered names, trademarks, efc. used in this journal, even without specific indication thereof, are nof lo be considered unprotected by law.
0Verlag Chemie,
GmbH, Weinheim 1970. - Printed in Germany by Druckerei Winter, Heidelberg
All rights reserved. No part of this journal may be reproduced in any form whatsoever, e.g. by photoprint, microfilm, or any other means, without
written permission from the publishers.
Editorial office: Ziegelhauser Landstrasse 35,6900 Heidelberg 1 , Germany, Telephone 45075, Telex 461855 kemia d, Cable address: Chemieredaktion
Heidelberg.
Editor: H . Griinewald
. Translation Editors: A . f. Rackstraw and A . Stimson.
Publisheis: Verlag Chemie, GmbH. (Presidents Jiirgen Kreurhage and Hans Schermer), Pappelallee 3 , 6940 Weinheim/Bergstr., Germany, and
Academic Press Inc. (President Wafrer J. Johnson), 111 Fifth Avenue, New York 3, N.Y., USA, and Berkeley Square House, Berkeley Square,
London, W. l . , England.
Correspondence concerning advertisements should be addressed to Verlag Chemie, GmbH. (Advertising Manager W . Thiel), 6940 Weinheim/Bergstr.,
pappelallee 3, Germany, Telephone Weinheim (06201) 3635, Telex 4655 16 vchwb.
86
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
Vol. 9 (1970) No. 1
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