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Book Review Kunststoff-Handbuch Band IV Polyolefine (Plastics Handbook Vol. 4 Polyolefins). Edited by R. Vieweg A. Schley and A

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Arrhenius parameters E, = 9.4 5 0.5 kcal/mole and log k =
12.9 i 0.3 for this rotational movement. This result can be
interpreted in terms of a certain degree of delocalization of
the spin density of the radical electron over the rest of the
molecule. / Z . Naturforsch. 24a, 1214 (1969) / -Hz.
[Rd 106 IEl
The molecular geometry of dmitrogen trioxide has been
determined by A . H .
A . p. ' O x , and R . .' Kuczkawski from the microwave Spectrum. The main difficulty
encountered in the measurements was that N203 is 99.5 %
dissociated to NO and NOz at the Pressures (lo-' to lo-'
torr) used in microwave SpeCtroscoPY, even at temperatures
as low as -78'C.
The spectra of Nz03 containing certain
percentages of 15N and 1 8 0 yield the following data: N2-N3 =
1.864 A; N2-01 = 1.142 A; N3-04 = 1.202 A; N3-05 =
1.217.A; 01-N2-N3
= 105.1O; 04--N3--N2
= 112.7';
of pyridine and benzenesulfonic acid) yields compound ( I ) ,
a derivative of the new ring system, m.p. 342-343 "C (DMF).
Compound (1) is ,-leaved by NaOCH3 to the ester (21,
regenerates ( I ) when heated to a temperature in excess of its
melting point. Several tautomers of ( I ) are possible. The NH
and the phenyl group could be exchanged. / Chem. Commun.
1969, 1040 i -Ma.
[Rd 111 IE]
A selective, stereospecific insertion of sulfur into olefins such
as norbornene has been described by T. C. Shields and A . N.
Kurtz. If sulfur is activated by NH3 or aniline in the presence
of an amide such as D M F as promotor and subsequently
heated to 110 O C with norbornene, 5-ethylidenenorbornene
A
h
H3C
,y@
------)
H
01,~--?1-~~-,04
N2 -N3 -+.-
H
(1)
'05
05-N3-N2 = 117.5 '. The molecule is planar; the frequency
of the twisting vibration about N2-N3 is 124 f 25 cm-1.
The dipole moment amounts to 2.12 D and acts in a direction
at 9.1 to N2-N3; the negative end of the dipole lies at the
nitro group. / Trans. Faraday SOC.65, 1963 (1969) / -Hz.
[Rd 109 IE]
H3C&>'
H
(4
( I ) , or similar compounds, ex0-3,4,5-trithiatricyclo[5.2.1.02~6]decane or the I-ethylidene derivative (2) is obtained in 86 or
71 % yield. up to 99 % DMSO or an
of amide can
serve as solvent. The addition occurs exclusively at the
double bond of the ring. J. Amer. chem. SOC. 91, 5415
(1969) /-Ma.
[Rd 112IEl
New luminescence experiments on azulene are the subject of a
report by p. M . Rentzepis. Azulene and its derivatives occupy
a special place among all organic compounds owing to the
fact that under normal conditions they only fluoresce from
the second excited singlet state. Excitation with extremely
short laser pulses (several 10-12 s) has now revealed emission from the first excited singlet state S1 (maximum at about
H
a
N
7
,
"
,
c
6
H
5
750 nrn)
and
the lowest
triplet state TI (maximum at about
11OOnrn). The fluorescence from S1 has a decay time less
than 10-10 s and a quantum yield of about 10-7. Phosphoco
I
NH2
rescence from TI could only be observed at 77°K with a
OCH,
decay time of 10-6 s. / Chem. Physics Letters 3, 717 (1969) ,I
(2)
-Hz.
[Rd 117 IE]
The triazino[2,1-b]quinaz0line system has been synthesized
for the first time by J. T. Shuw and J. Ballentine. The acidcatalyzed cyclization of K dicyanobenzamidine with methyl
anthranilate (refluxed in anhydrous methanol in the Presence
-'
NKNH
R y N , ' 6 ' 5
0
OCH3G_
NH
(1)
NYN
BOOK REVIEWS
d i e Nomenklatur in der organischen Chemie (The Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry). By W. Holland. Verlag
Harri Deutsch - Zurich-Frankfurt/M. 1969. 1st Edit.,
190 pp., stitched, D M 34.80.
As stated in the introductory remarks, the author set himself
the task, not merely of giving the nomenclature rules current
today, but also of describing the older usages. The book does
indeed contain numerous references to previous proposals
for, and usages in, nomenclature, so that the original iiterature can still be understood by the reader. However, as a guide
and help in the formation of names for organic compounds and that is what it should be- the book cannot be unreservedly recommended because of the various contradictions
it contains. For instance, on p. 46 methoxycarbonyl is correctly recommended in place of the older designation carbomethoxy, yet on p. 36 only carbobenzoxy (with the abbreviation Cbo) is given for the amino acid protecting group and
not benzyloxycarbonyl (with the abbreviation Z ) . In the
explanation of the ring fusion principle on pages 87-88
the instruction is recorded whereby the parent compound
shall chosen to be as large as possible and the anneland as
994
small as possible, but a contradiction to this is met on page 89
where in the explanation of numbering round the outer ring
the example naphth[2.1-a]anthracene should correctly be
named benzo[b]chrysene [RRI 63791. And the list of such
contradictions could be considerably extended. Also it is
not evident why in the tables aromatic compounds are drawn
sometimes with and sometimes without double bonds.
Ilse Spaeth [NB 837 IE]
Kunststoff-Handbuch, Band IV: Polyolefine (Plastics Handbook, Vol. 4: Polyolefins). Edited by R . Vieweg, A . Schley,
and A . Schwurz. Carl Hanser Verlag, Miinchen 1969.
1st Edit., mi + 976 pp.. 795 illustrations, 106 tables,
linen DM 270.-; on subscr. to the complete work (12 vol.)
DM 216.-.
The rate of production of polyolefins has grown faster than
that of any other thermoplastic, so that appearance of the
present volume[lI should receive a warm general welcome,
[11 Cf. Angew. Chern. 82, 542 (1969); Angew. Chem. internal.
Edit. 8, 468 (1969).
Angew. Chem. internal. Edit.
/ Vol. 8 (1969) / No. 12
especially as the expanding area of application of polyolefins
is in particular need of a review volume such as this.
The book is divided into the main sections Preparation,
Properties, Fabrication, and Application of Polyolefins. It
treats mainly the polymers of ethylene, propene, and isobutene; diolefins and mixed polymers of ethylene and propene, and of ethylene and vinyl acetate. leading to elastomers,
are mentioned only marginally, and these should perhaps
be treated in greater detail in the next edition because their
importance is increasing.
The Ziegler low-pressure polymerization process, polymers
obtained by that process, and modified polyolefins have
ample space devoted to them, but the low-pressure polymerization process developed by Phillips Petroleum, and the
high-pressure polymerization of ethylene by which most
polyethylene is produced, are perhaps treated too briefly.
The preparation of olefins themselves will not necessarily be
looked for in a plastics Handbook.
The polymerization of ethylene and propene by means of
Ziegler catalysts is presented in great detail, yet intelligibly
and clearly, and this permits rapid and successful orientation
even though there is unfortunately no reference later than
1960. The part dealing with the properties of polyethylene
contains a wealth of material on the structure, on the thermal,
mechanical, and electrical properties, and on the behavior
towards chemical reagents. Detailed tables make it easier
to find individual facts. The chapter on fabrication is very
successful, presenting in full all the important methods of
working polyolelins, such as extrusion, injection molding,
calendering, powder sintering, and flame spraying, as well
as procedures for dealing with semimanufactured material.
each supported by good illustrations.
The largest part of the book is rightly devoted to application
of polyolefins. This very properly recognizes the changes
introduced by polyolefins in the most varied fields, e. g .
packaging, building, agriculture, craft and vehicle construction, plant construction, and the household.
High praise should be awarded to the editors for their
having engaged first-class experts for the individual sections;
these authors have provided the reader with an excellent
presentation in word and picture. In an area in a state of
such dynamic development it is tolerable that there are small
gaps here and there; for instance, it would have been good
to be told something about methylpentene polymers (TPX)
and about production of foams from polyolefins. The book
contains a large number of references and good tables and
indexes, and it can be warmly recommended to all who are
interested in polyolefins, both for their study and for rapid
information.
0. Horn [NB 839 IE]
Non-Proprietary Names” of the World Health Organization.
None of these drug nomenclature systems, however, is anywhere near complete and their use i n scientific publications is
haphazard. The identification of a drug from its name consequently requires many aids, which are not available everywhere, and is often very time-consuming.
On behalf of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, therefore, H. Ippen undertook to collect, in dictionary form, all
defined organic substances that are, or have been, used as
curative agents or as aids in the treatment, diagnosis, or investigation of illness. The following information is given for
each one:
1. The non-protected name(s), with special indication of the
names recommended or suggested by the World Health
Organization.
2. The chemical designation of the compound according to
the Beilstein and the “Chemical Abstracts” systems;
3. Officinal names insofar as they form part of the “Pharmakopoea Internationalis”, the “Deutsche Arzneibuch”, the
“British Pharmacopoeia”, or the “Pharmacopeia of the
United States”;
4. Trade names with the name of the firm holding the trademark;
5. Action and indications (only for some of the substances
and only in keyword form);
6. The structural and molecular formulas.
The drugs are arranged either according to the organ system
chiefly affected or according to indications. The arrangement
within these groups has been determined mainly by chemical
considerations. In addition to this very clear division of the
book, two indexes (indications and substance groups, as well
as a comprehensive 100 page index of synonyms) make the
use of the work easier.
One can scarcely imagine the pains the author must have taken
in compiling this dictionary, not only in bringing the wealth
of information together, but also in checking its reliability.
Whoever uses this book however, - the pharmacist, the
pharmaceutical chemist, the pharmacologist, or the doctor will thank the author for his trouble, for here is an aid as
useful as it is long overdue. Not only will it be welcomed by
information scientists, but its usefulness will also be put to
the proof daily by practising doctors and dispensing pharmaH. Griinewald [NB 842 IE]
cists.
Comprehensive Biochemistry. Edited by M . Florkin and E. H .
Sfofz.Vol. 23: Cytochemistry. Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam-New York-London 1968. 1st Edit., xii
167 pp.. 32 illustr., 21 tables, bound Dfl. 35.-.
+
A cell surrounded by a membrane is composed of a nucleolus
h d e x Pharmacorum. Synonyma, Struktur und Wirkung der
organisch-cheniischen Arzneistoffe (Synonyms, Structure,
and Action of Organic Drugs). By H. Ippen. Published on
behalf of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Georg
Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart, 1968. xxviii -k 693 pp., bound,
DM 130.-.
A problem familiar to all whose work concerns drugs is the
fact that identical medications are often on sale in different
countries with different trademarks, and the same substance
may even be available under several protected trade names in
one country, with the result that the unequivocal identification of a medication is extremely difficult. Added to this is the
difficulty that by using trade names in scientific publications,
one runs the risk of conflict with commercial interests. The
chemical nomenclature for drugs, on the other hand, is often
too clumsy and not readily understood by the non-chemist.
Non-protected free names have therefore been introduced.
Thus, in the USA there arose the “Generic Names”, in England the “Approved Names”, in Scandinavia the “Nordiske
Farmakope-Naevn”, in France the “Denominations Communes”, to which were added, after 1950, the “International
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
1 Vol. 8 (1969) 1 No. I2
and cytoplasm in which can be detected cell compartments
also separated by membranes of various types. This general
type of structure is found in different but exact forms in
microorganisms, plants, and animals. The physiological cell
functions and the molecular processes characteristic of
physicochemical regulation and biological control of the
individual organelles are bound to complex highly organized
structures; in this book they are collected in a section
“Chemical Biology” that applies to all the molecular units
and functions treated in the earlier sections.
Once more, competent authors have combined a review of
the literature with their own observations and present a very
valuable and useful reference work for the various features of
structure and function of the cell. Each section deals with
isolation, morphology, chemical composition, biochemical
function, and enzymology, individual sections referring to
the cell nucleus ( G . Siebert), the nucleolus ( H . Busch), lysosomes ( A . L. Tappel), animal ( R . Coleman and J . B. Finean)
and bacterial cell membranes (M. R. Salton). Chapters are
3-0
pages in length and contain the literature up to the
middle of 1966; in some cases appendices are provided
covering further results up to the date of closure of the vol-
995
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