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Book Review Lehrbuch der Lebensmittelchemie. By H.-D. Beltiz and W. Grosch

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The Introduction to Electrochemistry at the beginning of
this textbook does not correspond to a chapter on electrochemistry, rather the physical chemistry of electrochemistry is dealt with in several sections. A summary could be
helpful for study.
This book enriches the available choice of textbooks
which are written in German. When compared with translations and, in particular, with textbooks published in English, where language difficulties aggravate problems with
the subject matter, this is an advantage which should not
be underrated.
The book is clearly and understandably written; the care
taken with the detailed derivations will ease the student’s
task in learning. This detailed physical chemistry textbook
is, at least, as much to be recommended as other good textbooks.
Walter Hack [NB 597 IE]
Max-Planck-Institut fur
Stromungsforschung, Gottingen (FRG)
Fragrance Chemistry: The Science of the Sense of Smell.
Edited by E. T. Theimer. Academic Press, New York
1982. xiii, 635 pp., bound, $ 89.50.
This book sets out to describe the significant classes of
fragrance compounds from a chemical point of view. It
contains sixteen chapters: T. V. Getchell, M. L. Getchell,
Physiology of Vertebrate Olfactory Chemoreception, 26
pp.; J. E. Amoore: Odor Theory and Odor Classification,
49 pp.; M . G . J. Beets: Odor and Stimulant Structure, 46
pp.; H . Boelens: Acyclic Monoterpene Alcohols with a 2,6Dimethyloctane Skeleton, 42 pp.; P. C. Trass: Advances in
the Chemistry of Some Interesting Cyclic Monoterpene
Alcohols, 45 pp.; V. Herout: Sesquiterpene Alcohols, 45
pp.; E . T. fieimer: Benzene Derived Cyclic Carbinols, 18
pp.; P. Z . Bedoukian: Violet Fragrance Compounds, 32
pp.; H. van den Dool: Synthesis of Vetiver Oil Components, 32 pp.; E. P. Demole: The Fragrance of Jasmine, 48
pp.; E.-J. Brunke, E. KIein: Chemistry of Sandalwood Fragrance, 37 pp.; B. D . Mookherjee, R . A. Wilson: The Chemistry and Fragrance of Natural Musk Compounds, 61 pp.;
T. F. Wood: Chemistry of Synthetic Musks I (Non-Benzenoid Musks) and I1 (Benzenoid Musks), 14 pp. and 34 pp.
resp.; G . Ohlofl: The Fragrance of Ambergris, 40 pp.; and
J . P. Walrudt: Analysis of Fragrance Materials, 42 pp.
The strictly chemical chapters are thus preceded by sections on the physiology of the olfactory system, the mechanism of the sense of smell, and odor-structure correlations
in odorous molecules, which, taken together, constitute a
fifth of the volume.
Chapter 4 considers the fundamental building blocks of
geraniol, nerol, linalool, citronellol, myrcenol and dihydromyrcenol detailing their syntheses and chemical reactions.
In the following chapter, the chemistry of menthol, a-terpineol, and borneol receive the prominence they deserve;
however the lengthy sections on verbenol, myrtenol, pinocarveol and the boll-weevil pheromones seem out of proportion with their importance to the perfumery industry.
The same criticism holds for Chapter 6 where sections on
industrially important C15 alcohols such as farnesol, nerolidol, santalol and cedrol rub shoulders with such exotic
sesquiterpenes as terrestrol, acorenol and hinesol. Surely,
caryophyllene alcohol and acetate, briefly mentioned in
the introduction to the chapter, deserve a more detailed
treatment.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) No. 3
The editor’s own contribution (Chapter 7) covers a curious miscellany-p-tert-butylcyclohexyl alcohol, benzyl
alcohol, styrallyl alcohol, dimethylbenzylcarbinol and
their corresponding acetates, together with 2-phenylethanol. However the comments regarding the different routes
to phenylethanol make interesting reading and his exposition on the use of aluminum chloride and Grignard reagents on an industrial scale deserves a wide audience.
Bedoukian’s survey of violet odorants rightly emphasizes
the importance of the ionones and methylionones in this
area, and then briefly touches on irones, damascones, nonadienal and acetylenic esters. In contrast Chapter 9 ‘has
only a modest essay on the vetyvenyl acetate of the perfumery industry; it concentrates on a- and p-vetivone, and
the history of the structural confusion regarding the latter.
Modern jasmine odorants are described in Chapter 10.
The character impact constituents of jasmine oil, Z-jasmone, jasmone lactone, and methyl jasmonate, are specified and their syntheses described. Consequently many of
the newer synthetic approaches to cyclopentanones are
summarized. The chemistry of the sandalwood fragrance
follows, in which a good balance between santalols and
terpenyl cyclohexanols has been achieved.
The next three chapters cover the various musk odorants. Mookherjee and Wilson’s contribution contains some
interesting unpublished observations on the macrocyclic
materials present in natural musk extracts. The synthetic
sequences to these materials are subdivided into three
groups-intramolecular ring closure, methylation of cyclopentadecanone, and ring expansion and/or contraction,
the last including a substantial amount of peripheral material. The monocyclic and polycyclic (indane, tetralin, and
isochroman) benzenoid musk odorants and the purely synthetic macrocyclic musks (e.g. ethylene brassylate) are
covered thoroughly in the other two chapters.
Ohlog in his chapter on the ambergris odor, covers a
dauntingly large number of compounds, but nevertheless
demonstrates clearly that the triaxial rule still applies in
this area of fragrance chemistry. Finally, Walrudt summarizes the more recent developments in instrumental analysis
and spectroscopy within the context of the perfumery industry.
To sum up, the topics this volume covers, it generally
covers well; however, such important fragrance materials
as the aliphatic aldehydes, hydroxycitronellal, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, coumarin, heliotropin, and rose oxide receive scarcely a mention.
Bruce A . McAndrew [NB 594 IE]
PPF International, Ashford (U. K.)
Lehrbuch der Lebensmittelchemie. By H.-D. Belitz and W .
Grosch. Springer Verlag, Berlin 1982. xxxviii, 788 pp.,
bound, DM 124.00.
This textbook covers the most important food ingredients (water; amino acids, peptides, proteins; enzymes; lipids; carbohydrates; flavoring; vitamins and minerals) as
well as the most important groups of foodstuffs (milk and
dairy products; eggs; meat; fish; whalemeat, crustaceans,
shellfish and molluscs; edible fats and oils; grain and
grain products ; legumes ; vegetables and vegetable products; fruit and fruit products; sugar, sugar alcohols and
honey; alcoholic beverages; coffee, tea, cocoa; spices, salt
253
and vinegar) in 23 chapters. Because of their topical importance the subjects of the contamination of food and of
food additives have a chapter devoted to them.
The authors present a detailed account of the physical
and chemical properties of the important food components, in order to emphasize the relationship between
structure and properties at both the level of the ingredient
and of the foodstuff. This applies particularly in the case
of flavoring and taste. In order to limit the size of the book
the authors have concentrated on the chemistry of foods,
and, where possible, impart information in clearly arranged figures and tables. The large number of well-presented formulae and reaction schemes is also worth mentioning and is in favorable contrast to other-particularly
older-textbooks. A far-ranging discussion of the nutritional, technological, texicological and legal aspects of the
subject has been deliberately avoided. The information
concerning commodities and amounts produced, required
by the food chemist, is presented in an elegant, tabular review. The book also contains a range of analytical information which is relevant in judging foodstuffs.
In summary it may be said that this book gives a good
review of the modern state of food chemistry. The authors
have succeeded in presenting the subject synoptically and
precisely. It must not remain unmentioned that important
themes, such as cosmetics, commodities in relation to food
commerce and tobacco products, which are, nowadays, integrated in to food chemistry, are not treated at all. The
clear and comprehensive table of contents and index are
worthy of praise. This book is both highly suitable for students of food chemistry, chemistry and related subjects
and as a reference work and could well become one of the
standard works on the subject within a very short time.
However, in view of the high price it is questionable
whether it will achieve the circulation it deserves.
Reinhard Matissek [NB 592 IE]
Institut fur Lebensmittelchemie
der Technischen Universitat Berlin
Reactive Intermediates. Volume 3. Edited by R . A . Abramovitch. Plenum Press, New York 1983. xiv, 630 pp.,
bound, $ 59.50.
Three volumes of this open-ended series have now appeared, in quick succession (Volume 1: 1980; Volume 2:
1982; Volume 3: 1983). The contributions presented are intended to provide the interested reader with in-depth reviews of the present state of relatively new fields of the
chemistry of reactive intermediates. The aim is to give the
work as a whole-but not necessarily the individual chapters-an interdisciplinary character, dealing with themes
from widely separated fields, encompassing atmospheric,
biological, and industrial chemistry, as well as inorganic
and organic chemistry. Hence, this series has a somewhat
different objective from another series of the same name
(editors M . Jones Jr. and R. A . Moss, at present two volumes), which is devoted more to the current knowledge of
the conventional intermediates of organic chemistry (carbanions, carbocations, carbon radicals, carbenes and nitrenes).
The present volume, comprising seven chapters, begins
with a contribution on the chemistry of selenium and tellurium atoms (J. R . Marquart, R . L. Belford, and L. C. Graciano, 60 p.). Alongside their generation (excited electronic
254
states included) the reactions of these atoms are described,
such as recombination, abstraction, insertion into C-H
and Si-H bonds, as wcll as addition to C-C multiple
bonds. A wealth of energetic and kinetic data is assembled
into tables. The potential importance of these, to the nonspecialist exotic-seeming species, not only in intermediate
products and energy storage (lasers), is emphasized; the relationship with the chemistry of the lower chalcogens is
often accentuated by comparison.
A reaction type which was formally only of theoretical
interest, homolytic aromatic substitution by alkyl radicals,
is the subject of the second chapter ( M . Tiecco and L. Testaferri, 61 p.). In this field, considerable strides have been
made in recent years in the understanding of polar effects
on homolytic reactions. This type of reaction also forms
the basis of an interesting preparative technique, in particular for the synthesis of certain substituted aromatic heterocyclics. In the following sections J. W . Wilt reports on
radical reactions of silanes (85 p.) and W. G. Bentrude on
phosphoranyl radicals (99 p.). Besides the formation of the
radicals, their physical characteristics, isomerization behavior, reactions and synthetic potential are treated in detail.
The fifth contribution, by G . Szeimies, covers the numerous developments in the second half of the 1970s in the
field of strained olefins with bridgehead double bonds (67
p.). Bridged annulenes and compounds with hetero double
bonds are deliberately excluded. Emphasis is rather on the
syntheses and characterization reactions for individual
members of this class of reactive compounds, which is subdivided into three types. Generalizing answers to the interesting questions concerning the structure of strained C-C
double bonds rest on a rather small fundament of experimental structural and energetic data. -The reactivity of
alkoxyl radicals and their applications in synthesis are
dealt with by P. Brun and B. Waegell (59 p.). After describing the various routes to these short-lived intermediates, particular emphasis is placed on the various applications of their intra- and intermolecular reactions.
The extensive last chapter (2.Rappoport, 188 p.) is devoted to vinyl cations. In contrast to earlier reviews and to
a monograph co-authored by the same author that appeared in 1979, in which vinyl cations were discussed primarily in terms of the method of their generation or the nature of the activating group, a welcome attempt has been
made here to emphasize the similarities and differences between ions of different structural families and to view the
field as a whole.-The volume concludes with an index (13
p.), appropriate in size and detail to the work. An indication of the reactive intermediates treated in previous volumes would have been desirable, however.
All the chapters are compiled by experts, clearly written
and so constructed that even a newcomer to the field can
easily follow the latest developments. The relevant literature is covered up to 1980/81. Over 1500 original references illustrate, amongst other things, the depth of treatment of the material. Even though the price of the volume
may distract the interest of individuals in acquiring it, this
collection of comprehensive reviews belongs in every specialized library. The intention of informing the reader
about the importance of reactive intermediates outside his
specialized field, has also been fully taken into account by
the editor, for intermediates with reactive centers on elements so diverse as C, Si, P, 0, Se and Te are included.
Dieter Hasselmann [NB 609 IE]
Abteilung fur Chemie
der Universitat Bochum (FRG)
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) No. 3
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