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Book Review Lehrbuch der Physikalischen Chemie. By G. Wedler

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(6all-rrans-retxnai -6a~f.,mns.l)
for H-7 is 0.48, but in contrast is
only 0.08 for H-8; this effect is also exhibited by H-11 and
H-12: A6=0.04 and 0.0, respectively.
Received: November 8, 1983;
revised: December 23, 1983 [Z 618 IE]
German version: Angew. Chem. 96 (1984) 225
[I] H. Hopf, K. Natsias, Tetrahedron Lett. 23 (1982) 3673.
[2] Summary: K. Nakanishi, V. Balogh-Nair in C. Tamm: Stereochemistry,
Elsevier Biomedical Press, Amsterdam 1982, chap. 7, p. 283ff.
[3] The conformation of 1 is not known: if it is assumed that the cyclohexene
moiety is planar, then because of the bisected arrangement of the threemembered ring and the endocyclic double bond, the optimal conditions
for conjugation exist. However, it is difficult to estimate how extensive
this interaction is transmitted into the polyene chain since the torsion angle between the ring and chain in retinal is ca. 60”‘z1.-Spirocyclic retinoids with a three-membered ring in the 4-position are already known:
M. L. Dawson, P. D. Hobbs, R. L.-S. Chan, W.-R. Chao, J. Med. Chem.
24 (1981) 1214. However, in this modification both the electronic character and the steric nature of retinal are changed.
141 I. Fleming, I. Peterson, Synth. Commun. 1979, 736.
[5] I. Ryn, S . Murai, N. Sonoda, Tetrahedron Lett. 1977, 4611.
[61 L. C. Roach, W. H. Daly, Chem. Commun. 1970, 606.
[7] H. Pommer, Angew. Chem. 72 (1960) 811: cf. also M. Julia, C. Descoins,
Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr. 1962. 1939.
[S] Dr. L. Ernst is thanked for the nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and
Dr. H . M. Schiebel for the mass spectra.
BOOK R E V I E W S
Lehrbuch der Physikalischen Chemie. By G. Wedler. Verlag
Chemie, Weinheim 1982. xxii, 914 pp., bound, DM
98.00
The new textbook “Lehrbuch der Physikalischen Chemie” by G. Wedler presents a detailed coverage of physical
chemistry in the German language. The author has-in his
own words-“tried to write a textbook, which, in spite of
the limitation of its subject matter to the presentation of
the basic principles, is still sufficient to allow application
to particular problems”.
The preface is “An Introduction to Basic Physicochemical Concepts and Methods”. This includes the material
which is presented in the first semester as an introduction
to physical chemistry or as part of a general chemistry
course. Chemical thermodynamics, the kinetic theory of
gases, statistical thermodynamics, quantum theory, chemical kinetics and electrochemistry are summarized prior to
the main text. This introduction is followed by five main
chapters Chemical Thermodynamics, Structure of Matter,
Statistical Theory of Matter, Transport Phenomena, Kinetics and a Mathematical Addendum.
The chapter on “Chemical Thermodynamics” (233 pp.)
treats chemical equilibra, phase and surface equilibria as
well as electromotive forces in detail, alongside with the
basic equations of thermodynamics. The chapter entitled
the “Structure of Matter” (161 pp.) begins with the quantum mechanical treatment of simple systems, followed by a
discussion of the interaction between radiation and atoms
and molecules and ends with treatment of chemical bonding. A section is included covering the behavior of material
in electric and magnetic fields.
“The Statistical Theory of Matter” (77 pp.) begins with a
comparison of the various sorts of statistics and includes
statistical thermodynamics and the kinetic theory of
gases.
“Transport Phenomena” (42 pp.) deals with the general
equation of transport, with diffusion, internal friction,
thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, as well as
electrokinetic phenomena.
252
“Kinetics” (108 pp.) contains sections on experimental
methods, formal kinetics, reaction mechanisms, kinetic
theory, solution kinetics, the kinetics of heterogeneous
reactions as well as catalysis and the kinetics of electrode
processes.
The author has included a detailed Introduction in order
to demonstrate how the various areas of physical chemistry are interwoven. However, this intention is not always
obvious and the book would be no less attractive if the introductory remarks were included in the relevant chapters.
The five main chapters differ greatly in their breadth
and depth. The detailed treatment of chemical thermodynamics reflects the importance of this topic. The section
“Matter in Electric an Magnetic Fields” inserted into “The
Structure of Matter” is written from a very different point
of view than the surrounding material. The section “Interactions between Radiation and Molecules” does not include the laser among the basic considerations. This light
source is doubtless an important tool in physical chemistry
and it might be asked whether it would not have been advisable to include a section entitled “Photophysics and
Photochemistry”. The inclusion of the laser alongside fluorescence and phosphorescence under “Emissions by Electronically Excited States” might have been more understandable if the term “Stimulated Emissions” had been
chosen instead of “Laser”.
The chapter on the statistical theory of matter along with
its appropriate introduction in Statistical Thermodynamics
deserves special mention. The care which the author has
devoted to presenting statistics and explaining their relevance to physical chemistry has undoubtedly been worthwhile. It is appropriate that an illustration from this section graces the book‘s cover.
The chapters entitled “The Structure of Matter” and
“The Statistical Theory of Matter” deal with their subjects
in a much more advanced and demanding manner than the
chapter entitled “Kinetics”. The mathematical addendum
and the examples of calculations with solutions will undoubtedly be of value to chemistry students.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) No. 3
The Introduction to Electrochemistry at the beginning of
this textbook does not correspond to a chapter on electrochemistry, rather the physical chemistry of electrochemistry is dealt with in several sections. A summary could be
helpful for study.
This book enriches the available choice of textbooks
which are written in German. When compared with translations and, in particular, with textbooks published in English, where language difficulties aggravate problems with
the subject matter, this is an advantage which should not
be underrated.
The book is clearly and understandably written; the care
taken with the detailed derivations will ease the student’s
task in learning. This detailed physical chemistry textbook
is, at least, as much to be recommended as other good textbooks.
Walter Hack [NB 597 IE]
Max-Planck-Institut fur
Stromungsforschung, Gottingen (FRG)
Fragrance Chemistry: The Science of the Sense of Smell.
Edited by E. T. Theimer. Academic Press, New York
1982. xiii, 635 pp., bound, $ 89.50.
This book sets out to describe the significant classes of
fragrance compounds from a chemical point of view. It
contains sixteen chapters: T. V. Getchell, M. L. Getchell,
Physiology of Vertebrate Olfactory Chemoreception, 26
pp.; J. E. Amoore: Odor Theory and Odor Classification,
49 pp.; M . G . J. Beets: Odor and Stimulant Structure, 46
pp.; H . Boelens: Acyclic Monoterpene Alcohols with a 2,6Dimethyloctane Skeleton, 42 pp.; P. C. Trass: Advances in
the Chemistry of Some Interesting Cyclic Monoterpene
Alcohols, 45 pp.; V. Herout: Sesquiterpene Alcohols, 45
pp.; E . T. fieimer: Benzene Derived Cyclic Carbinols, 18
pp.; P. Z . Bedoukian: Violet Fragrance Compounds, 32
pp.; H. van den Dool: Synthesis of Vetiver Oil Components, 32 pp.; E. P. Demole: The Fragrance of Jasmine, 48
pp.; E.-J. Brunke, E. KIein: Chemistry of Sandalwood Fragrance, 37 pp.; B. D . Mookherjee, R . A. Wilson: The Chemistry and Fragrance of Natural Musk Compounds, 61 pp.;
T. F. Wood: Chemistry of Synthetic Musks I (Non-Benzenoid Musks) and I1 (Benzenoid Musks), 14 pp. and 34 pp.
resp.; G . Ohlofl: The Fragrance of Ambergris, 40 pp.; and
J . P. Walrudt: Analysis of Fragrance Materials, 42 pp.
The strictly chemical chapters are thus preceded by sections on the physiology of the olfactory system, the mechanism of the sense of smell, and odor-structure correlations
in odorous molecules, which, taken together, constitute a
fifth of the volume.
Chapter 4 considers the fundamental building blocks of
geraniol, nerol, linalool, citronellol, myrcenol and dihydromyrcenol detailing their syntheses and chemical reactions.
In the following chapter, the chemistry of menthol, a-terpineol, and borneol receive the prominence they deserve;
however the lengthy sections on verbenol, myrtenol, pinocarveol and the boll-weevil pheromones seem out of proportion with their importance to the perfumery industry.
The same criticism holds for Chapter 6 where sections on
industrially important C15 alcohols such as farnesol, nerolidol, santalol and cedrol rub shoulders with such exotic
sesquiterpenes as terrestrol, acorenol and hinesol. Surely,
caryophyllene alcohol and acetate, briefly mentioned in
the introduction to the chapter, deserve a more detailed
treatment.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 23 (1984) No. 3
The editor’s own contribution (Chapter 7) covers a curious miscellany-p-tert-butylcyclohexyl alcohol, benzyl
alcohol, styrallyl alcohol, dimethylbenzylcarbinol and
their corresponding acetates, together with 2-phenylethanol. However the comments regarding the different routes
to phenylethanol make interesting reading and his exposition on the use of aluminum chloride and Grignard reagents on an industrial scale deserves a wide audience.
Bedoukian’s survey of violet odorants rightly emphasizes
the importance of the ionones and methylionones in this
area, and then briefly touches on irones, damascones, nonadienal and acetylenic esters. In contrast Chapter 9 ‘has
only a modest essay on the vetyvenyl acetate of the perfumery industry; it concentrates on a- and p-vetivone, and
the history of the structural confusion regarding the latter.
Modern jasmine odorants are described in Chapter 10.
The character impact constituents of jasmine oil, Z-jasmone, jasmone lactone, and methyl jasmonate, are specified and their syntheses described. Consequently many of
the newer synthetic approaches to cyclopentanones are
summarized. The chemistry of the sandalwood fragrance
follows, in which a good balance between santalols and
terpenyl cyclohexanols has been achieved.
The next three chapters cover the various musk odorants. Mookherjee and Wilson’s contribution contains some
interesting unpublished observations on the macrocyclic
materials present in natural musk extracts. The synthetic
sequences to these materials are subdivided into three
groups-intramolecular ring closure, methylation of cyclopentadecanone, and ring expansion and/or contraction,
the last including a substantial amount of peripheral material. The monocyclic and polycyclic (indane, tetralin, and
isochroman) benzenoid musk odorants and the purely synthetic macrocyclic musks (e.g. ethylene brassylate) are
covered thoroughly in the other two chapters.
Ohlog in his chapter on the ambergris odor, covers a
dauntingly large number of compounds, but nevertheless
demonstrates clearly that the triaxial rule still applies in
this area of fragrance chemistry. Finally, Walrudt summarizes the more recent developments in instrumental analysis
and spectroscopy within the context of the perfumery industry.
To sum up, the topics this volume covers, it generally
covers well; however, such important fragrance materials
as the aliphatic aldehydes, hydroxycitronellal, hexylcinnamic aldehyde, coumarin, heliotropin, and rose oxide receive scarcely a mention.
Bruce A . McAndrew [NB 594 IE]
PPF International, Ashford (U. K.)
Lehrbuch der Lebensmittelchemie. By H.-D. Belitz and W .
Grosch. Springer Verlag, Berlin 1982. xxxviii, 788 pp.,
bound, DM 124.00.
This textbook covers the most important food ingredients (water; amino acids, peptides, proteins; enzymes; lipids; carbohydrates; flavoring; vitamins and minerals) as
well as the most important groups of foodstuffs (milk and
dairy products; eggs; meat; fish; whalemeat, crustaceans,
shellfish and molluscs; edible fats and oils; grain and
grain products ; legumes ; vegetables and vegetable products; fruit and fruit products; sugar, sugar alcohols and
honey; alcoholic beverages; coffee, tea, cocoa; spices, salt
253
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