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Book Review Les nucleases. Application L'tude des acides nucleiques (Nucleases. Their Application to the Study of Nucleic Acids). By M. P. de Garilhe

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The photochemical decarboxylation of acyl hypoiodites WJS
found by D . H . R . Barton, H . P . Faro, E. P . Serebryakov, and
N . F. Wooley to be useful for preparing iodides. A solution of
the acid plus lead tetraacetate in an inert solvent, e . g . carbon
tetrachloride or benzene, is boiled and irradiated, and iodine
is added until its color persits. The reaction probably proceeds via a n acyl hypoiodite, which on photolysis liberates
acyloxy radicals. On decarboxylation, these leave carbon
radicals which add iodine (Method a). The formation of acyl
hypoiodites can also be effected by an exchange reaction with
t-butyl hypoiodite (Method b). For example, n-hexanoic acid
gives 100% iodide (a), 12-acetoxystearic acid, 82% (a), 12oxostearic acid, 87 (a), cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, 91 "/,
(a), 70% (b), and apocamphanecarboxylic acid, 62% (b). /
[Rd 351/560 IE]
J. chem. SOC.(London) 1965, 2438 / -Ma.
A photo-oxidative cyclization of quercetin pentamethyl ether
( I ) was observed by A . C. Waiss and J . Corse. Irradiation of
an oxygen-free solution of ( I ) in methanol under nitrogen
with light of 350 m p wavelength for 40 h produced a 3 1 :(,
yield of a yellow compound, m.p. 2O9-21O0C, whose N M R
spectrum and chemical properties indicate it to be 2,3,8,10tet ;a methoxy- 7-0x0 [2]benzopyrano[.l, 3-61 [I ] benzopyran (2).
doCH
OCH3
CHBO
,
\
CH30
OCHR
+
bv
C
I
I
0
OCH3
H
I
~I
O
\
CH30
0
This reaction is the first example of a photo-oxidative cyclization of a n alkoxyl group with a n aromatic ring. A similar type
of cyclization may be involved in the formation of some
unusual flavonoid compounds. / J. Amer. chem. SOC. 87,
[Rd 353/562 IE]
2068 (1965) / -Ma.
BOOK REVIEWS
Handbuch der Spurenanalyse. (Handbook of Trace Element
Analysis). By 0. G. Koch and Gertrud Koch-Dedic. Bestimmung von Spurenelementen unter Anwendung extraktiver, photochemischer, spektrochemischer, mikrobiologischer und anderer Verfahren (Determination of
trace elements using extractive, photometric, spectrochemical, microbiological, and other methods). SpringerVerlag, Berlin-Grittineen-Heidelberg-New York 1961. 1st
edit., x v l + 1232 pp., 273 ngs., linen D M 226.- (about
$ 56.90).
This manual deals in its general section with units, detection
and estimation methods, and methods of separating and
enriching trace elements, with experimental techniques, and
the sensitivity and accuracy of these processes. The specialized
section contains chapters on sample preparation, extraction
techniques, scope of application of extracting agents, and
then a n alphabetically arranged description of the assays of
the elements Ag, Al, As, Au, B, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu,
Fe, Ga, Ge, Hf, Hg, In, Ir, Mg, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Os, P, Pb,
Pd, Pt, Re, Rh, Ru, Sb, Sc, Se, rare earths (seltene Erden), Si,
Sn, Ta, Tc, Te, Th, Ti, TI, U, transuranics, V, W, Y, Zn, and
Zr. Further sections are to be found on the determination of
the element groups in water, biological materials, metals and
alloys, soils, and rock samples, and o n microbiological
methods for assaying Cu, Fe, hl~Mn, Mo, Zn, K, and P.
Detailed practical procedures are given mainly for separations
and photometric determinations, less often for spectrographic and polarographic estimations and microbiological
assays. The author index contains about 4800 names covering
around 3800 publications; there is a 23-page subject index.
The book is intended for the use of the practical worker. It
is the first anthology of the methods of trace analysis arranged according to elements and groups of materials. The
text i s easy to read, and the hrmerous survey tables contain
an abundance of experimental material. Scrutiny of selected
German publications revealed that the literature has been
well covered. The numerous practical methods described
often make recourse to the original publications unnecessary.
The quality of the print and binding - and unfortunately the
high price - are in keeping with the high standards of the
publishers.
Without wishing to decry the magnificent achievement of the
authors, who both work in the laboratories of a large
foundry works, a few minor wishes for future editions might
be voiced. The alkali metals and the halogens should also be
included and - in contrast to the monograph by Sandell greater a:tention should be paid to non-photometric methods.
Angew. Chem. intemat. Edit.
1 Vol. 5 (1966) / No. I
It is a little disturbing that the literature references are given
at the end of each of the many individual sections and then
in the sequence in which they appear in the text. A list at the
end of the book arranged alphabetically according to author
names would save one the tedious task of searching at the
ends of the chapters, would eliminate repetitions, and would
facilitate further searches in the literature by giving leading
authors' names.
The make-up of the book calls for an indication of the future
development of trace analysis. Trace analysis means the
detection of less than 0.01 % of a substance in a large excess
of foreign matter - the matrix - which determines the
method of analysis applicable. High sensitivities and selectivities usually can be achieved only by making preliminary
chemical separations; this often calls for initial samples of
10-1000 g. It must be emphasized that any chemical
separation is always undesirable because of the danger of
introducing impurities, the dificulties sometimes involved,
and the amount of time required. However, only a few
physical methods can forego prior chemical separations; for
example, apart from spectrography and X-ray fluorescence
analysis, both of which are not extremely sensitive, there are
differential cathode-ray and pulse polarography, modifications of double-focussing mass spectrometry, w d gammaray spectrometry. Analyses in the nanogram and picogram
range are beyond the potentialities of normal methods and
can be achieved only by activation analysis, mass spectrometry, and occasionally electron microscopy, but then
sometimes only after previous chemical separations.
It is clear that this handbook of chemical trace analysis
naturally cannot follow these developments. As a supplement, it would be desirable to have a corresponding handbook of instrumental trace analysis, which could of course
be written only by a group of specialists. The present volume
is a n indispensible aid to the analyst. As the sole comprehensive treatise of its kind, it should be present in every general
chemical library.
B. Sansoni
[ N B 388,/264 IE]
Les nucleases. Application a I'6tude des acides nucleiques (Nucleases. Their Application to the Study of Nucleic Acids).
By M . P. de Garilhe. Chimie des substances naturelles
(Chemistry of natural products). Edited by E. Lederer.
Edition Hermann, Paris 1964. 1st edit., 284 pp.. 22 figs.,
26 tables, linen N F 36.- (about $ '7.50).
Here introductory chapters deal with the (French) nomenclature, properties, syntheses, and isolation of nucleic acids.
145
~
~
Numerous methods of isolation are carefully described. The
beginner is also introduced to all the relevant analytical
methods.
Thus there remain only about 100 pages for the discussion
of nucleases. For the more important of the 50 nuclease
preparations mentioned, details are given of their preparation
and properties. Among the endonucleases, the enzymes from
Staphylococcus pyogenes and Azotobacter agilis which attack
D N A and R N A to yield nucleoside-3’-phosphates or oligonucleotides with 5’-phosphate receive such attention. Ribonuclease from beef pancreas hvdrolyses specifically at
positions adjacent to pyrimidines and affords 3’-phosphates;
the crystallization and amino-acid sequence of this enzyme
are described, and data on its mode of action are given.
TheT1-RNase which splits the chains next to guanosine to
give 3’-guanylic acid derivatives is discussed very briefly.
DNase I from beef pancreas and DNase I1 from calf thymus
yield 5‘- and 3’-phosphates respectively. The most important
exonucleases which attack D N A and R N A lead to either
3’- or 5’-nucleoside monophosphates. An exo-DNase from
Eschevichia coli splits off 5 nucleotides. Most monoesterases
produce an alcohol or phenol plus orthophosphate. There
are some specific 5-nucleotidases, whereas an alkali phosphatase from E. coli hydrolyses even polyphosphates. A table
is given at the end of the book in which the ion requirements,
p H optima, substrate specificity, etc. of the enzymes discussed are given together with references. A bibliography
with 665 titles, table of contents and author and subject
indices close the book, which is intended as an introduction
to practical experimentation in this field, but which offers
indications of new methods for the expert as well.
J. H . Matthaei
[NB 357/215 IE]
Molecular Orbitals in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology. A
Tribute to R . S. Mulliken. Edited by P . - 0 . Lowdin and
B. Pullman. Academic Press, New York-London 1964.
578 pp., numerous illustrs. and tables,
1st edit., VIII
clothboui1d S 22.p.
‘‘In addition to the Schrodinger equation, there is a second
fundamental law in quantum chemistry which states:
M. 0. = Molecular orbital = Mulliken orbital.”
With these words the editors describe the extraordinary
contribution that R . S. Mulliken has made to the development
of theoretical chemistry. This volume has appeared in his
honour on the occasion of his retirement and contains 33
cofitributions on the subject of quantum theory and molecular
structure research which impressively document the influence
of the ideas and work of R . S. Mulliken on this subjec: The
articles range from biographical notes (by C. A . Coulson
and J . C. Slater) to short communications; they deal with the
development of the SCF theory and calculations o n small
molecules ( R . G. Purr; P . - 0 . Lowdin; G. Berthier; M. Simonetta, and E. Gianinetti; W . A. Bingel; L. Pauling; K. Reudenberg; B. G. Anex and H . Shull. E. Scroccc; and J. Tomasi;
S. J . Strickler and K . S . Pitzer; and T. L . Gilbert), with the
theory and analysis of molecular spectra (F. A . Matsen and
J . C. Browne; A. C . Hurley; S . J. Strickler and M . Kasha;
G. Amat and H . H. W w e n ; G. J. Hoijtink; and M . Koiani),
with x-e ectron theory (R McWeeny; E. Heilbronner;
I . Fischer-Hialmars; W . T. Simpson; A . L . H. Chung, M . J. S .
Dewar and N L. Sabelli; 7 . Nakamura, S . Kwun and H. Eyring R . Pauncz; and 7 Nakajima), with chemical reactivity
(0.
Chalvet, R . Dcridel and F. Peradejordi; R . D . Brown; and
K. Fukui), with group theory (H. C . Longuet-Higgins; and
J. Serre), and with tt,e applications of the MO theory to
biological problems ( A. Pullman and B. Pullman).
The book gives a very good survey of the current status of
knowledge in the field of theoretical chemistry. Since most
of the contributions contain not only new results but also
summaries of the field they deal with, the book will be of
value not only to the specialist but also to those with only a
secondary interest in the theoretical side of molecular
structure research. Of major interest for chemists are the
justification and generalization of the Huckel theory o n the
+
146
basis of the SCF theory by McWeeny, the derivation of the
rules of resanance theary for excited states from the Huckel
theory by E. Heilbronner, the detailed discussion by I . FischerHjalmars of the semiempirical determination of parameters in the Pariser-Parr-Pople theory, and the review by
R. 0.
Brown on MO calculations and electrophilic substitution.
However, it may be a despondent experience for many to
read here the “Elementary Introduction to the SCF Theory”
given by M . Simonetta and E. Gianinetti, which is explicitly
for the use of chemists, for it shows that much more importance is attached to the mathematical and theoretical
training of chemists abroad than in Germany.
M . Klessinger
[NB 3741232 IE]
Analytical Methods for Pesticides, Plant Growth Regulators,
and Food Additives (in 4 volumes). Edited by G. Zweig.
Academic Press. New York-London 1964. 1st edit., Vol.11:
Insecticides. XVII + 619 pp., numerous figs. and tables,
linen S 23.00; Vol. 111: Fungicides, Nematicides and Soil
Fumigants, Rodenticides, and Food and Feed Additives.
237 pp., numerous figs. and tables, linen $ 12.00;
XI1
269 pp., numerous figs. and
Vol. IV: Herbicides. XI11
tables, linen $ 12.00.
Volumes 11,111, and IV of this series have appeared in a most
welcome rapid sequence soon after Vol. I [ I ] and deal with
47 insecticides, including acaricides (Vol. II), 14 fungicides,
5 nematicides and soil fumigants, 2 rodenticides, 3 food or
feedstuff additives (Vol. Ill), and 27 herbicides (Vol. IV), i.e.
98 exit ingiedients in all.
In the individual chapters, brief details are given on the
composition, designations, history, properties, synthesis,
toxicology, and applications of each preparation discussed,
followed by a critical review supported by literature references
of the methods known for quantitative estimation of its components and of residues which remain in harvested products
of foodstuffs. One or more recommended analytical methods
are then given for most of the preparations with detailed
practical instructions.
These foolproof analytical procedures, worked out by
acknowledged experts, make the volumes - which are also
of tasteful outward appearance - a reliable laboratory aid
for the analyst It is to be hoped that the editor will soon
complete his valuable work with supplementary volumes and
then keep it up to date. The widespread development of
chemical crop protection and the increasing dem
for
routine control of foodstuffs for toxic residues necessitate the
development of fast and reliable methods of analysis of
every poison used in agiiculture. In addition, there is often
a need to check analytical results by other methods. In the
present volumes, methods are given neither for the most
recent products (perhaps because suitable analytical procedures have not yet been worked out well enough) nor for
some well-established biocides; e. g. the important insecticide
Lindane should have been included in Vol. 11. In view of
the widespread distribution that the work will probably
attain, it seems advisable to designate the active ingredients
of pesticides in future by the “common names”
proposed by the technical committee T C 81 of the International Standardization Organization (ISO) instead of trade
names of the formulations in which they are contained, for
these are often not generally known, e.g. Dylox@ for triH . Maier-Bode
[NB 392/250 IE]
chlorophon.
+
+
[ I ] Cf. Angew. Chem. 77, 358 (1965); Angew. Chem. internat.
Edit. 4, 377 (1965).
Mammalian Protein Metabolism. Edited by H. N . Munro and
J . B. Allison. Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York-London
566 pp.. numerous figs. and tables,
1964. 1st edit., XV
linen $ 18.50.
It is the intention of the editors to present in this two-volume
work all aspects of protein metabolism in higher animals and
humans. This first volume is devoted to physiological-
+
Angew. Chem. iniernat. Edit. ,’ Vol. 5 (1966)
1 No. I
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