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Book Review Liquid Crystal Polymers. (Series Speciality Polymers). Series editor J. M. C. Cowie Edited by N. A. Plat

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noying, especially in a fairly expensive
book, to find that the review copy had
printing defects on several pages, where
multiple printing had produced shadow
characters making the text difficult to
read.
Although the material in this book by
Halgas is not especially up-to-date, its
particular strength lies in providing a
comprehensive and detailed account of
enzymic methods in organic synthesis.
Thus it is suitable both as an introduction
to preparative biocatalysis and as a permanent reference source for research
chemists and lecturers with interests in
this field.
WoljlDieter Fessner
Institut fur Organische Chemie
und Biochemie
der Universitit Freiburg (FRG)
Liquid Crystal Polymers. (Series :
Speciality Polymers. Series editor:
J. M . C. Con'ie.) Edited by N . A .
Plat&. Plenum, New York, 1993.
438 pp., hardcover $ 110.00.-ISBN
0-306-4421 9-1
This book consists of ten chapters in
which twelve Russian authors summarize
the rapid developments that have occurred in the field of liquid crystal polymers in the last 15 years or so. Especially
noteworthy is the very good coordination
that has been achieved between the various specialists with regard to content,
consistcnt use of symbols, and form of
presentation. Each chapter has a short introduction linking it to the other authors'
contributions and briefly describing the
historical development. On the whole the
editor has succeeded well in ensuring that
the individual authors' reviews of progress in liquid crystal polymers are highly
informative and critically presented. It is
entirelb appropriate that in this area of
research the Russian literature should be
given special emphasis, as much of it is not
sufficiently well known in other countries.
However, it must be noted less favorably
that there are only sporadic references to
work published from 1987 onwards. Brief
descriptions of the ten chapters follow.
Chapter 1 : Statistical physics of liquid
crystalline order in polymeric systems
(A. R. Khoklov, 38 pp.. 139 refs.). Theoretical models for both rigid and flexible
polymers are critically discussed with references to the original papers. Melting behavior and elastic and rheological properties are treated in rather more detail. This
chapter provides the fundamental basis
for the following chapters. Chapter 2:
Phase equilibria in polymer systems with
liquid crystalline phases (S. P. Papkov,
32 pp., 58 refs.). After a general classification of the types of phases and explanations of the meaning of thermotropic and
lyotropic phases. the author concentrates
mainly on the solution behavior of polymers with rigid chains. The predictions of
several different models are compared.
Chapter 3: Molecular structures of polymers with mesogenic groups (I. N. Shtennikova, 54 pp., 111 refs.). Different conformations are discussed, and the implications in relation to streaming birefringence and the Kerr effect are briefly considered. This is followed by a discussion of
these effects as observed in lyotropic polymers and in polymers with main and side
chains, from the standpoints of different
theories. Chapter 4: The mesomorphic
state of polymers with flexible chains
(Yu.K. Godovskii and V.S. Papkov,
38 pp., 93 refs.). Various experimental results on linear polyorganosiloxanes, polyphosphazenes, and cyclolinear polyorganosiloxanes are summarized and
evaluated. Chapter 5: Thermotropic liquid crystal polymers with mesogenic
groups in the main chain (S. S. Skorokhodov, 30 pp.. 82 refs.). Continuing
the theme of Chapter4, syntheses of
polyesters, polyethers, and polyurethanes
are described. Special attention is devoted
to the use of texture observations to recognize the liquid-crystalline state, and to
the detection of order. The effects of the
previous history of the polymer on its
physico-chemical properties are discussed. Chapter 6: Comb-like liquid crystal polymers (V. P. Shibaev, 57 pp.,
69 refs.). V. P. Shibaev, one of the 'fathers' of polymers with liquid-crystalline
side chains, discusses some of his areas of
research: methods for the synthesis of
polyacrylates. polymethacrylates, polyesters, and polypeptides with various liquid-crystalline side groups. Topics receiving special attention are the glass transitions of the polymers, and related
discussions regarding the thermal equilibrium, the effects of chemical variations
(including the degree of polymerization)
on phase transition temperatures, structural aspects of the phases. and ferroelectric polymers. The survey of nematic polymers and the comparison with smectic
polymers in this chapter are some of the
most valuable sections of the book. Unfortunately it has only been possible to
give a hint here of the start of the rapid
developments in the field of elastomers
that have occurred in the last few years.
Chapter 7: Liquid crystal polymers of the
cholesteric type (Ya. S. Freidzon and V. P.
Shibaev, 52 pp., 87 refs.). By limiting the
topic area to be covered, the authors have
been able to give a detailed and comprehensive treatment which is well worth
reading, even by specialists. Chapter 8:
Structural transformations of thermotropic liquid crystal polymers in electric
and magnetic fields (R. V. Talroze and
N. A. Plate, 36 pp., 67 refs.). Starting
from the fundamental principles, the authors deal mainly with electrooptical effects of dielectric and hydrodynamic origin, and with induced phase transformations and memory effects (information
storage). This section should be especially
useful to technologists with interests in
this area. Chapter 9: Rheological properties of liquid crystal polymers (B. G.
Kulichikhin, 44 pp., 119 refs.). The theoretical and experimental aspects of polymer solutions and melts are treated comprehensively. The author also briefly
discusses some hitherto unsolved experimental problems and potential technological applications. Chapter 10: Highstrength and high-modulus fibers from
liquid crystal polymers (A. V. Volokhina
and G. I. Kudryavtsev, 36 pp.. 94 refs.).
The authors discuss the technology and
characterization of Aramid fibers, ultrahigh-modulus fibers made from heterocyclic monomers, and lyotropic polymers.
and predict a bright future for such niaterials.
The book can be recommended for everyone with interests in mesomorphic
phases, and for those concerned with new
developments in electrooptics, information storage, sensor technology. and fibers
research.
tforst Kresse
Institut fur Physikalische Chemie
der Universitat Halle-Wittenberg ( F R G )
Chirotechnology. Industrial Synthesis
of Optically Active Compounds. By
R. A . Slieldon. Marcel Dekker, New
York, 1993. 423 pp., hardcover
$ 145.00-ISBN 0-8247-9143-6
Does stereochemistry have any particular implications for the design of an industrial chemical process, and if so, what
methodologies with scale-up potential are
available for efficient and successful manufacturing of stereoisomers? This simple
and straightforward two-fold question well
reflects the tremendously increased importance and awareness of industrially related
stereochemical issues over the past one or
two decades. The three-dimensional concept of molecular species so brilliantly conceived in the mid-1870s and assuming a
central role ever since, especially in organic
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