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Book Review Liquid Extraction. By R. E. Treybal. McGraw-Hill Series in Chemical Engineering edited by M. S

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ods and give critical appraisals of the data. An especially
valuable feature of the book is the inclusion of numerous
equations for empirical representation of the thermodynamic
functions of a given metal as a function of temperature.
The major portion of the book is devoted to binary alloys.
Here the results for 168 systems are dealt with, and phase
diagrams are included. The reader finds data o n the integral
and partial molar free energies, entropies, enthalpies, and
activities or activity coefficients for individual temperatures;
it is then easy to evaluate other thermodynamic quantities
from these. Here the introductory comments frequently
include data on the crystal structures of special alloy phases.
In using this section, the experienced thermodynamist - who
will normally skip the general introduction - must note that
for liquid alloys, the standard states are generally the l i q u i d
elements and not the elements in the equilibrium state valid
for the temperature in question; corresponding standards
apply for solid alloys.
The literature index is long and rather complete; it covers
publications up to about 1961. This and thecritical evaluation
of the data make the book an unusually helpful advisor for
all scientists doing research in the field of thermodynamics at
extreme temperatures.
K. Schufer
“€3
304/163 IE]
Reagents and Reactions for Qualitative Inorganic Analysis.
Fifth Report. Published by the International Union of Pure
and Applied Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Division,
Commission on Analytical Reactions. Butterworths & Co.
Publishers Ltd., London 1964. 1st edit., X + 88 pp., linen
21.12.6 (about $4.25).
This booklet contains a collection of qualitative reactions for
the detection of 51 elements and radicals. These are
mostly reliable color reactions, but sometimes also precipitation and crystal reactions. The performance of the tests requires only the most primitive facilities (they are mostly spot
tests o n filter paper and occasionally test-tube experiments).
The limits of detection and interfering factors for each test
are also given.
The value of the book lies principally in the fact that the reactions are described concisely, clearly, and uniformly, and
that they have been checked in three different laboratories.
However, some of the reactions included, e.g. a test for
rhenium in which molybdenum interferes, or a test for
vanadium which is also given by iron, will probably be of
little use in practice. Nonetheless, since other reactions are
also given in such cases, this is not a serious lapse, and the
book can be thoroughly recommended.
R. Bock
[ N B 2881145 IE]
.Progress in Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 5. Edited by F. A .
Cotton. Interscience Publishers, a Division of John Wiley &
Sons, Inc., New York-London 1963. 1st edit., VIII
564
pp., numerous illustrs. and tables, linen C. 5.5.0 (about
B 14.50).
Progress in inorganic chemistry - characterized both by
development of new individual disciplines from solid state
physics to organometallic chemistry, and by increasing
numbers of research publications - has led to the innovation of the monograph series “Progress in Inorganic Cheniistry” and “Advances in Inorganic Chemistry and Radiochemistry” alongside the classical abstract journals. In view
of the current thirst for information, the general usefulness
of both series is beyond question, but the present volume
leaves some desires unfulfilled.
Its four articles deal with fields which lie very far apart: in
his article “Dinitogen Trioxide”, I. R . Beattie restricts his
discussion mainly to the physical properties of this one
compound; its interesting connections with other oxides of
nitrogen is given only little consideration. L. Mnper has
written a valuable review with 527 (!) references o n the
“Preparation of Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Phosphines”; the readily surveyable systematic classification extends right up to the alphabetically arranged list of references.
+
Atigew. Chem. internut. Edit.
Vol. 4 (1965)
1 No. 5
In his treatise on the “Polarographic Behavior of Coordination Compounds”, A . A . WFek gives a well-planned introduction to the methods and scope of this section of electrochemistry. The book closes with a treatise by A . D. Liehr,
“The Coupling of Vibrational and Electronic Motions
in Degenerate and Nondegenerate Electronic States of Inorganic and Organic Molecules, Part 111 : Nondegenerate
Electronic States”; Parts I and I1 are to be found in Volumes
3 and 4 of the series.
The last point mentioned induces the reviewer to direct a
request at the editor: In consideration of the reasonable
price of the volumes and above all of the excellent quality
of most of the individual contributions, attempts should
be made to avoid too great variances in the nature o f the
articles published together in one volume. Better coordination of the subject matter discussed can only be of
benefit to the value of each individual volume.
H . Bock
[ N B 303/162 IE]
The Cyanine Dyes and Related Compounds. By Frmces M .
Hamer. Vol. 18 on The Chemistry of Heterocyclic Compounds, a Series of Monographs edited by A . Weissberger.
Interscience Publishers, a Division of John Wiley & Sons,
790 pp., a
New York-London 1964. 1st edit., XXXVI
few illustrs., numerous tables, linen €17.0.0 (about $47.00).
+
I t is a long and laborious undertaking to describe over one
hundred years of cyanine dyestuff chemistry, and hence the
author of this volume deserves high recognition for working through the publications and patents on cyanine dyes
since 1856 (the discovery of cyanine by G. Williams) until
1959 with such great care and for assorting the innumerable
dyestuffs of this class as far as possible into an orderly system.
The essential discoveries of the first 50 years of cyanine chemistry, during which the dyes were still produced mainly by
empirical methods since their structures were unknown, have
been lucidly reconstructed. The recapitulation of later developments has benefitted greatly from the fact that the author
has herself participated in the research and applications of
these dyes since the early nineteen-twenties. Thus she has succeeded in writing a book which is the only work of reference
of this type available that the expert in this field can consult
to find the numerous chemical syntheses and physical properties of even the most complicated dyestuffs.
Apart from describing the classical basic cyanines prepared
from common and less usual heterocyclics, the book also i n cludes other classes of polymethine dyes, e . g . hemicyanines,
styryl dyestuffs, and the azacyanines, a class of dyes which
has acquired new importance for coloring synthetics fibers.
Long, detailed chapters are also devoted to dequaternized
cyanines, the merocyanines, and hemioxonoles (neutrocyanines), and to acidic poIymethines (oxonoles) and polynuclear cyanines. The book is also a treasure trove for dyestuff theorists, for example, thanks to its chapters on constitution and color and on spectral sensitization of silver halide
emulsions. The fluently readable style of the text and the high
quality of the print deserve a special mention. The only improvement to be desired in this volume is the inclusion of a
patent index, and it is to be hoped that the author will be
able to compile a sequel which is just as comprehensive and
carefully edited to cover the developments in this subject
0. Riester [ N B 295/153 IE]
since 1959.
Liquid Extraction. By R . E. Treybol. McGraw-Hill Series in
Chemical Engineering, edited by M . S. Peters. McGrawHill Book Co. Inc., New York-San Francisco-TorontoLondon 1963. 2nd Edit., 621 pp., numerous illustrs., linen,
S 6.8.0 (about $ 18.00).
The title of this book suffices to show the nomenclature
difficulties encountered i n the field of separations by distribution. The term “liquid extraction” here implies the technique normally called “liquid-liquid extraction” in America,
“solvent extraction” in Britain, or “distribution between two
453
liquid phases’‘ in Germany. Moreover, the content of the
book is placed in the proper perspective only when it is
considered that it is part of the ‘‘Series on Chemical Engineering”, for it deals cJmpiehensively and i n detail with
everything that seems to be of importance from the point
of view of the U.S. chemical engineer, but contains little or
nothing about the c h e m i c a l fundamentals of distribution.
For example, the chapters on “Prediction of Distribution”
and “Choice of Solvent” d o not discuss the question which
solvents may be particularly suitable for separating a mixture
of substances for chemical reasons, but contain graphic
and mathematical aids for estimating the separatory effect
to be expected for a given system of materials when the
equilibrium data are only incompletely known.
The book is the accepted standard work on this topic in the
U.S. American literature. The terminology coined therein -not always the best - has found acceptance in mineral oil
technology even beyond the U.S.A., so that study of the book
is the best introduction to literature on this theme. A few
chapters (physico-chemical fundamentals, determination of
the separatory effect - mostly via graphs or diagrams) are
recommendable as an educational text on account of the
clarity of the diction; others are hard to read, because far
some chapters up to two pages are required solely for the key
to the symbols used, because despite this other symbols occur
the meaning of which is unclear, and because some definitions
are insufficiently precise or even incorrect ( e . g . the quantity
A on p. 244). The book seems therefore rather inconvenient
for the purpose of rapidly finding answers to isolated questions.
The new edition is some 50 larger than the first edition of
1951; recent literature has been evaluated, and a short
chapter on laboratory methods has been inserted. New
examples from various fields - including inorganic chemistry
- have been added, even though the book is presented from
the viewpoint of the petroleum engineer (as shown, for
example, by the frequently inapt use of the terms “raffinate”
and “extract”). However, the problems discussed, including
mass transfer and fundemental questions related to apparatus
in particular, are presented i n such great detail that anyone
working o n separations by distribution - even inorganic
chemists - can read this book with profit.
Werner Fischer
[ N B 310/169 IE]
Progress in Reaction Kinetics, Vol. 2. Edited by G . Portpr, in
cooperation with K . R. Jennings and B. Stevens. Pergamon
Press, Oxford-London-Edinburgh-New York-Paris-Frankfurt 1964. 1st Edit., V11 + 391 pp., numerous illustrs. and
tables, linen 6 4.4.0 (about $ 11.60).
Once again G. Porter has succeeded i n securing prominent
specialists to present excellent treatises on some important
aspects of kinetics research.
G. C . Fettis and J. H . Knox give a review (36 pp., 64 references) o n the rate constants of the reactions between halogen
atoms on the one hand and molecules of hydrogen, hydrocarbons, and chlorocarbons on the other. The results are
also discussed from the point of view of the methods involved. The fact that the reaction of hydrogen iodide is not a
prototype of a bimolecular reaction deserves mention even i n
a book review.
R . J. Cvetanotiic gives a comprehensive discourse (86 pp.,
147 refs.) on energy transfer via excited mercury atoms. His
formulation of the electron-deficient transition state involved
(p. 127) is interesting.
H . M . Frey deals with the quantitative aspect of carbene
chemistry (27 pp., 126 refs.). Insertion and addition reactions
of carbene and substituted carbenes are described.
In the “Kinetics of cis-trans-isomerizations” of olefinic systems, R. B. CunduN deals with a field that has been studied
with particular intensity within recent years (44 pp., I8 1 refs.).
The same remark applies to the “Kinetics of Anionic Polymerization and Copolymerization” by M. Swtrrc and J . Sn7id
454
(61 pp., 180 refs.). Both articles are characterized by their
complete coverage of important publications o n these sub,jects.
A review o n the “Rate Constants of Protolytic Reactions i n
Aqueous Solution” by M . Eigen, W. Kruse, G. Mnrirs, and
L . De Mnyer is necessarily a summary of Eigen’s publications.
This is preceded by a discussion of the maximum reaction rate
in solution. Regarding relaxation methods the reader is
referred to specialized publications.
Thechapter on “Reaction Rates of Some Haem Compounds”
by Q. H . Gibsori (12 pp., 67 refs.) gives an exemplary review
of the status of kinetic investigations on biochemical systems.
I n conclusion, a non-review article by R . M . h’oyes describes
the formal kinetic treatment of secondary reactions in a
general form. H e defines and discusses the limits of validity
of approximate solutions.
The final “Reaction Index” gives a list of more than 1000
reactions whose rate constants are discussed in the text. The
book is an indispensible part of the libraries of chemical and
physico-chemical laboratories. Its purchase for private use
can be recommended even to individuals who are working in
only one of the fields discussed.
H , sinn [ N B 312/171 I E ]
Volatile Silicon Compounds. By E. A . V . Ebsworth. Vol. 4 of
the International Series of Monographs on Inorganic
Chemistry, edited by H . Taube and A . G. Maddock. Pergamon Press, Oxford-London-New York-Paris 1963. 1st
179 pp., linen G2.2.0 (about $5.75).
edit., vi
+
The chemistry of the elements Si, Ga, and Sn has developed
enormously during the last decade, and silicon compounds
are in the forefront of this development. Here the author has
disregarded silicates, silicones, silicon methylenes, and complicated carbon compounds containing silicon as a hetero
atom in favor of simple compounds of silicon with other elements. This selection is particularly fortunate, since there is
n o comparable recent survey of this type, and since reliable
statements about the nature of the bonding involved can best
be made here. An introduction is followed by two chapters on
the Si-H bond (simple compounds and their reactions). The
third chapter deals with silicon halides. The fourth chapter
deals with the Si-C and Si-Si group of compounds, the fifth
chapter with those of Si and the elements N, P, and As, and
the sixth chapter with the compounds of Si and elements of
Group VI of the periodic table. Each chapter deals with the
preparation of characteristic compounds and their physical
and chemical properties, due regard being given to the results
of spectroscopic investigations. The seventh chapter summarizes the data on compounds which d o not fit well into the
simple scheme selected. The literature has been covered up to
1961. A valuable feature of the book is the inclusion of much
numerical data, e.6. energies of formation and bond lengths.
This book will prove a valuable companion to every chemist
G. Fritz [NB 290/148 I € ]
interested in this field.
Zone Electrophoresis in Blocks and Columns. By H . Bloemendol. Elsevier Monographs. Elsevier Publishing Co., Amsterdam-London-New York 1963. 1st edit., viii + 219 pp., 75
figs., 13 tables, linen DM 22.50 (about $5.65).
Analytical and preparative zone electrophoresis is an inseparable part of protein chemistry nowadays. Separations of
mixtures of similar proteins can be achieved on starch gels i n
an electrical field with a n accuracy that is equalled by practically no otker physical method. Bloemendal is therefore to be
congratulated for this description of conventional apparatus
for carrying out block, gel, and column electrophoresis (including continuous procedures), together with procedures for
applying them i n work with biological materials. The author
has intentionally disregarded electrophoresis o n paper or
agar-agar and also electrophoresis without a solid support,
since monographs on these topics hace already been published,
but he has included electrophoresis on columns with concenAngew. Chem. internut. Edit.
Vol. 4(1965)
No. 5
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