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Book Review Liquid Fuels from Coal. Edited by R. T. Ellington

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The book contains a section (p, 281) on “Enzyme immunoassays for the detection of drugs in serum and urine”, but
the keyword “Enzyme immunoassay” does not appear in the
index. There are many similar cases. This is indeed a pity,
since a book on emergency medicine is naturally only as
good as its index.
The clinician will regret particularly the omission of, inter
a h , the following signs of acute pictures: diarrhea, unconsciousness due to lactacidosis, coma paraproteinaemicum, and
pulmonary embolism.
The strength of the book lies in the emphasis on laboratory
diagnostics, so that it can be recommended particularly to
users in this field.
Friedrich Williy [NB 436 IE]
Structure Reports. Edited by J . Trotter for the International
Union of Crystallography. Bohn, Scheltema & Holtema,
Utrecht. Vol. 40B (part 1 +2) for 1974. Organic Section.
Publ. 1976. 1227 pp., bound, fl. 272.00; Vol. 41A for 1975,
Metals and Inorganic Section. Publ. 1977, 477 pp., bound,
fl. 127.50; 60-Year Structure Index 1913--1973. A. Metals
and Inorganic Compounds. Publ. 1976, 229 pp., bound,
fl. 68.00; Supplement for 1974-1975. Publ. 1977, 47 pp.,
bound fl. 10.00; 60-Year Structure Index 1913-1973. B.
Organic and Organometallic Compounds. Publ. 1976, 437
pp., bound, fl. 161.50; Strukturbericht (Structure Report).
Cumulative Index for Vol. 1-7 (1913---1939). Publ. 1976,
91 pp.. bound, fl. 42.50 (Price to Subscribers).
X-Ray structure determinations enable the most extensive
statements to be made about the structure of chemical compounds and are used increasingly because of the enormous
development of automatic measuring procedures and of elegant methods of calculation. The volume of the results is
increasing accordingly, but only their technically correct collection and ease of retrieval enable them to be rationally
evaluated by themany potential users, be they crystallographers,
chemists, biologists, mineralogists, physicists, metallurgists,
or others.
Therefore, in 1956, the International Union of Crystallography continued as “Structure Reports” the “Strukturberichte”
begun in 1931 by P. P. Ewuld and C. Hermum; with the
volumes listed above it was possible to catch up with the
current literature, insofar as this is ever possible in a traditional
abstracts publication.
Whereas at the beginning of the series each paper of “structural interest” was abstracted critically and in detail, the data
have had to be reduced to the core of the structural information: chemical formula, name of the substance, literature citation (with reference to older papers), unit cell, space group,
conditions of measurement, description of structure (sometimes with illustration), atomic distances and bond angles
(selected values), and atomic coordinates (only for the simpler
structures). Nowadays each volume contains the structures
published in the year specified, provided that the data named
above can be taken from the paper.
In the volumes of series A the structures are arranged
in order of increasing complexity but with regard to the chemical relationships (e.y. alloys, sulfides, oxides, phosphates, silicates). In the volumes of series B a division into classes has
been attempted (e.y. aliphatic amines, N-heterocycles, metal
complexes (N-ligand)).Structures for which the data are incomplete are collected in a table.
The reader obtains a stimulating review, the user is thrown
back on the indexes: author’s name index, substance name
index (rational and mineral names), and the molecular formula
index. Since the year of publication is second in importance
for the purposes of a structure search, the new 60-year indexes
,4rlpM
Clfenf.Ifif. Ed. Eli<]/. I S (1979) N o .
I
are a very considerable help to the owner of all the volumes.
An attempt to increase the usefulness has been made by means
of a classified index. In Part A the index for some classes
is according to the molecular formula. for others according
to the periodic system. In addition, this volume contains an
alphabetical index of mineral names and a structure-type index
after Pearson for metallic substances. Part B contains, besides
the usual molecular formula index a classifying molecular
formula index, sorted according to organic-chemical classes
and according to compounds of the transition metals.
Since further structural information was provided in the
first volumes of the series (Strukturbericht 1-7), these volumes
have additionally their own collective index, which contains special subject and substance indexes taken from the
original indexes after modernization and translation into English.
The value of a collection of abstracts must be measured
by the criteria of completeness, reliability, variety of entry
points, and the period covered. Although the yearly volumes
are a great help and often make it unnecessary to go to
the original literature, yet in the important 60-year indexes
many things can be sought in vain. Many molecular formulas
given in the individual indexes are lost. In the
indexes the compounds are entered only once, but one does
not know where. For instance, “tricarbonyl(hexaethy1borazine)chromium(o)” is found among the metal-x-complexes
(arenes) but not among boron compounds. In the more
detailed classifying index of inorganic compounds the variable
nomenclature makes searching still more of a problem. Thus,
Cu21n205occurs not among the indates, like e . g . Cdln204,
but among cuprates as “copper indium oxide”; CuA1,04
not among the aluminates, like e.g. NiAI2O4, but among
cuprates as “copper(rr) aluminate”. No one should be deceived
by the simple, apparently obvious division into classes (nitrates,
tellurides, etc.) into thinking that the chemical relations are
completely reproduced. Search for compounds containing
several relevant components requires great care; one finds
the Roussin compounds CsFe4S3(N0),(H2O)among sulfides,
Fe4(N0).+S4among nitrosyls, and ( C Z H ~ ) ~ ( F ~ ~ ( NinO ) ~ S ~ )
the organic part among metal complexes with a sulfur ligand.
To aid a search for crystal structures of organic and organometallic compounds better indexes are available; for metals
and inorganic compounds the present book is, in spite of
its failings, currently the most complete work of reference.
Particularly noteworthy is the structure-type index (after Pecrrson), containing nearly 2000 compounds.
That the problem of finding and displaying large quantities
of data can also be handled in a modern way is shown by
the work “Molecular Structure and Dimensions”L*].
Giiriter be rye rho^ [NB 440a IE]
Liquid Fuels from Coal. Edited by R. 7: Ellington, Academic
Press, New York-London, 1977. 1st edit., xvii. 273 pp..
numerous figs. and tables, bound, $ 14.50.
A great deal of R & D work has been done in the USA
on the liquefaction of coal in the past few years. and the
subject was discussed in detail at the 172nd National Meeting
of the American Chemical Society in 1976. This book contains
17 studies. each preceded by a short introductory note by
the editor. The following topics are discussed:
Dissolution and liquefaction of coal: effect of the solvent;
liquefaction with mixtures of H 2 and CO; influence of various
catalyst-carriers and of the mineral fraction of coal.
Kinetics of various reactions: hydrogenation over Co/Mo
[*] Cf. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1 7 . 872(1978).
87
catalysts: general criteria for catalyst development; regeneration and abrasion of the catalyst in the H-coal process; kinetics
of coal hydrodesulfurization; solubility of hydrogen and
the kinetics of the hydrogenation of coal; short contact time
liquefaction of coal.
Separation of solid products: modification of the particle
size of inorganic coal components in the liquid product; coagulation and filtration of the ash components in the Synthoil
process.
Analytical methods: separation procedures and development
of methods for product analysis; application of high-pressure
liquid chromatography; petrographic classification of solid
residues.
The experimental equipment is generally described accurately and the results are detailed in tables and diagrams. The
book is well worth recommending. The results aye of interest
not only for the liquefaction of coal, but also for the processing
of heavy petroleum residues.
K . Hedden [NB 434 IE]
Ullrnanns Encyklopiidie der technischen Chemie. Edited by
E. Burtholomg, E. Biekert, H . Hellmann, H . Ley (deceased),
and W M . Weiyert (deceased). Volume 13: Hormone bis
Keramik (Hormones to Ceramics). Verlag Chemie, Weinheim-New York 1977. 4th Edit., xv, 735 pp., bound DM
380.00.-Volume 14: Keramische Farben bis Kork (Ceramic Colors to Cork). Verlag Chemie, Weinheim-New York
1977. 4th Edit., xv, 717 pp., bound DM 380.00.
Volumes 13 and I4 of “Ullmann” continue the series of
alphabetically arranged volumes of the new edition of this
reference work.
Among the many keywords of Volume 13, the following
ones catch the eye, partly on account of the size of the corresponding entries: Hormones (71 pages), insecticides (65 pages),
ion exchangers (68 pages), rubber (129 pages). The last-named
article impressively underlines the comprehensive and thorough treatment typical of “Ullmann”. The entry is subdivided
into five sections entitled: Introduction and natural rubber:
synthetic rubber; rubber chemicals and additives; processing
and regeneration; testing. Each of these sections is preceded,
like every other entry, by a clear list of contents which reveals,
for example, that the wealth of industrial and technical information presented is also accompanied by purely chemical
material. In this case, for instance, the chemical composition
of latex is considered under the heading “natural rubber”.
Mention should be made of the following organic intermediates dealt with in Volume 13: hydroquinone (4 pages); aliphatic hydroxy- and keto carboxylic acids (9 pages); aromatic
hydroxy carboxylic acids (6 pages); imidazole (3 pages); isocyanates (12 pages): isoprene (10 pages). Topics from inorganic
chemistry include: hydrazine (1 3 pages); hydrides (25 pages);
the elements indium (1 0 pages), iodine (8 pages), and potassium
(66 pages), including their compounds ; electrical insulators
(19 pages), chalk (12 pages), ceramics (25 pages). Dyes are
represented by the keywords indigo and indigoid dyes ( 5
pages), indicator dyes (14 pages), and cationic dyes (10 pages),
and pharmaceuticals by cough medicines (1 2 pages), interferons (4 pages), and the article on hormones mentioned above.
Various other keywords not assignable to specific substances
also warrant attention: hydrogenation and dehydrogenation
(1 3 pages); natural isotopes and isotope separation (31 pages);
heterogeneous catalysis and catalysts (53 pages): and the keyword ion exchangers, in which there unfortunately appears
to be some slight lack of coordination between the various
authors. A further remark is also called for here: the so-called
liquid ion exchangers are used not only in uranium recovery
88
but also for the enrichment of other metals such as copper
on an industrial scale (see also Volume 2, p. 571).
Volume 14 is dominated by two keywords which have
become highly topical: nuclear engineering (1 67 pages) and
coal and coal refining (282 pages). The article on nuclear
engineering is largely devoted to the numerous chemical problems of this field; however, a well-balanced survey of the
entire field is also given, as follows from the individual section
headings: Historical and introduction: power reactors,
general ; thermal reactors (converters): breeders: fuel cycle;
nuclear fusion. Of particular interest to the chemist is the
section on the fuel cycle which could also contribute important
factual material for restoring the current public discussion
of nuclear power stations to a less emotional level. Precisely
this keyword of nuclear engineering beautifully illustrates the
way in which the presentation of a large field of study in
the new Ullmann becomes a terse monograph in the best
sense of the word. The same can be said of the keyword
coal and coal refining. A preliminary general section considers,
irzrer alitr, the origin, occurrence, chemical structure, mining
and processing of coal; methods of refining coal are also
surveyed before being considered in separate sections: FischerTropsch synthesis; gas production; hydrogenation; carbonization and coking of lignite; carbonization and coking of coal.
The section on gas production considers not only gasification
of coal but all other processes for the production of gas
containing CO and H2, as well as synthetic natural gas, i.e.
processes using petroleum fractions (naphtha, heavy oil) and
natural gas as raw materials. Thus all the problems connected
with the production of these gases, which are of interest both
as chemical raw materials and as energy sources, are surveyed
in a comprehensive manner, as are purification operations.
Other large entries in Volume 14 include: adhesives and
dispersions (42 pages), carbon (57 pages), hydrocarbons (62
pages, including the section on their separation). Furthermore,
the keywords ketenes (9 pages), aliphatic ketones (31 pages),
aromatic ketones (4 pages), and carboxylic esters (3 pages)
represent organic intermediates, while inorganic materials
include cobalt (1 8 pages), carbon dioxide (1 3 pages), and carbon
monoxide (68 pages), and color chemistry is represented by
ceramic colors (1 2 pages).
Summarizing, it may be said that the two volumes live
up to the high standard already set by previous volumes
with regard to quality of presentation and production.
U@rt Onkeri [NB 445 IE]
Catalysis in Coal Conversion. B y J . A. Cusumano, R. A . Dulla
Betta, and R. B. Lecy. Academic Press, New York 1978.
xiii, 272 pp., bound, $ 21.00.-ISBN 0-12-199935
Einfiihrung in die Atom- und Molekiilphysik. By P. Zimmermunn. Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft, Wiesbaden 1978.
1 I5 pp., paper, DM 16.80.-ISBN 3-400-00400-6
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