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Book Review Manometrische methoden und ihre Anwendung in der Biologie und Biochemie (Manometric Methods and their use in Biology and Biochemistry). By Arno2t Kleinzeller et al

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kata- and peri-condensed aromatics as well as many of
their 5- and 7-membered ring analogues.
If one is interested in hydrocarbons that are not included in
the tables, then one has simply to punch cards according
to Fortran program published with the book and send it,
together with data cards, to the nearest computer center.
Compounds containing hetero atoms are not included. This
is understandable, since the choice of suitable heteroatom
parameters is not easy, and since, for this reason as well as
others (for example, because the c-it interaction is more
pronounced in heteromolecules), the numerical values
obtained by the H M O method for heteromolecules must be
regarded much more critically than those obtained for
alternant hydrocarbons.
Nevertheless, the tables can also be used for heteromolecules.
To a first approximation, these can be replaced by the isoelectronic hydrocarbons, while the approximate molecular
diagrams can be easily calculated (i.e. by multiplications and
additions) in higher approximation from the given numerical
values, particularly from the “polarizabilities”, Similarly,
additional cross bonds and even a possible bond alternation
can be easily taken into account by means of perturbation
theory. Useful as the “polarizabilities” are for expressing
“perturbations” in the molecule, it is quite another question
whether they will find much practical application and hence
whether the space given to them is justified.
Finally, it should not be forgotten that more accurate MO
calculations (e.g. by the Pariser-Parr method) are supposed
to reproduce the H M O diagram qualitatively, but not
quantitatively. However, even the most accurate calculations
possible today are still far from the “ultimate truth”, and
in any case, this still does not detract from the usefulness of
the H M O method.
The loose-leaf presentation has the advantages that the order
can be changed as desired, and that new sheets can be
inserted; however, it also has some disadvantages. For
example, the mechanism of the reviewer’s copy was damaged
in transit.
W. Kutrelnigg
[NB 567 IE]
Einfiihrung in die Allgemeine Pharmakologie (Introduction to
General Pharmacology). By S. DeJong. From the 2nd
Dutch edition, translated into German by F. Hohensee.
Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munchen-Berlin 1965. 1st Edit.
xv, 200 pp.. 24 illustrations, board DM 19.80.
This booklet by the well-known Dutch pharmacologist is an
attempt “to write in general terms a pharmacology for readers
who know nothing of the subject”
The author gives a 20-page introduction on drugs, poisons,
and stimulants (tobacco, alcohol, etc.) and the historical
development of pharmacological research. A further 22 pages
are devoted to a description of the fate of a physiologicslly
active substance in the body after introduction in various
ways, of its distribution and elimination.
The next 50 pages deal with differences in sensitivity between
races and sexes, hypersensitivity, tachyphylaxis, habituation
and addiction, and the cumulation of drugs; “cumulation”
here refers only to the retention of a substance, and “addiction” is regarded only as psychic dependence (including that
on cigarettes), while physical dependence with withdrawal
symptoms is referred to as “habituation . Surprisingly, the
term “drug idiosyncrasy’ is used instead of the usual “sensitization”, eg. to penicillin
In the discussion of differences in sensitivity, much too little
reference is made to biological dispersion to suit the needs of
beginn rs.
The diffmence in sensitivity is mentioned only in the testing
of insulin, where “the American rabbit requires three times
as much insulin as in Europe”, and “the effect of insulin on
rabbits varies with the time and with the weather”. It would
have been more useful to the beginner (for whom the book is
intended) to give some examples of the difference in sensi-
tivity of different animals to the same substance, and the
resulting difficulty of applying conclusions drawn from
animal experiments to humans.
Another 50 pages are devoted to a description of the relation
between dose and effect with the aid of curves, the terms
“probit” and “probability paper” being explained. The wellknown “CT product” is given for the action as a function of
time, but unfortunately is illustrated with the action of CO,
which in view of the unpredictable after-effects following
prolonged exposure to CO probably has nothing to d o with
the “CT product”.
Isobolic curves are given for the combined action of substances
that can reinforce or weaken each other in their action. This
is followed by a number of examples illustrating “Chemical
Constitution and Pharmacological Action”, which show
only how little is known about this subject.
A 20-page chapter shows how pharmacological effects can be
calibrated and how drugs are tested for side effects (particularly for pyrogenic action), and a short note is given on the
toxicological examination of drugs.
The problem of a “general pharmacology” is evident in this
book. In order to understand it, one must have considerable
previous knowledge, and it is impossible to agree with the
author when he stresses the undemanding nature of this text.
The whole book is a rather abstract affair, and the reviewer
fears that, particularly among those with no medical training,
it will be more confusing than useful, or may foster the misconception that the ability to manipulate terms constitutes
some understanding of pharmacology. The book will make
enjoyable reading for those who are experienced in pharmacological or toxicological animal experiments or in clinical
H. Oettel
[NB 542 I€]
Manometrische Methoden und ihre Anwendung in der Biologie
und Biochemie (Manometric Methods and their Use in
Biology and Biochemistry). By Arnos‘t Kleinzeller et al.
VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena 1965; Tschechoslowakischer Verlag fur medizinische Literatur, Prague 1965 2nd
ed., 601 pp., 147 illustrations, paper D M 75.60.
The second edition, the first to appear in German, was edited
by A. Kleinzeller and written in collaboration with seven
Czechoslovakian and one English author. It contains the
following chapters: 1. Warburg manometric apparatus;
theory and use. 2. Methods of measurement using the Warburg apparatus. 3. Differential manometers and their use.
4. Volumetric respirometers. 5. Microrespirometers. 6. Van
Slyke manometric instrument. 7. The use of electrochemical
methods for the study of tissue respiration. 8. Theory of
buffers and their preparation; retention. 9. Media for animal
tissues. 10. Processing and preparation of biological material
for manometric metabolism studies. 11. Manometric measurement of the activity of enzymes and the use of inhibitors.
12. Thunberg technique and related methods 13. The use of
manometric methods in metabolic studies and interpretation
of the results. 14. Analytical manometric methods.
The reader is surprised by the full and detailed treatment of
the theory and use of a method whose history began with a
lecture by E. Warburg to the PreaJlische Ahiademie der Wissenschuften in 1900, and which, particularly in the hands of
0. Warburg, has made such a significant contribution to our
present knowledge of cell physiology. A particularly welcome
feature of this book IS the fact that the authors not only deal
with pure manometry, but also describe the polarographic
method for the determination of oxygen, which is a n important complement to the classical method, and report at
length on methods forthemanipulation of biological material.
Detailed procedures and lists of references dating up to 1965
are given for each technique, so providing an extremely
valuable aid to both beginners and advanced workers in the
field of cell physiology and enzymology.
B. Hess
[NB 517 IE]
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
/ Vol. 6
1 No. 2
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