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Book Review Mechanism in Organic Chemistry. By R. Alder R. Baker and J. M

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cite almost exclusively original sources in English)
provide an opportunity for further reading on the topics
discussed.
The description of recent developments and refinements
and the treatment of numerous nuclei that were formerly
not very common will provide stimulating material in
particular for structural analysts and NMR spectroscopists.
The presence of a number of gaps in the sections is unavoidable in view of the flood of literature and the rapid
development of NMR spectroscopy.
Eberhard Breitmaier
[NB 121 b IE]
a well coordinated manner. The monograph should be
a very valuable aid to all biologists, chemists, and toxicologists concerned with phytopathology and microbiology,
and should also provide a stimulus to close the gaps,
someofthem considerable, that still exist in our knowledge
of the mode of action of fungicides.
Kfaus Sasse
[NB 141 IE]
The Raman Effect. Vol. 1. Principles. Edited by A. Anderson.
Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 1971. 1st ed., ix, 404
pp., numerous figures, bound $ 28.50.
A fundamental survey of the theoretical and experimental
New Techniques in Amino Acid, Peptide and Protein Analysis. Edited by A . Niederwieser and G . Pataki. Ann
Arbor-Humphrey Science Publ., Inc., Ann Arbor Mich.
1971. 1st ed.,461 pp., numerous figures a d tables. bound
$ 22.50.
The rapid development of a field of science is almost
inevitably linked with the development and introduction
of new procedures. Thus the biological sciences brought
with them considerable advances in chemical methods.
The present book, or more precisely its first eight chapters,
summarizes new experimental methods in the field of amino
acids, peptides, and proteins: 1. ion-exchange chromatography of amino acids and peptides; 2. and 3. gas chromatography ofamino acids and peptides (these two chapters overlap
to some extent);4,mass spectrometry of peptides;5.molecular sieve chromatography; 6. thin layer gel filtration ;
7. microelectrophoresis and synthesis of proteins in quantig ; 8. protein electrofocusing. The
ties of lo-’ to
last two chapters (chemical accessibility and environment
of amino acid residues in natural proteins and methods
for the study of the quaternary structure of proteins), on
the other hand, are surveys of methods with fairly superficial descriptions of techniques.
The editor has allowed the authors an individual approach
to their own chapters. Overlapping occurs in places. However, the book as a whole will be successful in the editor’s
aim of presenting reliable surveys of the new experimental
methods.
Karel BLLiha [NB 138 IE]
Chemistry of Fungicidal Action, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Biophysics. By R. J . Lukrns. Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1972. 1st ed., xiii,
136 pp., 8 figs., bound DM 42.-
The present monograph presents a comprehensive survey
of current knowledge on the chemistry of fungicides that
are used for the protection of plants or industrial organic
materials against destructive fungi. Its purpose is to explain
general and common principles of fungitoxic phenomena
within the framework of present-day views in cell biology.
The material is divided into the following sections: 1.
chemical control of deterioration by fungi (3 pp.), 2.
measurement of fungitoxicity (8 pp.), 3. fungitoxic barriers
(18 pp.), 4. migration of fungicides to sites of action (8
pp.), 5. sites of action (17 pp.), 6. reaction of fungicides with
cell constituents (11 pp.), 7. effects of fungicides on enzymes
(9 pp.), 8. structure-activity relationships (15 pp.), 9. action
of fungus on fungicide (8 pp.).
The formulas of the fungicides discussed are listed in a
seven-page appendix.
The discussion is based on details from 460 references,
whose main conclusions are presented succinctly and in
680
principles of the Raman effect and of its important applications in physics and chemistry is to be presented in two
volumes. The book is intended for students and scientists
seeking an introduction to the field of Raman spectroscopy.
Volume 1 contains the following chapters: 1: Historical
Introduction ( R . S. Krishnan, 48 pp.), a rather long-winded
account for the intended readership, with only a few tables,
formulas, or critical comments. For example, a half page
on “Born’s Lattice Dynamics” is followed by a page on
“Raman’s Lattice Dynamics”, with no indication for the
beginner of the problem involved in this controversy and
with no objective comparison. Chapter 2: Polarizability
Theory of the Raman Effect (G. W Shanrry, 47 pp.) and
Chapter 3: The Theory of the Raman Scattering of Crystals
( R . A. Cowiey, 87 pp.) are worth reading, particularly for
physicists. Chapter 4 : Raman Instrumentation and Technique (C.E. Hathaway, 104 pp.) gives a detailed account
of the properties of gas discharge lamps, spectrographs,
and photographic plates and of commercial instruments
that have long since fallen out of use or been withdrawn
from the market, together with detailed information on
laser light sources and modern spectrometers. This is followed by Chapter 5: Stimulated Raman Effect (P. Lallernand, 56 pp.) and Chapter 6: Brillouin Scattering ( R . S.
Krishnan, 61 pp.), both of which are very good descriptions,
which will be of interest in particular to the physicist.
The readers at which the book is aimed would find it
more useful if Chapters 1 and 4 were dusted off somewhat
and provided with critical comments. The present volume
has little to offer the chemist. The applications in the
fields of chemistry and physics are to be presented in
Volume 2.
Brrnhard Schrader
[NB 144 IE]
Mechanism in Organic Chemistry. By R. Alder, R. Baker,
and J . M . Brown. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New YorkLondon 1971, 1st Edit., x, 378 pp., numerous figures,
bound f 5.00.
The main purpose of the authors was to summarize in
one volume the present situation in mechanistic organic
chemistry for advanced students. They assume that
the student is familiar with a textbook of organic chemistry (such as that by Roberts and Caserio) and that he
has been introduced to the principles of physical chemistry.
The aim of the book is to enable the reader to understand organic reaction mechanisms, to allow critical
reading of original articles in this field, and ultimately to
enable him to plan and execute his own experiments
correctly.
The actual treatment of organic reactions is preceded by a
general chapter, in which catalysis, the energies of ground
and transition states, and isotope, ring-strain, solvent,
steric, electronic, and stereoelectronic effects are discussed.
A n y e w Chem. m t u m a f . Edit.
Vol. 12 (IY73)
i No. 8
This is followed by “Dissociative Processes”. This section
deals with processes that follow the primary cleavage of a
carbon bond, i.e. reactions of carbenium ions, carbanions,
carbenes, and free radicals.
The third chapter surveys “Synchronous Reactions” in
substitutions and eliminations.
Electrocyclic and sigmatropic reactions and cycloadditions
are discussed in the fourth chapter, “Multicentre Reactions”.
The fifth and final chapter is headed “Associative Reactions” and contains reactions in which intermediates
having a new carbon bond are formed: electrophilic and
free-radical aromatic substitutions, electrophilic and freeradical additions to unsaturated systems, nucleophilic addition-elimination reactions to the carbonyl group, and
nucleophilic vinyl and nucleophilic aromatic substitutions.
There is n o doubt that the authors have succeeded in
making a representative and comprehensible selection
from the many articles on organic reaction mechanisms
published in recent years, so that the reader in particular
who does not work in this field will obtain a general picture.
Although it has not been entirely possible to avoid subjective evaluation, this must be attributed to the necessity
of limiting the subject matter.
The rapid development of mechanistic organic chemistry
and the new results that are continually being found in
this field present a problem in the production of an up-todate book of this nature. As an example, one might mention
the S,2 reaction, which perhaps would not nowadays be
assigned without comment to the chapter on “Synchronous
Reactions”.
If one takes this into account, the book is an excellent
supplement to advanced instruction, particularly since
each chapter is provided with exercises, and the reader
whose interests go beyond the scope of the book is referred
to original articles and detailed reviews in 600 references,
most of which are recent, and which extend up to 1970.
All in all, “Mechanism in Organic Chemistry” will be
equally useful to students and to lecturers.
Gernot Boche
[NB 123 IE]
Organophosphorus Chemistry. Vol. 2. Specialist Periodical
Reports. Published by The Chemical Society, London
1971. 1st ed., xi, 292 pp., numerous figures, bound
f. 7.--.
For the second time a group of Anglo-Saxon specialists
under the expert direction of S. Trippett has undertaken
to present a survey of phosphorus literature published
between July 1969 and June 1970 to follow the first volume
in this series, which was published in 1970 and covered
the literature from the beginning of 1968 until June 1969.
As in Volume 1, the arrangement of the material in the
second volume is based mainly on the substance, though
mechanistic aspects are also considered.
S . Tripperf has once again acquired the services of eight
expert co-authors, who present a “snapshot” of the present
position of phosphorus chemistry based on the evaluation
of more than 1200 references.
The material discussed in the second volume is divided
into 11 chapters: Phosphines and Phosphonium Salts ( D .
J . H . Smith) ; Pentacovalent Phosphorus Compounds (S.
Trippert) : Halophosphines and Related Compounds ( J .
Angeuv. Chmm. inicrnur. Edit.
1 Vol. 12 (1973) ,! No. X
A . Miller); Phosphine Oxides ( J . A. Miller); Acids of
Trivalent Phosphorus and Derivatives ( B . J . Walker) ;
Acids of Pentavalent Phosphorus ( N . K . Hamer): Phosphates and Phosphonates of Biochemical Importance ( D .
W Hutchinson); Ylides and Related Compounds (S. Trippett) ; Phosphazenes ( R . K e a t ) : Photochemistry, Free
Radicals, and Deoxygenation Reactions ( R . S. Davidson);
Physical Methods ( J . C. Tebby).
If one overlooks a few inaccuracies and printing errors,
the second volume again gives a comprehensive survey
of the rich and varied harvest collected in the course
of only a year in the phosphorus field.
The importance of this periodical report to the national
and international specialist world cannot be valued highly
enough, since the standard work on phosphorus chemistry
(Kosolapofl: Organophosphorus Compounds) is probably
now in its last edition and there is already evidence of
a literature gap, which can no doubt be closed with the
aid of these “Periodical Reports”. However, the German
specialists, who tend to waste their time in endless meetings
in these days of democratization of academic life and
therefore frequently neglect the study of the specialist literature, are particularly grateful to their colleagues from a
land where democracy has stood the test of time for this
effective aid to coping with the literature.
LeopoLd Horner
[NB 128 IEJ
Terpenoids and Steroids. Vol. 1. Specialist Periodical
Reports. Published by The Chemical Society, London
1971. 1st ed., xi, 557 pp., numerous figures, bound
f. 11.-.
The present volume covers the literature between September 1969 and August 1970, but also extends further
back for important topics to provide a broader basis for
understanding. The material is divided up well: the terpenes
into monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenes, and carotenoids (with polyterpenes) and biosynthesis of terpenes and steroids, and the steroids into properties and reactions and syntheses.
The material in such a report must of necessity be presented
very concisely, in view of its large volume (approx. 2400
references). The readability of the text is nevertheless still
good. Formulas and sections of text are clearly arranged.
Despite the understandable absence of a subject index,
therefore, any desired special topic can be quickly found.
The presentation by the various authors appears homogeneous and complete. The two steroid chapters overlap
in a few points. The number of errors is within reasonable
limits.
The report can be specially recommended to all those
working in the terpene or steroid fields. It puts one’s
own field in its place in the range of topics, provides
a check on one’s own reading of the original literature,
and extends one’s vision to neighboring fields that one
can no longer follow continuously. However, even chemists
who d o not specialize in terpenes or steroids will find
the book useful, as it presents a collective survey of the
publications of one year, and at the same time goes into
a certain amount of detail.
It is to be hoped that the further annual issues of the
report will be as compact, lucid, and reasonably priced
as the first.
Wolfgang Sucrow
[NB 139 IE]
681
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