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Book Review Mensch und Arbeit im Chemiebetrieb (Man and Work in the Chemical Industry). General editor W. Schneider

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Gas contents of salts from the Upper Permian formation (Germany) are reported by H. D. Freyer and K. Wagener.Samples
of sylvinite, halite, and kieserite were investigated; their total
cm3 NTP/g. By comparison
gas contents are in the order of
of different methods of disaggregation (grinding, dissolution,
melting) of samples it can be concluded that the gases are molecularly dispersed in the lattice. Probably they were in
equilibrium with the components of the solution when the salt
was deposited. Consequently, gas analyses can supply information about the atmospheric composition at the time of salt formation. Mass spectrometric gas analyses are reported of N,,
O,, Ar, CO,, CH,, H2, and sometimes, H,S./Z. Naturforsch.
25a, 1427 (1970) / -Hz
[Rd 269 IE]
BOOK REVIEWS
Catalysis by Nonmetals. Rules for Catalyst Selection. By
0. V. Krylov. In the series: Physical Chemistry. A Series of
Monographs. Academic Press, New York-London 1970. 1st
Edit., x, 283pp., $ 14.00.
This book is an English translation of the well-known Russian
author’s work. It deals with the catalytic properties of oxides,
sulfides, solids with acid or basic surface groups, and other onecomponent nonmetals. Thus, at first glance the book can be
seen to be the counterpart of the widely read monograph by
G. C. Bond “Catalysis by Metals” which was published by Academic Press in 1962. The main object of Krylov’s work is to
give rules for the choice of catalysts for certain reactions such
as oxidations, hydrogenations, dehydrogenations, hydrations,
dehydrations, exchange and decomposition reactions, isomerizations, cracking, alkylations, and polymerizations.
The book is divided into two sections, the first of which is reserved for a description of the correlations between the catalytic
activity of solids - selectivity is unfortunately not considered
- and their physico-chemical properties (for example, type of
conduction, charge-carrier concentration, doping, width of the
forbidden zone, electron work function, ionic radius and valence, electronegativity of the atoms, acidic or basic surface
groups, dielectric constant, crystal type, and lattice constant).
In this connection, due attention has also been given to theoretical discussions of reaction mechanisms. The second part of
the book summarizes and describes the reactions for which
catalysts can be found by applying the principles discussed. Finally, an appendix summarizes the major physicochemical
parameters of a large number of solids. The list of references
extends essentially as far as 1964.
The book will appeal primarily to physical chemists engaged
in catalyst research and development.
Ernst-Giintfier Schlo
[NB 918 IE]
Modern Reactions in Organic Synthesis. Edited by
C. J. Timmons. Van Nostrand-Reinhold Company, London
1970. 1st Edit., vi, 311 pp., numerous formulas, bound
f 5.10.
The title of this book is too ambitious. The editor himself states
in the foreword: ‘‘This book reviews, within chosen fields some
of the synthetic methods recently developed or applied that
seem important in the views of the contributors.”
In seven chapters the baok’s eight authors discuss the following
topics: reduction and oxidation methods; the use of free radicals
in syntheses; electrochemical and photochemical methods; and
the synthesis of aromatic and heterocyclic compounds. The references cited cover the period from 1960 to 1967/68. Onewonders why the book has only just been published since, in spite
of the lavish use of structural formulas, its careful preparation,
and the detailed index, it should not have taken so much time
to produce.
The individual chapters contain many relevant references (more
than 1100 in all). However, in the case of oxidations with ozone,
for example, no mention is made of the useful tetracyanoethyl-
82
ene variant [Chem. Ber. 96, 1564 (1963)j and, in the case of
the acyloin reaction in the section on radicals, there ist no reference to the vaIuable modified method in the presence of trimethylchlorosilane [Chem. Ber. 100,3820 (1967); Tetrahedron
Lett. 1968, 5861.
The book should be kept in libraries for students in the final
stages of their degree courses but it is of limited value to teachers
and research workers.
Dieter Seebach [NB 919 IE]
The Radiation-Induced Decomposition of InorganicMolecular
Ions. By E. R. Johnson, Gordon and Breach, New YorkLondon-Paris. 1970. 1st Edit., ix, 144 pp., Bound f 18.-.
Comprehensive monographs on specialized topics from the
large field of radiation chemistry have long been appearing in
the English-speaking world. Thus, the present book, which attempts to give a comprehensive survey of the action of highenergy radiation on inorganic crystalline solids, is aimed at the
specialist. Basic concepts of radiation chemistry are mentioned
in a few introductory sentences. Somewhat more space is devoted to necessary information on solid-state physics (natural
defects) and crystal-lattice defects caused by high-energy radiation. After a short description of the crystal properties that
change under the effect of radiation and of the factors that cause
these changes, three-quarters of the book is devoted to the results of the radiation-induced decomposition of inorganic salts
(nitrates, chlorates, perchlorates, bromates, azides, sulfates, carbonates, and permanganates). Attention is also paid to the radiolysis products with their G values, the electronic absorption
spectra, and the ESR spectra of the irradiated crystals.
In the case of the more thoroughly investigated nitrates, chlorates, bromates, and perchlorates, the kinetics and mechanisms
of radiation-induced decompositions are discussed. A critical
appraisal of the results, some of which are controversial, is given
at the end of every relevant chapter.
Typically, only three of the 182 references (ranging up to
1968/9) cited in this successful book come from German journals. This cannot be dismissed with the usual explanation,
namely that Americans read only English literature, since Russian journals, for example, are often quoted.
Hans Gusten [NB 921 IE]
Mensch und Arbeit im Chemiebetrieb (Man and Work in the
Chemical Industry). General editor W. Schneider. Verlag
Mensch und Arbeit, Munich, 1970. 1st Edit., lOpp., ring
binder, DM 16.80.
Society has changed considerably in the course of this century,
not least in the sphere of working life. An employee in industry
can no longer be regarded as a mere subordinate or as mere
work power - he is developing more and more into an actively
participating individual. Comprehensive professional training
and further education are constantly improving the employee’s
ability to understand his sphere of work and to act fruitfully
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. / Vol. 10 (1971) / N o . 1
on his own initiative. The employee is increasingly assuming
the character of a coworker.
This change means that a new style of management is needed
in industry and that, in particular, the old authoritarian principles must be abandoned. Many employers have already come
round to this new way of thinking, often by force of circumstances.
The working group of the industrialists associations of the German chemical industry has for many years been attempting, by
suitable training at middle management level, to take account
of the changing circumstances. In this connection it has been
running, among other things, business management courses and
seminars for young graduates at Rech an der Ahr. This group
also regularly produces two publications: “Informationsbrief
fur Fuhrungskrafte in der Chemischen Industrie“ (Information
Sheet for Management Personnel in the Chemical Industry) and
“Blatter fur Vorgesetzte” (Notes for Managers).
The working group has now further supplemented its efforts
in this field with the publication of the manual “Mensch und
Arbeit im Chemiebetrieb”. This appeared for the first time in
1966 as a pocket book under the title of “Mensch und Arbeit”
(Man and Work) and, with more than 20000 copies, it has
proved its worth as an organ of information for employers and
as a reference book for everyday work in industry.
In separate chapters this manual deals with a very wide variety
of practical problems, giving explanations, hints, and guidelines.
A wide range of problems, which it would take too long to enumerate in full, are broached: design of the working area and
its surroundings, wages systems, average productivity as a function of working time, question of health and safety, the management of men, information, assessment of staff, grading according to performance, training, fundamentals of industrial law
and regulations, and information on the chemical industry.
Many sections are supplemented and clarified with tables and
statistics. It is obvious that trouble has been taken to provide
employers with a compendium of relevant information which
should make their work easier. It is openly admitted that there
is no universal formula for solving managers’ problems or for
evolving management methods. Thus the book is made up in
the f o r m of a file in which the indi\ idual “chapters” are arranged
as separate entities. By changing old material or adding new
the manual can easily be kept up to date. It will best fulfil its
task of giving advice and help to the reader if, as recommended
in the introduction, it is not put into a bookcase but is left instead
on the desk or workbench; if this is done, “it will certainly not
be long before you find cause to use it”. If such frequent use
is made of it, its value will soon become obvious to the reader.
Hermann Reis [NB 922 IE]
Albert Einstein/Arnold Sommedeld: Briefwechsel. (Exchange
of Letters between Albert Einstein and Arnold Sommerfeld.)
Ed. and annotated by A. Hermann. Schwabe & Co., BaselStuttgart 1968. 126pp., linen DM 18.80.
The editor describes this outwardly modest collection as ”sixty
letters from the Golden Age of modern physics“. It provides
what is probably the most stimulating reading in this field. Cleverly and skilfully annotated, these letters give a unusually vivid
impression not only of the personalities of these two great physicists and of ,the intellectual conflict behind their achievements
but also of the times -fickle and finally disastrous - which (by
chance?) gave a home to these achievements. It is moving to
see how personal quarrels arising from external or internal misunderstandings stand in stark contrast with scientific and theoretical discussions which time and again bridge the gap between
these two men whose thoughts and feelings are in many respects
so different.
One does not need to be interested in the history of physics
to derive pleasure from this volume. The letters will be richly
rewarding if one merely recalls that even the highest scientific
achievements are the achievements of a human being.
Helmut Griinewald [NB 915 IE]
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. / Vol. 10 (k971 / N o . 1
Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Ed. by R. C. Weast and
S. M. Selby. The Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland 1970.
51st Edit., 2423 pp., bound D M 99.80.
After celebrating its jubilee, the fiftieth edition in 56 years, this
great handbook has now appeared in a new edition for the 51st
time. When it was first published people were acquainted wlth
electrons, protons, and neutrons but knew practically nothing
about them. Today the book has seven pages on these three
elementary particles alone. Similar is the situation with chemical
bonding (now twelve pages with data on bonding forces) and
with superconductivity (fourteen pages of tables).
The size of the book, which increases with each edition, gives
cause for concern. It now contains 2423 pages, 2100 of which
(Le. 87 % of the whole book) are given over to tables which are
important for the chemist. It must be said, however, that the
editors know how to make the user very quickly forget the size
of the book by their excellent arrangement and layout.
As always, numerous tables in this edition have been supplemented and brought right up to date. As always, too, a strip
of gold foil is supplied with the book. Its purpose? On the cover
there is a blank, deep red area, which is offset against the surrounding blue by a broad gold border, where one can put one’s
initials - in 23 carat gold. Not an everyday opportunity, but
one which is thoroughly in keeping with the value of the work.
Helmut G r i i n w l d
916 IE]
Taschenbuch fiir Chemiker und Physiker (Handbook for Chemists and Physicists). Ed. by K. Schaffer and C. Synowietz.
Vol. 111: Properties of Atoms and Molecules. SpringerVerlag, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York 1970. 3rd Edit., viii,
670pp., 112 figures, bound DM 48.This volume contains data on the physics and chemistry of atoms
and molecules. Six sections give a survey of atomic nuclei, their
most important properties and reactions, information on atomic
and molecular spectra and the data that can be obtained from
them, and tables of ionic radii, ionization potentials, effective
cross sections, polarizabilities, and dipole moments. The relationships between molecular and directly observable macroscopic properties are also dealt with, and finally there is a table
of spectral lines. Most tables are introduced by basic textual
material which serves not only to clarify the tables but also to
give a brief recapitulation of the most important relevant theoretical points. These introductions make the book more than a
mere compendium of tables. They skilfully give the reader the
help he needs to find his way through the wealth of data.
The arrangement of the tables, the dimensional data, and the
explanation of the abbreviations and symbols are exemplary.
Only the formulas occasionally leave something to be desired
(dots instead of dashes). One cannot check at a desk the accuracy of the immense amount of data given in a handbook.
One can only hope that such a book has as many readers as
it deserves, so that the editors are rewarded for the enormous
amount of work the have put into it.
Helmut Griinewald [NB 917 IE]
Biochemistry.The Molecular Basis of Cell Structure and Function. By A. L. Lehninger. Worth Publ. Inc., New York 1970.
1st Edit., xii, 833pp. with numerous figures, bound, ca.
DM 65.-.
There is no lack of good American textbooks on biochemistry,
but the present book by A. L. Lebninger, well known for his
descriptive powers, will occupy a special place among them.
It is not a summary of the structure and metabolism of biologically important compounds, nor is it built up simply on ideas
about the dynamics of all molecules; instead, it is based on the
concept that the conformity of molecular interactions with physical and chemical laws forms the basis of structure and function,
and on the “molecular logic of living organisms”. The cell forms
83
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