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Book Review Methoden der organischen Chemie (Houben-Weyl-Mller) [Methods in Organic Chemistry] Vol. VI Part 2 Sauerstoffverbindungen I (Oxygen Compounds). Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart 1963. 4th Edit

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(76 pp.). The authors supplement the earlier reviews by Cerletti in Vol. 2 and Erspnmer i n Vol. 5 with discussions of the
synthesis and biological activity of tryptamine derivatives,
the conversion of tryptamines into P-carbolines, the enzymcinhibiting activity of 3-(2-aminobutyl)indoles, indole compounds with ketonic and alcoholic side-chains, and indole
derivatives containing sulfur. Finally, syntheses of tetrahydrobenzindole, bufotenine and uroroseine are described
(218 references and numerous tables).
H. G . Leemann, K . Stich, and M . Thomas provide a detailed
review (128 pp.) of “Physico-chemical methods in pharmaceutical chemistry. I. Spectrofluorometry”. After a theoretical
discussion of the basic principles of fluorometry, examples of
the relationship between fluorescence and chemical constitution are discussed. The main section of the report reviews
the relevant work published in about 400 journals during the
period 1950-1961. The wavelengths of the exciting and
fluorescent light, the detection limits, and literature references are presented in tabular form.
The “Biological activity of the terpenoids and their derivatives” is reviewed by M . Martin-Smith and Towhidn Khatoon.
After an introduction o n classification, some terpenoids with
specific activities, those used in clinical and non-clinical practice, and the role of active groups are discussed. The fate of
terpenoids in the body and their side effects are briefly described (867 references).
“Neue Arzneimittel” (New drugs), by W. Kunz, covers in
60 pp. materials introduced since publication of the earlier
reviews in Vols. 2 and 3, classified according to field of indication (365 references).
A detailed subject index again makes the volume a useful
work of reference, and the numerous structural formulae
substantially contribute to its usefulness. The presentation
is once again excellent.
0. Schaumann
[NB 221/98 IE]
Progress in the Science and Technology of the Rare Earths.
Vol. 1. Edited by LeRoy Eyring. Pergamon Press, Oxford
London-New York-Paris 1964. 1st Edit., 532 pp., numerous
illustrations and tables, linen, E6.0.0 (about $16.00).
Interest in the rare earths was reawakened about 20 years ago,
because these elements were found to be products from the
nuclear fission of uranium, and secondly because they held
promise as good models for predictions about the actinides.
Furthermore, thorium had gained importance because of its
use as a source of nuclear energy. During the isolation of
thorium from monazite sand, several times its weight of rare
earths are obtained as by-product and - as in Auer von Welsbach’s time - are lying in vast stock-piles until some profitable method of utilizing them is discovered. Hence industry
is also now interested in extending basic research in this field.
I n the USA, congresses concerned exclusively with the chemistry and metallurgy of these elements are held from time to
time, and in Russia, a whole institute is devoted to the study
of them.
Bearing this in mind, it is understandable that the editor and
publishers are planning t o produce a series of monographic
reports on the rare earths. This first volume covers publications which appeared between the years 1955 and 1961 and
reproduces in 500 pages 16 excellent articles written by experts from six different countries. The topics dealt with range
from geochemistry and the technical recovery and separation
of rare earths to their alloys and organometallic compounds.
One contribution gives an 85-page review of potential applications, and two other articles evaluate Russian literature in
this field.
The survey volume presented here is to be followed annually
by other volumes ofthe series, a highly useful practice that has
already been adopted in some other fields. This practice may
evolve into the future form of abstract literature and thus replace the classical abstract journals which threaten to become
too expensive and too extensive to read.
Werner Fischer [NB 244/102 IE]
Methoden der organischen Chernie (Houben-Weyl-Muller)
[Methods i n Organic Chemistry], Vol. VI, Part 2: Sauerstoffverbindungen I (Oxygen Compounds). Georg Thieme
Verlag, Stuttgart, 1963. 4th Edit., edited by Eugerz Muller.
952 pp., 4 figs., 1 portrait, 161 tables, price per
volume D M 220.- (about S 56.00).
This is the first part of the projected volumes V1/2 and VI/3
on organic oxygen compounds. Its first chapter contains
methods for preparing metal alkoxides, enoxides, and phenoxides and also an appendix (20 pp.) o n the most important
chelates, including a section o n the technically interesting
technique of “oxidative coppering of azo dyes”. This is
followed by chapters o n the preparation of organic derivatives of silicic and boric acids. It is of great advantage to the
reader that terms are defined in the preliminary chapters, thus
avoiding confusion and ensuring consistency throughout the
book. The authors have taken the trouble to record the names
of the compounds in accordance with the old and new rules
of nomenclature - occasionally with references to the
English names.
The procedures for preparation of the numerous compounds
described are based mainly o n a few fundamental chemical
operations such as partial and complete solvolysis of readily
available halogeno derivatives, comproportionation and disproportionation reactions, and esterification and transesterification, all of which are arranged in orderly fashion. Next
come chapters that are organized in a similar manner on organic derivatives of oxyacids of nitrogen, arsenic, antimony,
sulfur, and halogens, followed by chapters on the production
of ?-lactones and on the preparation and reactions of other
lactones. The recency of the closing date for literature coverage varies; it is only in the chapter o n organic boric acid
derivatives that the deadline of 1962-1963 mentioned in
the preface has been respected.
After careful perusal [*] of the whole volume applying highly
critical standards, the reviewer considers it worthwhile to call
attention to the following points.
1. The trimethylsilazadichloralane formed fromh examethyldisilazane and aluminum trichloride (p. 167/2) isapparentlydimeric [cf. M . Schmidt and H . Schmidbnuer, Angew. Chem. 74,
372 (1962); Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. f, 327 (1962)].
2. In connection with the reaction of N205 with cycloparaffins (p. 346), the publication by F. Asinger [Chem. Ber. 94, 84
(1961)] in which he corrects earlier erroneous reports should
have been cited.
3. Since attention is called to the sensitivity towards light of
aikyl nitrites (p. 338), it would have been useful t o have gone
into the preparatively important Barton reaction [J. Amer.
chem. SOC.82, 2640 (1961)], which has proved to be of great
value as a method for the synthesis of steroids. Another regrettable omission is the lack of reference to the photolysis of
alkyl hypohalides among the decomposition reactions on pp.
4. The bicyclo[2,2,l]heptane and bicyclo[2,2,2]octane systems should have been depicted uniformly throughout the
whole volume in the manner shown on p. 710, which corresponds to the internationally accepted convention and which
simultaneously conveys a more precise image of the structure
of the molecule.
5 . In addition, the steric structure of molecules has been disregarded in most formulae. It may be that the stereochemistry is unknown or uncertain in individual cases, and this is
probably why references to orgininal literature are given.
However, when the discussion in the text is concerned with
stereoisomeric compounds or reaction products, the steric
relationships should be presented more clearly in the formulae. Thus, for example, it would have been better to intimate that the P,G-dimethylsorbic acid of m.p. 67.5’C described on p. 822 has the A’-cis-structure.
6. The preparation of terebinic acid (p. 637) involves a photosensitized addition of isopropanol onto fumaric acid with
[*I Thanks are due to Dr. H . D. Schnrffor his generous support
in this task.
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. / Vol. 4 (1965) / No. I
benzophenone as sensitizer. The expression “chemically sensitized” used in the book does not convey much information
t o the reviewer. Moreover, the publications of G. 0. Schenk
[Angew. Chem. 69, I77 (1957)J should have been cited, for he
described this addition earlier. The same applies t o the
photodimerization of coumarins (p. 758), for again there
is no reference t o G. 0. Schenck’s work [cf. Chem. Ber.
95, 1409 (1962)], although he discovered the relationships between the substrate, sensitizer, and sterochemistry of the
photodimerized coumarins.
7 . R. Kuthe (not Kuhre) does riot deal with dehydrogenation
of diols in his paper cited in footnote 5 o n p. 718, but with the
production of dialkyl phthalides.
8. Why is it that “Krystalle” and “krystallisieren” have been
spelled with “y”throughout the book? The procedures given
on pp. 491 and 806 contain the old-fashioned method of expressing quantities in “Teilen” or “TI” (parts); these procedures can perhaps be modernized in a later edition.
On the whole, however, the book represents a magnificent feat
for which the authors, the editor, and the publisher can all be
equally congratulated. It succeeds in coordinating results
which are strewn throughout inorganic and organic literature
and in organizing them according to both methods and materials into a lucid arrangement; it will thus form an extremely
useful advisor for the organic chemist engaged in preparative
work. Even for a chemist who has worked for a long time in
one special field, e.g. lactone chemistry, this volume is an extraordinarily rich treasure trove. F. Kurte [ N B 294,152
Inorganic Polymer Chemistry. By F. G. R. Gimblett. Butterworths & Co., Ltd., London 1963. 1st Edit., x + 452pp.,
numerous illustr. and tables, linen, 64.10.0 (about S12.50).
The field of polymeric inorganic compounds has undergone
a n unforeseen development within the past few years.
It is therefore a great credit t o the author that he has devoted himself t o presenting the essential features of this
field in a systematic treatment. His main aim has been to approach the principles governing the formation and structure
of inorganic polymers particularly from the physico-chemical
standpoint and thus to afford incentives for further developments in this field. The basis for his systematic arrangement
is formed by the methods for obtaining the polymers: 1 . condensation reactions and 2. addition reactions. The reviewer
agrees that this is the best basis for dealing with the subject,
for it permits a readily surveyable systematic treatment.
In the introduction, the nature of the bonding in inorganic
polymers is discussed and compared with that of the bonds in
organic polymers. This is followed by a discourse on condensation processes at high temperatures (with a relatively detailed treatment of polyphosphates and metaphosphates and
of silicates), and then cationic aggregation processes in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions are described. Next comes a
special chapter on “Coordination Polymerization”, which
deals with polymers whose formation is due more or less t o
the tendency of a cation t o coordinate, e . g . in the complex incorporation of BezL into a bis-1,3-diketone. The next section
deals with anionic aggregation processes in aqueous solution,
such as the formation of iso- and heteropolyacids, and includes a short description of the condensation of dialkylsilanediols t o give silicones. The relatively few cases of addition
polymerizations (S, Se, Te, and phosphorusnitrile chlorides)
are then discussed. A relatively large chapter is devoted
t o the structures of crystalline and glass-like polymers; this
deals with borides of transition elements and with nitrides
(e.g. BN), efc. The phenomenon of depolymerization is also
described in detail. In conclusion, the latest developments in
the chemistry of inorganic polymers are presented, and a very
clever selection is made from the numerous publications by
Andrianov, for example.
The book is very easy t o read and conveys the general impression that the author is well acquainted with the material
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. I VoI. 4 (1965)
No. I
and has thought it all over carefully. Its topics are stimulating
and can be heartily recommended especially to those who
want t o start work in the field of inorganic polymers.
0. Schmitr-DuMurrt [NB 297/155 I€]
Einkristalle. Wachstum, Herstellung und Anwendung (Single
Crystals - Growth, Production, and Use). By A . Smcrkuln.
Volume 14 in the series: Technische Physik in Einzeldarstellungen, edited by W. Meissner and M . Nabnuer. Springer, Berlin-Gdttingen-Heidelberg 1962. Jst Edit., VIII,
pp.431,240illustr., 160 tab., linen,DM 76.- (about $19.00).
The author has set out t o give a comprehensive review of the
present status of the knowledge of crystal growth and of the
methods for the growth of single crystals. This intention is
most welcome, since as yet there have been only few books of
this kind, and important work scattered throughout the
literature can be found only with difficulty.
The first part, about one-third of the book (Aufbnu und Abbnu
der Kristalle), deals with the properties of crystal structural
elements, crystal structure, nuclei formation, crystal growth,
crystal analysis, dislocations, and theories of crystal growth.
The second part, about half of the text (Methuden der Kristtrllherstellung), deals with the preparation of crystals, i. e. crystal
growth from solution, high temperatures and their measurement a n d control, crystal preparation from melts, and flamefusion, vapor-phase recrystallization, and electrolq tic methods, as well as with “whiskers”. The short third part (Anwendung der Einkristalle) is devoted t o the applications and
manipulation of single crystals.
The book is written simply and intelligibly, maintaining the
correct balance between thcoretical and empirical considerations; owing t o the variety of experimental possibilities here,
this approach is especially suitable for treatment of the subject. The text is illustrated with numerous flow-sheets,
sketches of apparatus, and diagrams; about a quarter of the
illustrations are photographs - enough t o assist comprehension of the text, but not so many that the result is a “picture
book”. One can overlook the one or two minor points of
error, for example the designation of crucible floating zone
purification as “flotation” (this designation should be reserved, as has hitherto been customary, for the action of foam
on solids) or the omission of a discussion o n the fundamental
work on zone melting by G. Schreiber and R . Schcrbert [ Z .
physik. Chem. 206, 102 (1956)l. A book of this scope on a
specific topic must naturally develop into a reference book;
as such it can be thoroughly recommended to the novice or
the expert, and t o the physicist, chemist, or engineer alike.
G. Mntz [NB 220/89 I€]
Applications of Neutron Diffraction in Chemistry, by G. E.
Bacon. Topic 11, VoI. 1 of: International Encyclopedia of
Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics. Published by
Guggenheim/Mayer/Tompkins. Pergamon Press, Oxford141 pp.,
London-New York-Paris 1963. First edition. xi
82 illustrations, some Tables, linen, E2.2.0.
Neutron diffraction has two advantages, besides a number of
disadvantages, as a method for studying the spatial arrangement of atoms in solids. Because of the irregular variation of
the neutron scattering amplitude with atomic weight, it is
possible t o fix the postilions of light atoms even in the presence of many heavy ones and to distinguish between neighboring elements. Moreover, because of the interaction
between the magnetic moments of neutrons and unpaired
electrons, information can be obtained on the location, orientation and magnitude of the magnetic moments in ferro-,
antiferro- and ferri-magnetic materials. It is not surprising,
therefore, that neutron diffraction has led to highly important
results in the field of structure chemistry, and this book is an
account of them. As one would expect of Dr. Bacon, it is
very competently written. The theoretical and experimental
background is treated only very briefly, and the reader in
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