close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Book Review Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol. 59 Protein Purification Protocols. Edited by S

код для вставкиСкачать
BOOKS
to-date. It can therefore be recommended
for everyone involved in the production
and isolation of secondary metabolites
and proteins from biological sources.
Marc Stadler, Klaus Frobel
Bayer AG, Pharma Forschungszentrum
Wuppertal (Germany)
Carbohydrate Building Blocks. By
M . Bols. Wiley, Chichester, 1996.
182 pp., hardcover E 40.00.-ISBN
0-471-13339-6
In 1983 there appeared a book which
has since become a classic work in its
field: Total Synthesis ofNatura1 Products.
The Chiron Approach, by Stephen Hanessian. It made many chemists aware for the
first time of the importance of carbohydrates as chiral building blocks for synthesizing natural products and active
agents. Although that book covered the
“master strategies” in the script of carbohydrates-based synthesis, it did not include details of the “opening moves”. The
book by M. Bols reviewed here fills that
gap admirably.
Carbohydrate Building Blocks is not a
textbook of carbohydrates chemistry. Instead it aims to give the reader guidelines
for learning to use this group of natural
products, by describing the most important and well-proven synthetic pathways
that afford access to a wide variety of chiral building blocks, starting from a collection of 26 relatively cheap carbohydrates.
Most of the synthetic procedures consist
of three or four stages, although a few
have as many as seven or eight.
The first chapter familiarizes the reader
with the most important starting materials and their origins. Current trends in the
choice of starting materials for synthesizing various well-known stereosequences
are shown by listing quantitative data on
how frequently the different sugars have
been used.
The next ten chapters, which occupy
about a third of the book, contain a very
condensed survey of commonly used
transformations in carbohydrate chemistry. The topics include acetalizations,
various other important protecting group
strategies, oxidations and reductions,
eliminations, and skeletal rearrangements
induced by acids or bases. The author includes important rules and other information intended specifically to help the
chemist who is less familiar with carbohydrates. Thus, for example, data are provided on the relative reactivities of the different hydroxy groups in aldoses, ketoses,
2404
0 VCH YL.rlag,~gesellschufimhH. 0.69451
~
anhydro-sugars, and sugar lactones, in reactions with electrophiles or in substitution reactions.
The real core of the book is the 120page appendix. This consists of a catalog
describing 691 (!) chiral building blocks
derived from carbohydrates, together
with several shorter subject indexes. In the
catalog, which makes no claim to be exhaustive, each structure is accompanied
by a CA number, a literature reference,
the sugar used as the starting material,
and the number of stages in the synthesis. The list of building blocks is arranged
in eleven sections which correspond to
Chapters 1-11 of the book, thus forming a
close connection between the two parts.
Each of these sections is completed by a
bibliography. However, that is not all. To
help the reader wishing to plan a retrosynthesis, there follows an important additional resource, namely a stereochemical
index containing 98 stereochemical sequences with up to seven stereogenic centers, shown in open-chain form. These include not only the oxygen-substituted
chiral centers that one expects to find, but
also others with different heteroatorns as
substituents, and in particular those with
carbon branching. Alongside these centers are listed the corresponding building
blocks from the catalog that have the
specified chain-length and absolute configuration. If the user also wants to know
about all the partially oxygen-blocked,
carbocychc, and carbon-branched structures included in the catalog, this information is provided by the last three indexes in
the appendix, which are structured along
the same lines as the stereochemical index.
These various indexes together equip the
reader with a range of tools for finding a
required building block.
The book contains a wealth of denseiypacked information. However, in the first
part a somewhat more detailed treatment,
especially in Chapters 3 (partially blocked
sugars) and 7 (unsaturated sugars), would
have improved the book still further. Also
a few of the structures contain errors (e.g..
8.23 on p. 56, 7.22 on p. 28, and Scheme
3.8), and it would have been useful to include overall yields in the details of all the
building blocks.
This book will be especially useful to
everyone who wishes to carry out syntheses using carbohydrates as enantiomeric
starting materials with a known absolute
configuration. The clear and easily understandable layout makes the subject readily
accessible to the reader, and it is to be
hoped that the book will overcome the
inhibitions of many organic chemists towards working with this class of compounds. If it had been available ten years
Weinlieini, 1996
ago, this reviewer would have been spared
a good deal of laborious effort.
Andreas Kirschning
Institut fur Organische Chemie
der Technischen Universitat Clausthal
(Germany)
Methods in Molecular Biology. Vol.
59, Protein Purification Protocols.
Edited by S. Doonan. Humana Press,
Totowa, NJ, 1996. 405 pp., loose-leaf
$64.50.-ISBN 0-89603-336-8
This book edited by Shawn Doonan
contains 36 chapters written by 33 different authors. In the first chapter the editor
himself sets out some general strategies
for the purification of proteins, then the
following few chapters describe methods
for extracting proteins from various animal and plant tissues and from bacteria
and fungi. Next some articles on subcellular fractionation are followed by chapters
of a more general kind on topics such as
concentration and ultrafiltration. A large
part of the book is devoted to various
column chromatograpy procedures, then
further chapters deal with the purification
of membrane proteins and the use of detergents. The last part of the book contains contributions on the lyophilization
and storage of proteins and on methods
for electroelution from gels and electroblotting. The editor himself concludes
with a chapter on practical aspects of
column chromatography.
The list of the contents and the cover (in
ring-binder form) lead one to expect here
a handbook that belongs in every laboratory, but unfortunately the text does not
live up to that promise. The separation
into Methods and Notes within the individual chapters makes the book troublesome to read, and one can easily lose sight
of the theme through frequent turning
back and forth. It also becomes apparent
that the bulkiness of the book is partly due
to the fact that different authors cover the
same points in their notes, for example
when repeating advice about the correct
use of a centrifuge and the care of rotors.
It would certainly have served the newcomer better to include an introductory
chapter on centrifugation, to which all the
others could then refer, and would also
have saved paper. Cross-references to other chapters are rare, so it is not surprising
that Doonan himself, in his chapter on
fractional precipitation using ammonium
sulfate, again devotes nearly two pages to
dialysis, despite the fact that he has already contributed a chapter on this topic.
0570-OH33j9n/3S20-2404 $ 1 5 . 0 0 i ,2510
Anaen. Chem. hi.Ed. E n d 1996. 7 5 No 70
BOOKS
In the first of the chapters on column
chromatography, the reader who expects
to learn something about ion exchange
will be disappointed. The authors of this
chapter, Sheehan and Fitzgerald, limit
their discussion mainly to the preparation
of a DE-cellulose exchange medium, and
d o not refer to more recent materials.
There is no mention of variables such as
column dimensions, capacities, gradients,
etc.. which are so important when planning purification strategies. These are
only discussed in the final chapter, which
again illustrates the book’s lack of a systematic structure. However, notwithstanding these criticisms, the collection includes some very useful contributions,
such as the chapters introducing the reader to the extraction of proteins from different types of tissues. Another chapter
worth mentioning here is that by Bill
Neville on reverse phase chromatography
of proteins. The three chapters by Kay
Ohlendieck o n the extraction and purification of membrane proteins and the removal of detergents also certainly belong
among the better examples, although it
might have been better to combine these
topics in a single chapter. However, the
selected chapters mentioned here are
again unnecessarily extended by including
detailed descriptions of enzyme assay
methods. The detailed description of the
isolation of eggs from the sea-urchin and
of the preparation of artificial sea-water is
of limited interest to a broad readership,
and a different example would have been
more appropriate here. It would have
been useful to include an article on the
use of Triton X 114 for the separation
of peripheral and integral membrane
proteins.
The reader who hopes to find new materials or methods in this book will be disappointed. In many cases the information
given is one-sided. as in the chapter on
isoelectric focussing by Reiner Westermeier. This author is constrained by his
admiration for a wellknown Swedish instrument manufacturer, and consequently
fails to mention alternative methods of
isoelectric focussing such as the Bio-Rad
Rotofor cell or the high-resolution freeflow method (Octopus, Dr. Weber). The
editor too is quite open about including
an advertisement for the above-mentioned firm, and the last chapter even includes price information about some of
the products. Here, though. the competitors are at least mentioned by name.
Finally there is the question of which
readership this book is intended for. In
my view it seems unsuitable for newcomers to the field, especially with regard to
column chromatography. Although it
A
~
~ Ch~oi
~ I IInt
Ed. End. 1996. ZT. No.20
contains sufficient information for these
readers, they would need to hunt through
the various chapters to bring it together,
which is a difficult task without cross-references. The book also appears not to
have been intended as a reference source
for experienced protein chemists, as it
does not cover new techniques and materials. This group is in any case already well
served by the standard works cited in
many of the chapters, such as Methods in
Enzyymolog,~,or by the compact and informative handbooks in the Practical Approach series.
Sabine Wo2f
Institut fur Biochemie
der Technischen Hochschule Darmstadt
Darmstadt (Germany)
Sensors. Vol. 8. Micro- and Nanosensor Technology/Trends in Sensor Markets. Edited by H. Meixner and R .
Jones. (Series: Sensors. A Comprehensive Survey. Series editors: U.:
Gopel, J. Hesse and J. N . Zemel. VCH
Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/VCH
Publishers, New York, 1995. 565 pp.,
hardcover DM 410.00.-ISBN
3527-26774-3
The final volume of this well-known
work of reference has at last appeared.
The publishers’ original plans were revised so that the series could be extended
to take into account the most recent
changes in sensors research.
In the last few years research in this
field has undergone some fundamental
changes of direction. The main causes for
this were the rapid growth of knowledge
in three-dimensional microprocessing techniques (micromachining of silicon, and
the LIGA technique), major advances in
experimental methods for studying physical processes o n the nanometer scale
(STM, AFM, near-field spectroscopy),
and the ability to synthesize nanostructured materials of various functionalities.
This brought on the one hand new possibilities for system integration (microsystem techniques), and on the other hand
the ability to control objects with dimensions in the nanometer range (nanotechnology). Also researchers in this field
have become more keenly aware of needs
in the market for sensors. In the new climate with regard to investment in research and development one sees a definite trend for companies to treat high-tech
know-how as an essential prerequisite for
strengthening their market position.
This volume is divided into two parts:
Chapters 1 - 11 covering micro- and nano-
C VCH L4rlu~sre~ellschufi
mhH. 0-69451 Wernheim. 1996
technologies, and Chapters 12- 18 covering the markets for sensors.
Chapter 1 is a general introduction t o
the topics covered in this volume. Chapter
2 contains an overview of the three main
types of microsystem technologies, namely the “beside-IC” type (hybrid design),
“in-IC” (integrated design), and “aboveIC” (design as a multilayer structure).
This includes descriptions of some of the
technological solutions that have resulted,
such as pressure sensors and acceleration
sensors (examples of “beside-IC” technology), and an electromagnetic actuator (an
example of an “in-IC” design). The technologies are considered from two standpoints: firstly the needs of the market, and
secondly the essential factors that contribute to the successful development of
innovative microsystems.
Chapter 3 describes the design and production of microsystems within the area
of integrated technologies. i.e., using only
industrial IC methods, with or without
additional IC-compatible production
stages that are specific to the sensor concerned. In particular the chapter describes
CMOS sensors for measuring humidity,
magnetic fields, and electric fields.
Chapter 4 deals with the production of
microsystems using the LIGA technique
and several other technologies that d o not
belong to conventional microelectronics.
The examples chosen to illustrate the
LIGA method include microspectrometers and acceleration sensors. Other examples are a micropump manufactured
by thermoplastic compression molding
and an electrochemical microanalytical
system. From this article it becomes clear
that there is a distinction between microsystem technologies and microelectronic technologies. Production methods
that can be used to make miniaturized
sensors and control devices belong to microsystem technology.
The subject matter of Chapter 5 overlaps to some extent with the chapter on
mass-sensitive detectors that appeared in
Volume 2. In the present chapter the main
emphasis is on the design of SAW structures, and the use of these in security passes for controlling access by a non-contact
interrogator.
Chapter 6 discusses problems arising in
the manufacture of miniaturized gas sensors for use at high temperatures, and possible ways of overcoming these. There is a
particularly high demand for such sensors
in the automobile industry. The main difficulty is that existing sensors have too
short a useful life. The chapter describes
attempts to overcome this problem by the
use of new materials and by improving the
mode of operation of such sensors. Chap0570-083319613520-2405$ 1 5 00 + 2.510
2405
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
1
Размер файла
315 Кб
Теги
molecular, purification, book, protocol, protein, method, edited, biologya, vol, review
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа