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Book Review Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Edited by H. U. Bergmeyer J. Bergmeyer and M

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BOOK R E V I E W S
Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Edited by H . U. Bergmeyer, J . Bergrneyer. and M. Grassl. 3rd edit., VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim 1986. Vol. X: Antigens and
Antibodies 1. Editorial Consultant: R . F. Masseyeff:
XXII, 509 pp., bound, D M 295.00 (subscription price
DM 260.00). - ISBN 3-527-26050-1; Vol. XI: Antigens
and Antibodies 2. Editorial Consultant: R . F. Masseyeff:
XXV, 508 pp., bound, D M 315.00 (subscription price
DM 280.00). - ISBN 3-527-26051-X; Vol. XII: Drugs
and Pesticides. Editorial Consultant: M . OelIerich.
XXIII, 520 pp., bound, D M 315.00 (subscription price
DM 280.00. - ISBN 3-527-26052-8
Volumes X and XI of this handbook“] provide instructions for the enzymatic assay of antibodies and antigens.
These two volumes provide a compendium of model enzyme-immunoassays for immunochemistry rather than attempting to cover the growing field completely. They will
be useful for many years.
The five chapters of Volume X cover assay procedures
for immunoglobulins and immune complexes, for antigens
and antibodies in allergic and autoimmune diseases, and
for antigens and antibodies in viral diseases. The first
chapter discusses the problems of standardizing enzymeimmunoassays for antibodies, particularily with respect to
the treatment and expression of data, much as Volume I1
discusses the interpretation of more classical assays. The
chapter also discusses general methods for the assay of antibody- and antigen-secreting cells as well as an ELISA
technique for screening monoclonal antibodies.
The remaining chapters of Volume X are a collection of
working procedures for the determination of specific antigens and antibodies such as red blood cell autoantibodies, anti-DNA antibodies, and antibodies against herpes
simplex virus, measles virus, o r the HTLV I11 virus. A description of these sections appears below.
Volume XI, the companion handbook, treats antigens
and antibodies in chlamydia1 and bacterial diseases, such
as various Ctostridia species o r bacterial endotoxins, as
well as antigens and antibodies in fungal and parasitic diseases, such as aflatoxins o r Pneurnocystis carinii antigen.
The third and final section of this volume comprises a
short section devoted to a related and emerging field: that
is, the use of enzyme-immunoassays to identify plant viruses such as potato viruses or the soybean mosaic virus.
As in previous volumes, treatment of each antigen or antibody rigidly follows a standard format. This approach
makes the two volumes and the entire twelve volume series
a convenient and informative reference. One may locate
the section covering the desired antigen o r antibody using
the index at the end of each volume; unfortunately these
indices are not cross-referenced to each other or to other
volumes. A typical section begins with a general introduction describing the purpose and applications of the assay,
properties of the antigen o r antibody relevant to the analysis, other methods of determination, and mention of international reference methods and standards, when available.
The assay forms the core of each section, and its documentation is detailed. In standardized format are listed the
design of the method, the equipment required, where to
obtain and how to prepare the reagents and solutions, and
[*] Angew. Chem. Inr. Ed. Engl. 26 (1987) 368.
Angew. Chem. I n ( .
Ed. Engl. 26 (1987) No. 12
the complete assay procedure from collecting and preparing the sample to interpreting the results. The next unit explains how to validate the method and includes a discussion of sources of error in the assay. Appendices usually
provide further detailed information regarding procedures
such as how to prepare and purify monoclonal or enzymelabeled antibodies o r how to coat the assay plates.
Graphics illustrating the principle of each method are
particularly valuable. Also useful are the graphs and illustrations providing information on optimization of procedures, such as well coating, o r on the results of the methods described. Each section closes with a list of references.
These two volumes, containing assay procedures for
over 75 substances, provide a solid reference to specific
and illustrative methods useful for the analysis of antigens,
antibodies and viruses. Clinicians and epidemiologists in
particular will find them useful, although the wealth of information presented will assist those interested in using o r
designing enzyme-immunoassays in biochemistry and biology.
The final volume of “Methods of Enzymatic Analysis,”
Volume XII, describes the relatively recent applications of
enzyme-immunoassays to the quantitative analysis of
drugs and pesticides. The first two chapters focus on the
determination of serum concentrations of therapeutic
drugs and drugs of abuse. The final chapter on pesticides
is meant “to stimulate analysts involved in environmental
investigations to design simple enzyme-immunoassays”.
The eighteen sections of chapter I, “Drugs Monitored
during Therapy”, provide information and assay procedures for 25 drugs ranging from the bronchodialator, theophylline, to various aminoglycosides such as gentimycin or
tobramycin. The next chapter, “Drugs of Abuse and of
Toxicological Relevance,” provides similar information
for substances such as benzodiazepines o r barbiturates in
its 16 sections. The final chapter on pesticides, containing
six sections of environmental applications of enzyme assays, mainly focusses on the determination of cholinesterase inhibitors such as organophosphorus compounds.
The organization of each of the three chapters is similar.
Each opens with a brief, general introduction describing
the importance of enzyme-immunoassays to the particular
topic. As in previous volumes of the series, the bulk of
each chapter is a collection of sections giving information
for a particular drug o r pesticide, one or more assay methods, and techniques to validate the method. Many sections
also include an appendix giving additional information regarding the assay, such as how to prepare enzyme conjugates or antibodies or antigens for the assay. A typical section for a drug is described below; the sections on pesticides have the same format.
Information for a given drug usually includes its chernical structure, mention of the physiological affects and clinical use of the drug, some of its pharmacokinetic parameters, and the reasons for monitoring the drug. Also pro
vided is a short summary of chemical properties relevant
in analysis (FW, values of pK,, solubility) and a listing and
discussion of other methods of determination. The inclusion of references is helpful because, although the presentation of the information is clear and well organized, it
does not attempt to replace descriptions found in more detailed clinical handbooks because the focus of the volume
is not on drug description but on drug analysis; the collec1299
tion of clearly explained and well-documented assays
meets this goal.
The presentation of the assays is standardized as in previous volumes and typically includes the following information: the method design, equipment needed, how to
make up the reagents and solutions, and the assay procedure. Information on the validation of the method is also
given, including data on the specificity of the assay and
therapeutic ranges of the drug.
This final volume should be a useful handbook for the
biochemical, biomedical and clinical laboratory, and will
be helpful to those involved in the measurement of drugs
or pesticides.
The third edition of “Methods in Enzymatic Anatysis”-comprising 6821 pages in twelve volumes-is greatly
expanded from the the 2302 pages in the four volumes of
the second English edition (1974). This change reflects the
increasing importance of enzymatic analyses in the analytical laboratory. As various contributors mention, assays
based on enzymes often supplement o r replace more
lengthly procedures requiring expensive equipment and a
high level of technical expertise. The specificity of enzyme
assays often means that sample purification can be simplified. In some cases no other reliable analytical method exists.
As with previous editions, this one is primarily designed
for those who need to conduct analyses of biological substances, ranging from oxidoreductases to pesticides. The
expanded coverage of this edition also collects important
material on the theory, design, implementation and interpretation of enzymatic assays, thus making the series of
useful reference for scientific and medical libraries as well
as a handbook for the laboratory worker.
The great strength of the collection is its adherence to a
standard format when presenting the assays. This organizes an immense amount of practical information. The
clear and detailed explanations given for each assay allow
the procedures to be followed easily and should stimulate
the development of new assays, particularly in the rapidly
expanding areas of determination of immunological, pharmacological and environmental analytes.
A weakness of the individual volumes of this edition is
the lack of cross-referencing to other volumes o r to previous editions. Fortunately, work on an index volume is in
progress. Complete indexing of the series will make it an
even more valuable reference. Overall, this series is a foundation of modern biological analysis. It will be used
heavily by those conducting analyses of biological substances.
Building Blocks: Part I-The Tricyclooctanone Approach
to Polyquinane Synthesis: The Underlying Photochemistry” by K. Schaffner; Part 11-“The Tricyclooctane Approach: Photochemical Methods in Cyclopentanoid Natural Products Synthesis- A Comparison’’ by M . Demuth
(both authors at Max-Planck Institut fur Strahlenforschung, Miilheim); second theme-“EPC Synthesis with
C,C-Bond Formation via Acetals and Enamines” by D.
Seebach (ETH, Zurich), “Asymmetric Diels-Alder Reactions with Chiral Enoates as Dienophiles” by G. Helmchen
(Heidelberg University), “Enantiomerically Pure Compounds via Chiral Organoboranes” by H . C. Brown (Purdue University, West Lafayette).
The papers are not so much review articles of the usual
kind as progress reports on important developments in
synthetic methods, by authors closely involved in the
work; this applies even to the first paper, which reviews
the applications of ultrasound in chemistry. In accordance
with the “workshop” character of the conference, the book
is without doubt mainly of value to the practical researcher; beginning with the basic principles and background
and continuing through to the latest results, some still unpublished, it contains a wealth of practical information,
and in some cases even a critical evaluation of alternative
methods, with full experimental details for representative
examples, some of which have not been generally available
before. There are plentiful literature references (up to 365
citations), with a coverage which appears to extend to the
end of 1985. This is without doubt where the book’s
greatest value lies. The authors are all leading exponents of
their specialist fields, and direct reproduction of their typescripts has made it possible to publish the material rapidly, thereby disseminating it at first hand, as it were,
even to those who did not participate in the conference. It
would be difficult to find a more competent, topical and
comprehensive survey of the themes treated here, emphasizing as they d o some important current trends in organic
synthesis. For this reason it is certain that the book, like
the reports of the previous Interlaken meetings, will be frequently cited.
To summarize, this is an outstandingly informative
book, which is a must for all chemists interested in the topics discussed, and it also makes stimulating reading.
Working through it reinforces one’s impression of the enthusiasm which characterizes these Interlaken conferences.
Hans-J. Altenbach [NB 839 IE]
Fachbereich 13 der Universitat-Gesamthochschule
Paderborn (FRG)
Ethan S . Simon and George M . Whitesides [NB 831 IE]
Harvard University, Cambridge (USA)
Modern Synthetic Methods 1986. Vol. 4. Edited by R .
Scheffoold. Springer, Berlin 1986. viii, 356 pp., paperback,
DM 68.00.--ISBN 3-540-16526-6
“Modern Synthetic Methods 1986” contains the texts of
the papers presented at the Fourth International Seminar
on Modern Synthetic Methods, which was held at Interlaken in April 1986. The general themes of this seminar
were “Sound and Light in Synthesis” and “Synthesis of
Enantiomerically Pure Compounds”. The book contains
three papers on each of these two themes, as follows: first
theme-“Ultrasound in Synthesis” by K. S. Suslick (University of Illinois, Urbana), “Photochemically Generated
1300
High Resolution NMR Spectroscopy of Synthetic Polymers
in Bulk. Edited by R . A . Komoroski. VCH Publishers,’
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Deerfield Beach and Weinheim 1986. xi, 379 pp., bound, DM 185.00.-ISBN 089573- 146-0, 3-527-26464-7
The macroscopic properties of polymers are closely connected with their molecular structure and dynamics. Therefore the behavior of the macromolecules in the solid state
is of particular interest. In addition to rigid glassy polymers, elastomers, in which the polymer chains in network
structures can have mobilities similar to those in liquids
have to be considered.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy,
which now plays such a prominent role in elucidating the
chemical structures of liquids or solutions, has in the past
Angew. Chem. In!. Ed. Enql. 26 (1987) No. 12
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