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Book Review Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Vol. 9. Proteins and Peptides. Edited by H. U. Bergmeyer J. Bergmeyer and M

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Bu’Lock reported on genetic aspects of the production of
mycotoxins. Hopwood reviewed his group’s important and
detailed studies on the genetics of the Streptomycetes.
Problems concerning the genetics of eukaryotic cells were
discussed by Esser. There were several papers dealing with
the important topic of the production of penicillins and cephalosporins, e.g. Dernain discussed the inhibition by ammonium salts of cephamycin formation in Streptornyces
clavuligerus. There were contributions by Luckner and by
Keller on alkaloid biosynthesis in molds. Kleinkauf and
uon Dohren discussed problems in the synthesis of peptide
antibiotics using enzymatic systems. Vining reported on his
group’s researches on genetic and physiological control of
chloramphenicol biosynthesis. Grufe in his paper took a
close look at the control of secondary metabolite formation in Streptornyces by the use of the A-factor (2-(6‘-methylheptanoyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-4-butanolide)
and its derivatives. Behal discussed the regulation of tetracycline biosynthesis, and, in a second paper, the control of formation
and activity of secondary metabolic enzymes in general.
Synthesis of these enzymes usually only begins after the
readily available sources of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus have been exhausted, and in some cases is inhibited by
the end product. Floss reported on the biosyntheses of
some polyketide antibiotics. Omuru gave a n interesting insight into tylosin biosynthesis and its control by ammonium salts and phosphates. There was also an opportunity
to hear a representative of plant biochemistry, when Grisebach gave a contribution on the induction and regulation
of phytoalexin synthesis in soya-beans. In a concluding
discussion, summarized by Hans uon Dohren, terms were
defined and unresolved problems identified. A final summary by Dernain led to a statement of the following desirable conditions to promote genetic studies aimed at resolving the puzzle of secondary metabolism: 1. that industry
should develop genetic systems for technologically important organisms; 2. that there should be agreement in the
academic world to use a suitable organism as a model; 3.
that investigations on the control of secondary metabolism
should be carried out on one particular organism, such as
Bacillus subtilis, whose genetics are already well understood.
Those engaged in research on antibiotics or secondary
metabolites will find this book stimulating. For others it
makes interesting reading on an important interdisciplinary field of research, which is at the boundaries between
biochemistry, organic chemistry, microbiology and genetics.
Frunz Lingens [NB 782 IE]
Institut fur Mikrobiologie
der Universitat Hohenheim (FRG)
Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Vol. 9. Proteins and Peptides. Edited by H. U.Bergmeyer, J. Bergmeyer, and M .
Grassl. 3rd Edition. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim
1986. xxv, 571 pp., bound. Series price: DM 270.00; individual volume price: DM 310.00.--ISBN 3-527-26049-8
Volume 9 is an entirely new volume devoted to methods
for the determination of biologically important proteins
lacking enzymic activity, and of hormonal proteins, peptides, and amino acids. The volume is devoted almost entirely to enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) methods. It is divided
into five parts, and summarizes methods for 37 compounds
or classes of compounds and antibodies.
368
The first, introductory, part of volume 9 emphasizes current limitations of EIA methods with respect to validation
and standardization, and notes the advantages of EIA
once a suitable method has been devised. The four chapters in part one-introduction, enzyme immunoassay as a n
important methodology in biology and medicine, practical
considerations in enzyme-immunoassays illustrated by a
model system, and problems in the standardization of enzyme-immunoassay for antigens-provide a concise survey
of the problems encountered in the development of an EIA
method. Some comparisons with alternative methods give
the newcomer to EIA some idea as to whether this methodology is worth pursuing further.
Parts 2 through 5 present assay methods for six transport
proteins, four carcinoembryonic and pregnancy proteins,
twelve structural and regulatory proteins, and fifteen hormones (proteins, peptides and the iodoamino acids triiodothyronine and tetraiodothyronine), respectively. The
chapter on calmodulin presents a method based on activation of CAMP phosphodiesterase in the presence of calcium ions and calmodulin and is the only assay in this volume not based on EIA. Of the remaining assays, most are
of the heterogeneous double-antibody sandwich-type as
used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The
other assays represent a small selection of different or
modified strategies for using EIA. Reading through the descriptions of the principles of these different assays provides those unfamiliar with EIA some idea of the varied
ways in which EIA can be used for analysis.
In a number of chapters a second assay method is included in several different manners. The collagen chapter
includes methods for the determination of collagen types
as well as a method for the determination of collagen antibodies. The thyroglobulin chapter is of the same form with
assays for antigen and antibody. The chapters for a,- and
B2-microglobulins both contain two methods for use with
different concentration ranges of antigen in the sample.
The thyroid-stimulating hormone chapter includes a semiautomated assay intended for mass screenings of newborns. The tetraiodothyronine chapter contains assays for
both total and free hormone.
A typical assay chapter is composed of seven sub-sections followed by references and is comparable in layout
to the metabolite assays in volumes 6 to 8. A general section gives a brief discussion of the compound being assayed and indication of the major application of the assay
whether in the clinical or research laboratory; substance
properties assayed by alternative methods; and reference
and standard methods if available. The assay is then described in detail in the remainder of the chapter, which includes a schematic representation of the assay, conditions
for the assay, a listing of required equipment, a list of reagents and solutions, the procedure for carrying out the assay, a section on validation of the assay, and an appendix
that typically includes comments on topics such as preparation of antibody and enzyme-antibody conjugates. While
considerable detail is provided in these methods chapters,
they are not as complete as enzyme-based assays from previous volumes with regard to detailed instructions on the
determination of an experimental value. A typical requirement for a calibration curve and variability in the biologically-derived materials used in immunoassays precludes
the formulation of an exact procedure.
This volume provides a uniform and detailed singlesource reference for EIA methods of use in the clinic and
laboratory. It will be most immediately useful to those already familiar with EIA and in need of methods for the
Angew. G e m . Int. Ed. Engl. 26 (1987) No. 4
specific compounds covered in the volume. For those developing a new EIA method, this volume provides a variety of approaches to immunoassay and may be a suitable
starting point for the development of a new assay. Workers
unfamiliar with immunochemistry may find this volume
difficult to read and should see chapter 2.7 of volume I, if
not a general textbook description of the science involved
in order to be familiar with some of the terminology
used.
The appendix to this volume contains lists of symbols,
quantities, units and constants; abbreviations for chemical
and biological compounds; and formulae useful in spectrophotometry. It is not as extensive as in previous volumes.
Anyone regularly using immunoassay methods in their
work should have this book. Those needing to understand
the nature and application of EIA and the practical aspects involved would d o well to read part o r all of volume
9.
Mark A . Findeis, George M . Whitesides [NB 787 IE]
Harvard University, Department of Chemistry
Cambridge, MA 02 138 (USA)
Infegral/Structural Polymer Foams. Technology, Properties
and Applications. Edited by G. Henrici-Olive and S. 01ive. Springer, Berlin 1986. xxii, 295 pp., bound, D M
198.00.- ISBN 3-540- 15038-2
Integral polymer foams, o r structural polymer foams (these
being the names used in Europe and in the USA respectively), have a cellular structure, with the density increasing outwards from the core to a rigid skin, thus imitating
the structure of wood o r bone. Integral polymer foams are
often used as a wood substitute.
F. A . Shutov and many other authors from Germany, the
USA and elsewhere were involved in putting together this
very carefully written book. It deals with the basic relationships between the morphology and properties o n the one
hand, and the formulating, the equipment and its setting
up, and the manufacturing variables on the other. The applications are discussed, together with a summary of the
molding of the materials and marketing problems. An economic analysis of commercial processes for marketable
materials is also included.
The book deals with the starting materials, the technology of integral polymer foams, and applications using polyurethanes, polystyrenes, polyvinyl chloride, polyolefins,
ABS copolymers, polyphenylene oxides, polycarbonates,
polyamides, polyesters, polyacetals, polyimides, epoxides,
phenyl resins, and other starting materials. It ends with a
chapter on rigidity calculations, molding techniques, and
considerations affecting manufacturers and users.
Useful features are the numerous figures illustrating
equipment, the engineering drawings, flow diagrams and
schematic diagrams, together with detailed indexes of
manufacturers, processes, products, abbreviations, a contents list, and an excellent subject index.
The book is suitable both for those concerned with the
production of these materials and for users, and also for
students of the science, technology and applications of polymers.
Frank Wingler [NB 785 IE]
Central Research Laboratory,
Bayer AG, Leverkusen (FRG)
Angew. Chem. Inr. Ed. Engl. 26 (1987) No. 4
Radicals in Organic Synthesis: Formation of Carbon-Carbon Bonds. By B. Giese. Pergamon Press, Oxford 1986.
XIII, 294 S., Paperback, $ 25.00.--ISBN 0-08-032494-0
During the last decade organic free-radical chemistry has
undergone a remarkable metamorphosis from a rather prosaic area of limited utility for the construction of carboncarbon bonds, except in polymers, to one of major synthetic importance with methods capable of providing chemo-, regio- and stereo-selectivity far beyond the most optimistic expectations of early workers in the field. Professor Giese, one of those who has played a significant role in
bringing about these developments, now provides a timely
account of the mechanistic basis and synthetic applications of free-radical methods, abundantly illustrated with
examples from the recent literature.
The book opens with a short introduction in which well
earned credit is rightfully accorded to those physical-organic chemists whose studies in this area laid that kinetic
and mechanistic base upon which the present cornucopia
of synthetically useful methods so firmly rests. The main
substance of the book is contained in the following four
long chapters, each of which deals with a major topic and
is subdivided into a number of smaller sections.
In the first of these chapters (Basic Principles) the subsections cover general aspects of syntheses with radicals,
elementary reaction steps between radicals and non-radicals, and the comparison of radicals and ions in synthesis.
The Author wisely advises the reader to study this chapter
carefully since an understanding of the factors which affect the relative reactivities of radicals is essential to the
successful application of radical reactions in synthesis.
This point is nicely exemplified by a thorough examination
of the way in which a knowledge of the rate constants for
the individual steps in the reaction of alkyl halides with
activated olefins in the presence of trialkylstannane allows
the choice of optimum experimental conditions. Another
particularly useful topic in this chapter deals with the frontier-orbital approach to radical addition processes.
The next chapter provides a comprehensive account of
the intermolecular formation of aliphatic carbon-carbon
bonds. It is mainly devoted to addition processes subdivided according to the nature of the reagent (tin hydrides,
mercury hydrides, etc.) which reacts with the adduct, but
there is also a small section covering synthetic applications
of radical-radical reactions. Pleasing features of this and
following chapters are the diversity and number of illustrative examples, drawn for the most part from the very recent literature. Indeed dramatic evidence of the level of
current activity in this area is provided by the fact that 55%
of the 250 or so papers cited in this chapter have been published during the last six years.
The proportion of very recent papers cited is even higher
in the next chapter which deals with intramolecular formation of aliphatic carbon-carbon bonds. The many examples in this chapter of the formation of bi- or tri-cyclic ring
systems, often related to such important natural products
as triquinanes, cephems, and pyrrolizidine alkaloids,
clearly shows why this radical methodology is currently attracting so much interest. By comparison the formation of
bonds to aromatic systems is somewhat neglected. However, chapter 5 which deals with this topic, indicates the potential synthetic utility of SRNlreactions, of additions involving aryl radicals, and of homolytic substitution in both
aromatic and heteroaromatic systems.
The last chapter (Methods of Radical Formation) is
quite different from those that precede it. It does not provide a full discussion of the ways in which radicals can be
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