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Book Review Methods of Seawater Analysis. By K. Grasshoff. With Contributions by T. Almgreen R. Dawson M. Ehrhardt S. H. Fonselius B. Josefsson F. Koroleff and K

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BOOK REVIEWS
Methods of Seawater Analysis. By K . Grasshojr With Contributions by 7: Almgreen, R. Dawson, M . Ehrhardt, S. H . Fonselius, B. Josefsson, F. Koroleff, and K . Krrmling. Verlag
Chemie, Weinheim-New York 1976. 1st edit., xv, 324 pp.,
58 figs., 29 tables, bound, D M 98.-.
Methods for the determination of elements and chemical
compounds in seawater have developed very rapidly in recent
years. Thus, routine procedures can now be used for quantitative analysis of trace metals and many organic compounds
for which not a single reliable value was available ten years
ago. The analytical methods for “classical” components of
marine chemistry ( e .g. for silicate, nitrate, and ammonia) have
meanwhile also been improved. A powerful impetus toward
this development came from the need to monitor changes
in the environment-and thus also in the sea-including those
due to human activity.
In view of this development, the books hitherto available
on analysis of seawater are in part outdated. The best of
them, “A Practical Handbook of Seawater Analysis” by J .
D. H . Strickland and 7: R . Parsons, is after all nearly ten
years old. It is therefore very welcome that Grasshoff and
his colleagues have taken the trouble to provide a largely
new volume.
In this book methods are described for the determination
of “dissolved” materials (particle size < 0.45 pm) as well as
of particulate carbon and nitrogen. The authors d o not restrict
themselves to giving precise analytical directions, but also
tell the reader about the occurrence and concentration range
of the materials in seawater and about the physical and chemical background of the analytical process. After two general
sections on the collection, filtration, and storage of seawater
samples, methods are described for the determination of the
following substances and parameters: the salinity, calcium,
strontium, magnesium, chloride, sulfate, bromide, fluoride,
boric acid, oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, thiosulfate, pH, alkalinity,
total carbon dioxide, phosphate, ammonia, nitrite, urea, silicate, arsenate, and organically bound nitrogen. Only slight
changes in these procedures are likely to be made in the
near future, but the situation is different for the other materials
and groups treated in the book, namely the trace metals
zinc and cadmium, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen,
polyphenolic compounds, aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons, and carbohydrates. In the case of these materials the
development of analytical methods is at present so rapid
that the procedures described do not all represent current
practice. For example, there is no mention of atomic absorption spectrophotometry, by which many heavy metals can
be very elegantly determined; similarly, the methods published
recently for the analysis of chlorinated hydrocarbons in seawater are not yet taken into account.
The nutrient salts dissolved in seawater are now determined
automatically in many seaborne and land laboratories, and
in view of their importance these methods are described in
a special section.
“Methods of Seawater Analysis” will be of great value to
marine chemists, practising analysts, and many marine biologists. However, since it does not include all the substances
and groups occurring in seawater, Strickland and Parson’s
“Handbook” is still essential. To keep up to date with the
analytical procedures the Grasshojj’ book should be revised
and supplemented a few years hence.
Giinter Weichart [NB 377 IE]
Atiyew. Chem. I n r . E d . Etigl. 16 ( 1 9 7 7 ) N o . 7
Principles of Pyrometallurgy. By C. B. Alcock. Academic Press,
London-New York 1976. 1st edit., xiii, 348 pp., various
figs. and tables, bound, 8.50.
This monograph is an excellent presentation of the physicochemical principles of high-temperature isolation of metals.
The book is divided into three chapters describing very
clearly the experimental data, theoretical principles, and
models, which can be read independently of one another.
The thermodynamics and kinetics of roasting and sintering
reactions as preliminaries to isolation of the metals are treated
in the first chapter. The second chapter contains the most
important principles of extractive metallurgy and isolation
of the metals from sulfides, oxides, and halides. Reduction
of iron ores is briefly described, but not the direct reduction
process. Refining processes are given in the third chapter,
namely zone melting, high-temperature distillation, remelting
of metals in slags (including the electro-slag-remelting process), vacuum degassing, chemical transport, and electrolytic
methods.
Owing to the number and variety of the processes described
it cannot be expected that the reader will receive a complete
picture in the mere 340 pages of this book. An extensive
bibliography (including monographs) is therefore given at the
end of each section; the original literature cited extends up
to 1972.
In many respects this book and F. D. Richardson’s twovolume “Physical Chemistry of Melts in Metallurgy”, a work
published in 1974 by Academic Press, complement each other.
Unlike Richardson, however, Alcock cites also the most important German publications. The book is addressed to advanced
students in the fields of inorganic (industrial)chemistry, applied
physical chemistry, and metallurgy. In addition, it provides
a good review for engineers and chemists working in industry.
As there are few modern books dealing with the economically
important field of raw-material treatment, Alcock’s work can
be recommended.
Norbert Nowack [NB 378 IE]
New Applications of Organometallic Reagents in Organic Syntheses. Edited by D. Sejferth. Journal of Organometallic
Chemistry Library 1. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.,
Amsterdam 1976. x, 488 pp., bound, $ 44.75.-Proceedings
of a Symposium at the American Chemical Society National
Meeting held in New York City, April 6-9, 1975.-ISBN
0-444-41473-8
Organometallic Chemistry Reviews: Organosilicon Reviews.
Edited by D. Sryfrrth, A . G. Davies, E. 0. Fischer, J . F .
Normant, and 0. A . Reutoz;. Journal of Organometallic
Chemistry Library 2. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.,
Amsterdam 1976. viii,404 pp., bound, $39.75.--ISBN 0-44441488-6
49 1
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