вход по аккаунту


Book Review Microscopy. 2nd edition. (Series Physical Methods of Chemistry Vol. 4.) Edited by B. W. Rossiter and J. F

код для вставкиСкачать
reviewed here has been written by a chemist who is well
versed in the history of the subject, and who thinks of it
historically, reflecting all the many different aspects of chemistry. The particular strength of this account is that it unites
chemistry, the history of chemistry, and the history of the
chemical elements. The early stages of these are described
best and in greatest detail, whereas the treatment of prebiotic
chemistry and related research is rather brief. Thus one finds
an excellent analysis of the early stages of chemical evolution
and the contributions of chemists such as Bunsen, Kirchhoff,
Fisher, and van’t Hoff, whereas the origins of the chemical
basis of life and the corresponding work of Oparin, Haldane,
Bernal, Urey, Miller, Calvin, etc. are not discussed so thoroughly. To that extent the book does not entirely fulfill the
claim of accurately reflecting the state of knowledge at the
end of the 1980s, but despite this it can be strongly recommended.
The author gives an excellent description of the formation
of the lighter chemical elements in the “big bang”, then leads
the reader on through the formation of the heavier elements
in the stars, and describes the origin of the solar system and
of geological minerals. He treats with equal thoroughness
the interstellar medium, interstellar dust, meteorites, and
comets. The account of the chemical basis of life is divided
into the separate aspects of bioenergetics, replication, and
polymerization. The last chapter deals with the question of
chirality, where the author bases the discussion on his previous work, starting from the concept of the amplification of
weak electrical asymmetry.
Subject to the reservations mentioned above, the book can
be recommended for study by chemists, physicists, biologists, geologists, and astrophysicists who are interested in
chemical evolution. It should also be of considerable interest
to scientific historians.
Werner Ebeling
Institut fur Theoretische Physik
der Humboldt-Universitat Berlin (FRG)
Microscopy. 2nd edition. (Series : Physical Methods of
Chemistry, Vol. 4.) Edited by B. FV Rossiter and J. l?
Hamilton. Wiley, Chichester, 1991, XI, 539 pp., hardcover
L 109.00.--ISBN 0-471 -08026-8
This book describes methods of microscopy by which images can be obtained through different “illumination methods”. The volume encompasses ten contributions, each fitting well with the others, from internationally recognized
specialists. The contents are best indicated by the chapter
titles, given here in order of the contributing authors:
1, Introduction: Principles and Practice of Electron Microscopy, 3. Electron Microscopy of Defects in Crystals
(Medium Resolution), and 7. Special Electron Microscopy
Techniques, by John M. Cowley; 2. Electron Microscopy of
Biological (and Organic) Materials, and 4. High-Resolution
Imaging of Crystalline and Amorphous Materials, by David
J. Smith; 5. Electron Diffraction and Microdiffraction, by
John C. H. Spence; 6. Microanalysis by Electron Energy
Loss Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis,
by Peter Rez; 8. Scanning Electron Microscopy, by Ludwig
Reimer; 9. Light Microscopy, by Walter C. McCrone;
10. Determination of Particle Size, by George L. Beyer.
Two-thirds of the book is devoted to electron microscopy,
which indicates the importance of and the increasing interest
in this method. Modern developments are also to be found
in light microscopy, and the contribution about light mi1534
Verlugsgesellschuft mbH, W-6540 Weinheim,1952
croscopy makes it clear that this field should in no way be
forgotten. The contribution on particle size determination
provides a practical example of, among other things, the
application of light and electron microscopy (also for automated measurement methods).
With the development of electron microscopy to higher
resolution it is increasingly the differences and not the analogies between light and electron microscopy that emerge.
Electron microscopy has therefore been considered in this
book as consistently as possible from the standpoint of the
theory of coherent images, whereas light microscopy was
usually described using the concept of incoherent images.
The wave properties of electrons and the corresponding diffraction effects are set in the foreground. This volume does
not attempt to describe the field completely with results, but
sufficient reference is made to the literature for examples of
applications and further methods. The emphasis on methods
contributes to clarity because the fundamental principles are
not concealed by detail. This book shows both where the
value and the limits of each method lie and gives an impression of the necessary expenditure of time and effort. All
important ideas are explained in an easily comprehensible
form. The good general index makes the keywords, otherwise to be found scattered in specialized publications, easily
accessible. The individual contributions are so fluently written that one will not only consult them but read further with
The fact that transmission electron microscopy constitutes
the book’s main theme shows that, in this area alone, unusuallyfast and significant advances have been made in the last
few years. All types of equipment and imaging techniques
now available are introduced, for example, diffraction in a
convergent beam, possibilities for imaging and analysis with
scanning transmission microscopy, image processing, and
simulation procedures. Even the very promising method of
holography with electrons is mentioned. Some of these
working methods have only become available for normal use
by outfitting apparatus with digital technology and by employing computers. All the modern methods of contrast generation, scanning microscopy, and image processing are described in the section on light microscopy. Every chapter is
well provided with diagrams, schemes, and illustrations.
This volume, which presents a sound, up-to-date survey,
can be highly recommended to all scientists who want to be
informed about these methods, their theoretical basis, and
the necessary equipment.
Wilhelm Merten
Institut fur Anorganische und Analytische Chemie
der Universitat GieBen (FRG)
Reductions by the Alumino- and Borohydridesin Organic Synthesis. By J Seyden-Penne. VCH Publishers, New York/
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/Lavoisier TEC &
DOC, Paris, 1991. XIII, 193 pp., hardcover DM 108.00.ISBN 1-56081-099-813-527-28247-5,
Alumino- and borohydrides can be used to achieve selective reductions in high yields, requiring only a simple protocol, and they have therefore rapidly become an indispensable
aid to organic synthesis. Because of the wide variety of special reagents now available, and the large number of efficient
reductions that have been described in the primary literature,
there was a pressing need for an up-to-date review. This
report on the latest situation by J. Seyden-Penne does not
claim to be complete, but by reviewing 605 publications,
0570-0833/92/1111-1534 $3.50+.25/0
Angefi,. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 1992, 3f. No. 1 1
Без категории
Размер файла
159 Кб
edition, physical, chemistry, rossiter, book, series, microscopy, 2nd, method, edited, vol, review
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа