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Book Review Molecular Semiconductors. Photoelectrical Properties and Solar Cells. By J. Simon and J.-J. Andr

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ing to their close connection with the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids and with the active hormones derived from these. The biological significance of these peroxidase-catalyzed reactions on model compounds is not
yet known. In the final section dealing with toxicology, the
interactions of the products of N-oxidation with nucleic
acids, thiols, a-0x0-acids, hemoglobin, and fatty acids, and
their mutagenic effects, are discussed.
On the whole, this collection of articles portrays very
well the current state in this field of research. Most of the
47 contributions have been kept short, and give the essentials on their various topics. Readers interested in more detailed information will need to refer to the original papers
listed, which may indeed have been the aim of the editors.
In view of the flood of original papers that appear scattered through various specialized journals, this book is a
good example of a manageable compilation of up-to-date
information. The book should make it easier for chemists,
toxicologists, pharmacologists and interested biochemists
to quickly familiarize themselves with this expanding area
of research.
Helmut Sies [NB 741 IE]
lnstitut fur Physiologische Chemie
der Universitat Diisseldorf (FRG)
Mass Spectral and GC Data of Drugs, Poisons and Their
Metabolites. By K . Pfleger, H . Maurer, and A . Weber.
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim 1985. Part I: Introduction and Tables. xxx, 208 pp., bound; Part 11: Mass
Spectra and Indexes. xii, 744 pp., bound, together DM
480.00. -ISBN 3-527-26303-9
The definitive identification of toxic substances by mass
spectrometry has rapidly gained importance in recent
years. Karl Pfeger is a pioneer of clinical toxicology who
has used this work to pass on his experience to scientists in
general.
These two volumes contain a wealth of clearly arranged
G C and M S data which allow rapid identification of measured samples by comparison of spectra and data. Samples
can be roughly classified by means of their retention indices, mass spectra are used for final identification. The
line spectra are given in the form of computer print-outs
and contain details of empirical and structural formulas,
exact masses, retention indices and occurrence (urine,
blood etc.). Reference spectra for purposes of identification are found primarily via the mass of the molecular ion.
If the mass is not available the reference spectra can be
located with the aid of the most intense peaks. Compounds
are listed in an index so that a reference spectrum can also
be found by looking u p the name of the appropriate substance. The extensive tables are preceded by short sections
on work-up, derivatization for G C analysis and artefacts
that may appear in gas chromatographs.
Pfeger together with Maurer and Weber have created an
extremely important work for practical purposes. It must
however be mentioned that the book contains numerous
errors: missing hydrogen atoms at the indole nitrogen (e.g.
p. 200 and 201), missing double bonds in benzbromarone
(p. 656) or a missing oxygen atom in the methylation of an
alcoholic group (p. XXIV) are less serious but it is, however, very aggravating that computer print-outs that give incorrect masses due to incorrect calibration have been incorporated without any criticism. The key ion in the spectrum of stearic acid is, for instance, shifted from mass 60 to
Angew. Chem Int. Ed. Engl. 2s 11986) No. 9
mass 61. The main ion of mass 56 shown in the spectrum
of fatty acids is furthermore of minor intensity so that this
compound would be difficult to identify. The main ion in
the spectrum of bromopride (p. 599) is assigned a mass of
58 which is inconsistent with the structure of a diethylamino compound. As the molecular ion is missing and the
other peaks cannot be correlated with the given structure,
it seems likely that the spectrum shown belongs to another
compound.
Despite this list of faults (which could be continued e.g.
literature references are missing), this book written by
Pfleger and co-workers is of great value for all toxicologists. Providing that it is read with an appropriate degree
of criticism, it will be an important aid for helping to solve
problems in all laboratories.
Gerhard Spiteller [NB 749 IE]
Lehrstuhl fur Organische Chemie I
der Universitat Bayreuth (FRG)
Molecular Semiconductors. Photoelectrical Properties and
Solar Cells. By J. Simon and J . 4 . Andre. Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1985. xiii, 288 pp., bound, DM 174.00.ISBN 3-540-13754-8
An increasing amount of work has been published in recent years on organic, organometallic and polymeric compounds with unusual properties. The preparation of such
materials and the study of their electrical, electrochemical,
magnetic and optical properties has developed into one of
the most attractive fields of research. In the next few years
there will certainly be further important publications devoted to extending the range of these materials, and to understanding the phenomena of charge transport, charge interactions and charge storage at a molecular level. Because
of the large number of publications in this field, the appearance of a monograph which critically reviews some aspects of materials of this kind is very welcome.
The first two chapters are concerned with the physical
basis of charge transport in solids and of photoelectric
phenomena. After first describing the behavior of inorganic solids, examples of various “molecular” crystals and
polymers are discussed. On account of the wide variety of
organic solids, this theoretical treatment is a useful starting
point for understanding the processes concerned. These
first two chapters will be of particular value to those who
are just entering the field, because derivations have been
avoided, and the understanding of the text is helped by the
inclusion of many tables and figures.
In those classes of materials that are treated as “molecular” semiconductors, the authors have put the main emphasis on phthalocyanines and polyacetylenes. In each
case the preparation and general physical properties of the
materials are dealt with first, before describing the electrical and photovoltaic properties (including solar cell uses)
which are chiefly of interest here. The sections on preparation and morphology are undoubtedly essential, in order to
give the reader guidance in planning his own work. Studies
of the properties of substances such as phthalocyanines in
solution, e.g. their electronic spectra, photophysical properties, and redox behavior, could have been treated more
briefly, as they d o not really belong to the main subject of
the book. It would have been better to increase the emphasis on solid state physical properties. In the chapter on the
intrinsic conductivity of phthalocyanines, one would have
liked to see a table of characteristic data on important in-
85 1
dividual phthalocyanines included. Under doped phthalocyanines, more detailed attention should have been given
to the work of the Tiibingen group led by Hunack. The
description of the photochemical hole-burning technique
for phthalocyanines, as an alternative method for storage
at a molecular level, might also have been expanded. The
topics covered in the chapter on polyacetylenes are appropriate to the objectives of the book, and are treated thoroughly.
The final chapter deals with other molecular semiconductors, but in most cases too briefly. Some of the latest
“alternative” materials, such as polyphenylene sulfide,
polyaniline and polythienylene, are regrettably not included at all. The reputation of the book could have been
enhanced by looking at prospects for some of those molecular electronics developments (molecular conductors, storage devices, switches and transistors) which have been
mentioned in several publications and at two conferences,
but have not yet been achieved practically. The short chapter entitled “Conclusion” does not meet this need.
On the whole this book does fill a gap in the growing
field of “alternative” materials. For scientists already
working in the field the review is a useful addition to the
literature, and it can also be recommended for those about
to begin work in the area as a help in getting started.
Dieter Wohrle. Andreus Juhn [NB 738 IE]
Institut fur Organische und Makromolekulare Chemie
der Universitat Bremen (FRG)
Photochemical Conversion and Stabilization of Polymers.
By V. Y. Shlyupintokh. Hanser-Verlag. Miinchen 1984.
xiv, 470 pp., Hardbound, DM 168.00.--ISBN 3-44613670-3
The photochemical and photooxidation reactions of polymers, including their photostabilization, are presented in
this book in a fundamental manner on the basis of primary
physical processes, energy transport, chemical reaction
mechanisms, and kinetics. All subjects are discussed in full
detail; the emphasis given to a thorough treatment of photostabilization, including the more recent methods of stabilization with hindered amines, qualifies this book as a
valuable addition to the monograph literature. Since all its
chapters (except for Chapter 4) are written by the same author, which nowadays is rarely encountered in this field,
the book exhibits homogeneity in styling, much to the
profit of the reader.
Each chapter offers a self-contained treatment of its particular topic. Chapters 1-5 are devoted to photoinduced
changes in polymers, Chapters 6-10 to photostabilization:
1 - Photophysical processes; 2-Some characteristics of
R m n v r c r d mmes rrodetnarh c erc nwd rn rhrr ,ourno/,
photochemical and dark reactions in polymer matrices;
3-Photooxidation of polypropylene; 4-Photoaging of
aliphatic polyamides (by L. M. Postrekou and A . L. Murgofin); 5-Singlet oxygen and the photooxidation of polymers; 6- Protective mechanisms of photostabilizers in
model systems; 7-Physical mechanisms of inhibition of
the phototransformation processes of polymers in solution; 8-Physical mechanisms of inhibition of the phototransformation processes in solid polymers; 9- Photostability of UV absorbers; 10-Protective action of some photostabilizers. By their length, Chapters 9 and 10 may be
considered as the main part of the book; this means that
stabilization phenomena are presented in sufficient detail
to allow thorough interpretation.
The author with his research group at the Institute of
Chemical Physics of the Soviet Academy of Sciences
counts among today’s most competent contributors to this
field in the Soviet Union. His presentation is based
throughout on experimental data, partly from his own laboratories, which are being presented and interpreted with
great care. A detailed list of references at the end of each
chapter provides access to the original literature up to approximately 1979.
This book is a valuable collection of knowledge on the
fundamental scientific facts of photoinduced aging and
photostabilization of polymers; nevertheless, its aim is not
advice on practical application. Though, e.g., in the treatment of photostabilizers, the book concentrates interest
upon practically employed stabilizer substances, it may not
be considered as a guidebook, neither to the proper choice
of stabilizer systems, nor to their applicational properties.
Present argument going on with respect to the interpretation of certain results (especially as to the r6le of singlet
oxygen in photooxidation) is reflected in the book. This is
without doubt one of the useful features of the book, making the reader familiar with currently open questions. On
the other hand, some topics, however thoroughly presented (like the Fries photorearrangement in UV absorbers), are of less actual interest today, while certain important aspects (like the controlled photodecomposition induced by additives) are omitted.
On the whole, this book has to be classified as a largely
comprehensive and highly informative publication. It is
virtually indispensable for those who are scientifically concerned with questions of stability and stabilization of polymers. Furthermore, it is highly recommended for all
those chemists, physicists, and students who are interested
in questions of reaction kinetics, photochemistry and photophysics. Finally, tribute may be made to the book’s excellent appearance.
Jouchirn Voigt [NB 714 IE]
Hoechst AG, Frankfurt am Main (FRG)
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852
Angew. Chem. In!. Ed. Engl. 25 (1986) No. 9
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