close

Вход

Забыли?

вход по аккаунту

?

Book Review Particle Beam Microanalysis. Fundamentals Methods and Applications. By E. Fuchs H. Oppholzer and H

код для вставкиСкачать
Another focus of interest was the investigation of plants
that are poisonous to animals. Particularly noteworthy is the
work on pyrrolizidine-containing plants. One result of the
work was the cultivation of Datura myoporoides and D.hichardii for the production of hyoscyamine. In addition to the
above-mentioned effects, the plant extracts or their isolated
constituents were tested for the following pharmacological
activities : effects on the heart and circulation, in particular
high blood pressure, spasmolysis, suppression of inflammation, antimicrobial and antiparasitic activity. The comprehensive tables list the results according to plant families. Not
only flowering plants but, to a lesser extent, ferns, algae,
fungi, and lichens were included in the investigations. A total
of 64 plants are pictured on color plates and the book contains 21 52 references to the literature. The extensive index is
arranged according to plant families, species, authors, and
substances.
Although the book only deals with Australian flora, many
species and genera occur in other regions of the world and,
therefore, it is of general interest to all scientists working
with plants of pharmacological importance. In terms of its
length, high-quality layout, and color tables, the book is very
inexpensive (the price includes airmail delivery). It can be
recommended without hesitation.
Hans Becker
Pharmakognosie und Analytische Phytochemie
der Universitat des Saarlandes
Saarbrucken (FRG)
NMR, NQR, EPR, and Mossbauer Spectroscopy in Inorganic
Chemistry. (Series : Inorganic Chemistry; Series Editor: J.
Burgess). By R. V. Parish. Ellis Horwood, Chichester,
1990. 223 pp., hardcover $50.95.--ISBN 0-13-625518-3
"NMR, NQR, EPR and Mossbauer Spectroscopy in Inorganic Chemistry" presents fundamentals and applications
of these techniques with the aim of helping the inorganic
chemist understand and interpret spectra. To the extent that
the intended readership stems from the inorganic community, this text is somewhat unique. The book opens with nuclear magnetic resonance methods and considers problems associated with organometallic, phosphorus, and transitionmetal hydride chemistry. There is a brief excursion into multinuclear NMR with comments on 31P, I3C, 14715N,I9F,
27Al,29Siand some transition metals. This is followed by a
section on special methods, e.g. INDOR, DEPT, INEPT,
DANTE, and a few words on two-dimensional spectroscopy. The NMR portion encompasses ca. 110 of the
book's 223 pages. A short section on NQR contains comments and data on the halogens, Group 4 elements, and several transition metals, and is followed by a chapter on
Mossbauer spectroscopy with emphasis on 57Fe, "'Sn,
"'Sb, 127,1291, 1931r,and "'Au. The book closes with a
discussion of EPR spectra, mainly of transition metal complexes.
Even allowing for the restriction of the subject matter to
inorganic systems, it is, of course, impossible to cover any of
these subjects in depth. Indeed the author clearly states that
this work should not be considered as either a spectroscopic
or theoretical treatise, but rather should provide an introduction to these subjects and, presumably, assist the practicing inorganic chemist in his day-to-day contacts with these
methods.
The text is easy to read, well illustrated and contains many
practical examples which are certain to be of value to a
108
0 VCH Vrrfagsgese~fschuftmbH,
W-6940 Weinheim,1992
beginning graduate student. There are problems and answers
at the end of each section and these will be useful for both
students wishing to practice, as well as teachers seeking material for upper-level undergraduate or preliminary graduate
courses. Still, there are some problems in presentation and
language which might have been avoided: p. 27, it is not
likely that the
spectra of 2.1 and 2.111 will yield the same
information, as suggested; p. 29, resolution does not necessarily increase with increasing spectrometer frequency (does
the author refer to dispersion?); p. 48, it is not at all clear
whether the relatively large value for 2J(P,P),,,,, is at all
related to the trans influence concept; p. 59, for "normal
hydrides" T, is not usually several seconds or more. On a
more subjective note, I would have been pleased to see
ranges of chemical shift for both 13Cand 31P, including the
more interesting types of complexes found in the last decade
or so, for example, the extremely low field shifts for carbenes
and carbynes as well as the very low field resonance positions
associated with bridging phosphide ligands. Furthermore, in
view of the blossoming literature associated with the NMR
of transition metals, more time could have been devoted to
this subject. It might have been interesting to bridge the gap
between the liquid state (NMR) and the solid state measurements which follow (NQR, Mossbauer) by a few examples of
solid-state NMR spectroscopy; however, it is likely that such
an excursion would lead to an unreasonable balance. Despite
these and other minor problems I feel that, in general, the
book will prove useful for students and teachers of inorganic
chemistry.
P. S. Pregosin
Laboratorium fur Anorganische Chemie
der Eidgenossischen Technischen Hochschule
Zurich (Switzerland)
Particle Beam Microanalysis. Fundamentals, Methods and
Applications. By E. Fuchs, H. Opphoizer and H. Rehme.
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/VCH Publishers,
New York, 1990. xv, 507 pp., hardcover DM 215.00.ISBN 3-527-26884-7/0-89573-505-9
To make effective use of modern instrumental methods in
microanalysis requires a considerable knowledge of the fundamentals of these techniques, and a thorough appreciation
of their limitations. This book aims to equip the reader with
that information. The methods chosen are those that yield
structural and chemical information by means of lateral
resolution, are commercially available, and are suitable for
use in any (well equipped) industrial laboratory. All three
authors are internationally recognized scientists active in the
area of microelectronics. For this reason the book is confined to those methods that are relevant to applications in
the field of semiconductor and thin-film technology. The
book succeeds in giving a comprehensive treatment within
this limited area.
The standard of production is excellent (printed on acidfree paper), and the book is plentifully illustrated by diagrams and photographs. A clearly set out list of contents and
a useful index make it easy for the reader to locate specific
topics. The methods whose applications are covered in the
book are the various forms of electron microscopy (scanning, transmission and high-resolution transmission electron
microscopies, i.e. SEM, TEM, and HRTEM, respectively),
those of electron-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectrometries, EDS and
WDS respectively, and also electron beam microprobe anal-
$3.50+ .25/0
0~70-0833~92jOlOl-0lO8
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 31 (1992) No. 1
ysis), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), secondary ion
mass spectrometry (SIMS), and the testing of complex semiconductor structures using low-energy electron beams. A
further chapter giving detailed descriptions of case studies in
the microelectronics field completes the book. References to
recent monographs afford access to the extensive original
literature; additional references to special and company reports are of less value to most readers.
The first part of the book describes the basic principles of
the techniques. The reader is given a mixture of detailed
information, varying from the highly relevant and interesting to the trivial. This part is difficult to appreciate without
a basic knowledge of solid state physics. However, the discussions of the properties of the individual particles used as
probes (electrons and positively charged ions) are very useful
from the standpoint of the nonspecialist. For those working
in this area, the thorough treatment of the interactions of the
particles with the sample material will be especially useful;
this applies especially to the section on sputtering effects and
depth profiles.
Each of the chapters that follow is devoted to a single
technique. In each case the experimental principles of the
method are first explained, and the latest instruments are
described. This is followed by a very useful section on sampling and sample preparation. In these sections, and in those
that follow dealing with the interpretation of data, the practical experience of the authors comes clearly to the fore.
The chapter on scanning electron microscopy contains an
excellent discussion of contrast mechanisms, and also includes information on channeling and cathode luminescence
effects, which many other monographs do not cover. The
chapter on tramsmission electron microscopy will not be
understandable to readers without any previous knowledge;
in particular it does not provide an introduction to geometrical crystallography. Electron diffraction techniques are
treated in a similarly inadequate manner. The chapter on
X-ray spectroscopy is impressive for its very good description of the operational features of the latest commercial instruments and data processing software, which have now
become highly sophisticated. The critical discussion of the
quantitative aspects of X-ray spectroscopy is also useful.
However, in this chapter, even if not earlier, one becomes
aware of a serious shortcoming of the book: there are no
tables of numerical data such as scattering cross-sections and
other quantities that one needs to know in practice for calculating results from spectra. Giving references to such tables
is no substitute for the experimentalist. Through this regrettable omission the book misses the opportunity to be a working tool used alongside the instrument, a role that it would
otherwise have filled admirably by virtue of the rest of its
contents and their orderly arrangement.
The chapter on Auger spectroscopy again includes an excellent introduction to the technique, and describes how the
results are affected by instrumental variables and settings,
followed by a detailed treatment of spatially-resolved quantitative Auger analysis. Unfortunately the section on qualitative “spectroscopy” is very brief, which is likely to disappoint readers whose interests lie outside the silicon-chip field,
since in these areas quantification is intrinsically more difficult and questionable, whereas qualitative analysis is more
important than in the semiconductor field.
The chapter on applications begins with a section on
“Analysis Strategy”, but unfortunately the reader is only
presented with statements of the obvious. Here one would
have expected to find a comparative evaluation of the different methods. The examples of applications that follow are
well chosen to illustrate the general principles described in
Angew. Chem. Inr. Ed. Engl. 31 (1992) N o . 1
0 VCH
the earlier parts of the book. It is here especially that the
reader benefits from the practical experience of the authors,
who give lively and interesting accounts of work in their own
field. An additional useful feature is the inclusion of experimental conditions in some of the figure captions.
On the whole the most impressive aspect of the book lies
in the excellent practically-orientated descriptions of the
chosen techniques. However, this is not a laboratory handbook, as it does not contain the tables of data that are essential in everyday practice. The book can be recommended for
everyone involved in experimental research on semiconductors, whether in industry or universities. With regard to the
interpretation of results, as applied to the everyday work of
an industrial laboratory, it provides excellent guidance and
stimulation for the critical application of these methods. The
same is true to a certain extent for the related fields of thin
films, surface coatings and information storage. As a general
introduction to the techniques the book is only of limited
value. Moreover, users with interests in particulate samples,
oxide powders or materials that are predominantly organic
will find the book less useful.
The book should be useful for preparing advanced lecture
courses on instrumental analysis methods, especially as it
brings together in a concise form information on physical
aspects that would be laborious to extract from other monographs. It should be included in every collection of works on
analytical methods, since it instructs the reader, by means of
examples, in the interpretation of experimental results.
Robert Schlogl
Institut fur Anorganische Chemie
der Universitat Frankfurt/Main (FRG)
Chemical Oscillations and Instabilities. Non-Linear Chemical
Kinetics. (International Series of Monographs on Chemistry, Vol. 21). By P . Gray and S . K . Scotl. Clarendon Press,
Oxford, 1990. xvi, 453 pp., hardcover f. 50.00.--ISBN
0-19-855 646-2
Nonlinear chemical reactions under conditions far removed from chemical equilibrium have become a focus of
attention during the last few years, and can involve fascinating phenomena such as chemical oscillations, multiple stabilities and chaos on both the time and the spatial axes. The
properties of such systems, described by Prigogine as dissipative structures, confer on them the ability for self-organization. The two authors of this book have been involved for
several years in fruitful studies of nonlinear processes in the
gas phase. This has resulted in a book which shows some of
the classical features that characterized the early Russian
publications in the area of combustion processes. The authors have included in their overview of the subject their own
numerous publications. The lively personality of one of the
two permeates the whole book: its aim is to inform, to teach,
and to correct inaccuracies-it is never boring.
Taking as an example the cases of quadratic and cubic
autocatalysis with a wide variety of boundary conditions, the
authors derive numerous analytical solutions to the problem. The topics treated include oscillations in closed isothermal and thermokinetic systems, Hopf bifurcations, relaxation oscillations, the excitability of stationary states,
autocatalysis and oscillations in isothermal and nonisotherma1 continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs), reaction-diffusion equations for pattern formation (Turing processes), chemical waves, heterogeneous catalytic systems and
chemical chaos. Local stability analysis methods using the
Verlugsgesellschuft mbH, W-6940 Weinheim. 1992
0570-0833/92/010l-Ol09$3.50+.25/0
109
Документ
Категория
Без категории
Просмотров
0
Размер файла
372 Кб
Теги
fuchs, beam, book, application, method, review, particles, fundamentals, microanalysis, oppholzer
1/--страниц
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа