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Book Review Partition of Cell Particles and Macromolecules. By P. Albertson

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BOOK REVIEWS
Inorganic Vibrational Spectroscopy. Vol. I. By L. H. Jones.
Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 1971. 1st Edit., viii,
218 pp., numerous tables, bound, $22.50.
this volume is devoted to the production and modulation
of electromagnetic waves, optical sources, and the production of acoustic signals.
The contents of the present book are much n a r m r in
scope than its title would lead one to suppose. It is restricted
to an evaluation of the fundamental vibrations of those
inorganic molecules and complex anions for which experimental work allows a complete calculation of the force
constants. Besides diatomic and triatomic molecules, the
author deals with some halides of the type XHal , as well
as with mononuclear cyano and carbonyl complexes of
higher symmetry, calling upon his own contributions to
the spectra and force constants of these compounds.
Additional parameters such as isotope frequency shifts and
Coriolis force effects are taken into account in determining
force constants. The possibilities of correcting for anharmonicity and its effect on the calculated force constants are
demonstrated. As a rule, the author bases the force constants on the general force field, but in some cases he also
uses a modified Urey-Bradley field. Some statements are
made on the interpretation of force constants, especially
interaction constants, although no generally applicable
conclusions can be drawn at the present time.
The first section of Part I B presents a survey of detectors
for radio waves and microwaves, for the optical range
(IR, UV/visible), and for radioactive radiation, while the
principles of automatic systems are described in the next
two sections. The last section deals with the mathematical
basis, the construction, and the functioning of analog
and digital computers, as well as possibilities for their use
in chemistry.
The introduction to the special section takes the form of a
brief outline of the theory of molecular vibrations, with
discussions of the energy relationships for harmonic and
anharmonic vibrations, G and F matrices, internal coordinates, symmetry coordinates, redundance relationships,
and potential fields. This part of the book, in conjunction
with the examples and tables given in the appendix, can
help the advanced student to get the hang of normal
coordinate calculations. On the whole, however, the restricted scope of the book makes it more likely to be useful
for those working in vibrational spectroscopy for the
derivation of special results and for the literature references.
The two volumes are well illustrated. The various sections,
which are written by different authors, end with very useful
references to reviews and other important literature. The
subject index could have been more detailed. The books
appear at a time when instrumental methods are being
increasingly used in all branches of chemistry. Their value
cannot therefore be overestimated. To whom can they be
recommended? To any chemist (or even biologist) whose
electrical and electronic instruments are more to him than
the infamous black box. In these volumes he can learn
what was omitted from the practical physics course in
many universities, and stilI is omitted in part; he can also
learn about the functioning of a pen recorder, a photomultiplier, a semiconductor component, etc. He will find
what he is looking for condensed to the essentials as far as
he is concerned, and presented in a form that he can understand. He can also learn about the fundamentals of electronic data processing. For example, he will learn in a few
lines the meaning of the 5-channel BCD code in which he
punches the values for his HMO and kinetic calculations.
The two volumes occupy a unique position in present-day
support literature for chemists and biologists.
Egon Fahr [NB 97 IE]
H . J. Becher [NB 100 IE]
Techniques of Chemistry. Vol. I : Physical Methods of
Chemistry. Edited by A . Weissberger and B. M . Rossiter.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York-London 1971.
1st Edit., Part I A : xi, 433 pp., numerous figures, bound
€ 9.50. Part I B: xi, 330 pp., numerous figures, bound
f 8.00.
After several editions, the series “Techniques of Organic
Chemistry” edited by A. Weissberger now appears under
the title “Techniques of Chemistry”. The first volume deals
in five parts with the physical methods commonly used in
chemistry. Parts I A and I B have now been published.
Part IA deals with the basic mechanical, electrical, and
electronic components of scientific instruments. The section “Mechanical” presents the possibility of producing
mechanical movements, the types of motors, and the
physical layout of such systems. In the sections “Basic
Electrical Principles” and “Electronic Components”, the
electrical and electronic components of instruments and
their theoretical principles (measurement of resistances and
capacities, circuits, amplifiers, current supply equipment,
AD and DA converters, semiconductor electronics, etc.)
are discussed, The nature and reproduction of electrical
signals, the difference between analog and digital signals,
and “digital logic” are also discussed. The last section of
168
Partition of Cell Particles and Macromolecules. By P . Albertson. Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm 1972. 2nd Edit.,
323 pp., numerous figures, bound Sw.kr. 72.25.
The development of chemistry started with methods for the
separation of low molecular weight substances; the refinement of these methods and their application to the complicated mixtures of cell components and metabolites characterized the progress of biochemistry to the stage of our
present knowledge of macromolecules. The purification of
enzymes, nucleic acids, and many complex cell components
is now routine in the laboratory, and is even carried out
semi-industrially in some cases. On the other hand, investigations on labile cell particles, viruses, and cells as well
as on other multicomponent mixtures of biological colloids
are still hindered by purification problems, particularly
where fairly large quantities are concerned. Apart from
modem centrifugation methods and separations on molecular sieve columns, partition chromatography in aqueous
multiphase systems, which was developed by Albertson,
has recently been making a name for itself.
The second edition of the present monograph is a thorough
modernization and revision of the book that appeared ten
years ago, with the incorporation of the more recent findings. This clearly written and skillfully arranged book
begins with the Br4nsted equation for partition in twophase systems and deals with this theory from various
Angew. Chem. intmnat. Edit.
1 Vol. 12 (1973) 1 No. 2
angles, but always in an understandable manner and with
an eye to practical applications, which are illustrated by
numerous examples of the fractionation of cells, mitochondria, chloroplasts, viruses, and protein/protein and
nucleic acid/protein complexes. Single partitions are
suitable for mixtures of macromolecules with very different molecular parameters. Others must be separated by
multi-stage countercurrent partition, for which Albertson
has designed an effective apparatus. The method is thus
suitable not only for the separation of particles but also
for the study of bonding between particles or molecules.
The many examples and the carefully evaluated literature
make this seem an attractive method for a number of
outstanding problems, though patience and experience are
evidently necessary for successful results. However, the
beginner is given access to the theory and application
through numerous tables and data on the behavior of
aqueous polymer/polymer phases. The book will thus be
welcomed by chemists and biologists who are concerned
with the separation and the biochemical and physical
behavior of cell organelles, and also as a practical guide.
L Jaenicke
[NB 101 IE]
Methoden der Organischen Chemie (Methods of Organic
Chemistry) (Houben-Weyl). Edited by E. Miiller. Vol.
IV/Part 4 : Isocyclic Four-Membered Ring Compounds,
by D. Seebach. Appendix : Cyclopropane and Cyclobutane Derivatives from Natural Products, by S. Beckmann and H . Geiger. Georg Thieme Verlag, Stuttgart
1971. 4th Edith., xxviii, 568 pp 47 tables, bound
DM258The volume is a very comprehensive summary of the
physical and chemical properties of isocyclic four-membered ring compounds. The material in the main part
(444 pages) is divided into chapters on the preparation and
the reactions of four-membered ring derivatives, an arrangement that has proved satisfactory in the past. The
classification is mechanistically oriented, and contains
ordering principles of modem structural theory. Wherever
possible the author succeeds in explaining stereochemical
findings in the language of orbital symmetry control without
lengthy theoretical descriptions. This becomes his dominant
theme with the result that the reader is not only required
to note modes of reaction, but his understanding is also
challenged.
The volume ends (29 pages) with an enumeration of natural
products having cyclopropane and cyclobutane structural
units and data on their occurrence and their structure. More
detailed information on any syntheses of these substances
would have been of great value to the chemist (e.g. information on the elegant syntheses of the bourbonenes is lacking
on p. 470).
The preparation of four-membered rings is guided by
formal patterns of atoms linked (p. 30), which bring some
lucidity and order to the many reactions used. However,
the price of excessively strict adherence to this principle is
that mechanistically related or identical reactions (e.g.
Chap. Ia, pp. 31-53 and Chap. 11, pp. 119-125), which
belong together, appear in different parts of the book. To
help the reader to overcome this obstacle, the author
consistently provides cross references, of which there are
too many rather than too few.
On the whole, the main part has been presented painstakingly and well by the author and by the publishers. The
expert selection of the numerous synthesis procedures and
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
/ Vol. 12 ( 1 9 7 3 ) 1 No. 2
the physical data that are given for practically all the compounds mentioned ensure optimum information for the
user, and the numerous references to recent literature that
are incorporated into the footnotes give the volume an
up-to-dateness that is sometimes lacking in the other
volumes of the series because of long publication times.
The volume ends with an author index, a subject index, and
an index of synthesis procedures. A new feature of the
subject index is the inclusion of basic structural types of
classes of compounds before the appropriate columns, so
that the reader in a hurry can find the desired class of
compounds simply by inspection of these basic structures.
Substituents are then arranged according to the Beilstein
system.
The disadvantage of this arrangement in classes of substances is that it is difficult to find a reaction type from the
index. For example, the “metathesis of olefins”, which is
dealt with on p. 299, cannot be found from the index. Some
of the treasures of the book can thus be found out only by
intensive reading.
A few points that occurred to the reviewer may also be
mentioned in conclusion.
The text contains very few printing errors. The presentation
of the reaction mechanism with formulas on p. 305 strikes
the reviewer as unnecessary, since the structure of the reaction product has not yet been verified. The preparation
of the compound I11b (pp. 242-243) requires the use of
3,4-cisdichlorotetramethylcyclobutene,whose preparation
should be described on p. 307. However, the preparation of
the trans compound is described on this page. The addition
of dichlorovinylene carbonate to acetylene is not described
on pages 239 and 242, as it should be according to page 341.
The cyclobutenediyliumdyes deserve more then a mention
in footnotes. The perfluoro derivatives enumerated on
p- 214 do not include tetrafluorocyclobutane-I ,2-dione,
which has surprising properties.
Nevertheless, the book is unquestionably a very valuable
addition to the Houben-Weyl series“’. It provides the
synthetic chemist with a fund of information on methods,
and the theoretical chemist with a number of starting points.
For example, the commonly used term “activated double
bond” is defmed differently on pages 185,188,216, and 267,
and certainly could not be understood without the particular
reactants; this is a wide field for those intersted in perturbation theory.
H.-D. Scharf [NB 102 IE]
Cf. Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 10, 433 (1971)
Advanced Organic Synthesis, Methods and Techniques.
By R. S. Monson. Academic Press, New York-London
1971. 1st Edit., xii, 230 pp., numerous figures, bound
$ 7.95.
The foreword to this book announces a collection of
modem reactions that have won a place in synthetic
organic chemistry. The book is addressed to advanced
students and postgraduate workers. It is evidently an
attempt to make the important reactions, which are widely
scattered in the originaI Iiterature and in reviews, directly
accessible with detailed experimental procedures. This
would have been very useful ifit had been correctly executed,
since it might have helped to overcome the well-known
barrier to the use of a new reaction that has not become
established in the particular research group. However, the
169
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