вход по аккаунту


Book Review Pesticides in the Environment. Vol. 1 Part. 1. Edited by R

код для вставкиСкачать
stated objective has been satisfactorily achieved only in a
few chapters. Chapters 4 (Hydroboration), 9 (Enamines),
11 (Wittig Reaction), and 12 (Reactions with Trialkylboranes) do in fact provide good, representative procedures
that should be easy to apply to a range of compounds.
In the other chapters the selection is very arbitrary and
not so good as it might have been. The inclusion of reactions
as old as a chromic acid oxidation and the epoxidation of
cyclohexene under oxidations, while the many variations
of solvolytic oxidation with dimethyl sulfoxide are not
mentioned, the failure to mention hydride complexes such
as tri-tert-butoxy hydridoaluminate under hydride reductions, and the inclusion of a triviality like the ketalization of cyclohexanone in Chapter 7 (Elimination, Substitution, Addition) while many modern addition reaction, such
as the regioselective and stereoselective addition of iodine
azide, which leads to interesting intermediate products,
are not mentioned are only three very obvious instances.
Others could be added to the list.
Even the procedures selected do not always meet with
approval. When e. g. the Wolff-Kishner reduction is described on p. 55 in its oldest form (ethylene glycol/KOH;
200°C) while the much more active system potassium tertbutoxide/dimethyl sulfoxide, which has been known for
some time, is not even mentioned, the stated aim has clearly
not been achieved.
Finally, the reader gains the impression that organic
chemistry is the chemistry of alicyclic compounds, as other
fields are scarcely touched upon; however, it is a wellknown fact that heterocyclic compounds are frequently
rather neglected in American books. Verdict : Recommended with some hesitation.
Ekkehard Winte$e/dt
[NB 104 IE]
Pesticides in the Environment. Vol. 1, Part. 1. Edited by
R. Withe-Stevens. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York 1971.
1st Edit., xv, 270 pp., numerous figures and tables, bound
$ 23.50.
According to the foreword, the editor’s intention in the
planned five-volume compendium is to present a comprehensive survey of the chemical, biological, and toxicological
properties of the pesticides in current use, as well as their
practical use and their behavior in the environment. Experts
both from universities and from industry have contributed
as authors of the various sections. Volume 1 (two parts)
will deal with mainly scientific aspects, while Volume 2
(three parts) will be concerned with the use of the pesticides.
The present volume is divided into three chapters. In
Chapter 1 “Chemistry and Biology of Pesticides” (R. L.
Metcalf), some 600 chemicals are mentioned on 140 pages
under the headings fungicides, herbicides, insecticides,
molluscicides, nematocides, and rodenticides. The chemistry, structure-activity relations, mode of action, action
spectrum, and toxicology are described for each group of
substances. 165 references are cited, the latest being from
the year 1966. This should be quite useful as a basis for the
following sections, but seen in isolation it has a number of
shortcomings in comparison with similar, more recent
publications, most of which are more comprehensive. Thus,
despite the terse form, no distinction is made between the
preparations that are widely used at present and those
that are only of historical interest or that never progressed
beyond the development stage. The description does not
correspond to the current position. It contains none of the
modern fungicides against mildew and rice diseases and
none of the systemic fungicides; the preparations of the
amidine and triorganotin types, which are important at
present in resistant areas, are not mentioned among the
acaricides; and herbicides e.g. of the nitrodiethyl ether type
are not discussed.
The second chapter “Metabolism of Insecticides and Fungicides” (7:R. Fukuto and J . S. Sims) comprises 90 pages
with 344 references. Apart from the fact that the latest
article cited dates from 1967, this is probably the most
comprehensive account in existence of the degradation
reactions of insecticides in cultivated plants, domestic
animals, soil, and water, which are extremely important to
the assessment of the nature and duration of their biological
effects, toxication and detoxication processes, and toxicological dangers, as well as to residue analysis. The
discrepancy in the description of the metabolism of insecticides (phosphorus compounds 40 pages, carbamates 12,
chloro-organic insecticides 15) and that of fungicides
( 5 pages), which is practically limited to preparations of the
thiocarbamate and captan types, is no fault of the authors.
but reflects the serious gaps in the investigations.
Chapter 3 “Metabolism of Herbicides” ( J . E. Loeffler and
J . can Oceubeek), which occupies 34 pages and includes 146
references, is unquestionably the most up-to-date section
(several references from 1969). Unlike Chapter 2, it is
arranged not according to chemical principles but on a
broader basis. An introduction to the general principles,
problems, methods, and techniques of metabolic studies
(8 pages) is followed by separate discussions of the degradation reactions : photochemical transformations, nonenzymatic reactions, oxidation, conjugation, hydrolysis, and
others. The metabolic principles found in nature are thus
presented in a very understandable manner.
The book will be a very useful orientation aid even to the
expert, not the least of its merits being the numerous
Klaus Sasse [NB 106 IE]
Die Priifung thermoplastischer Kunststoffe (Testing of
Synthetic Thermoplastics). By H . J . Orthmann and H . J .
Mair. Carl Hanser Verlag, Munchen 1971. 1st Edit.,
163 pp., 50 figures, 43 tables, bound DM 28.-.
The methods and conditions for the testing of synthetic
thermoplastics are largely described and specified in standards. The terse, dry language of standards, which arises
mainly from the need to define all the conditions for a given
test method as briefly as possible and with no possibility
of mistake, makes the standards difficult to use as instructions for the execution of a test.
The present book fills a need in this respect. The principle
of the test methods is described with reference to the corresponding standards, emphasis being placed on information that is not usually found in standards but is part of the
experience of the plastics tester, such as data on the accuracy of the methods and on possible sources of error,
relationships with similar methods, and the practical
significance of the test results. Useful features are the list
of bodies and associations that issue standards, recommendations, and quality guides, and particularly the guidance on the evaluation and statistical analysis of test
The book is thus a good introduction to techniques for
testing synthetic thermoplastics, which offers guidance to
those who wish to take up the testing of plastics, and provides those concerned with the buying and selling, processing, and use of plastics, to whom these substances are
Angew. Chiwi. internat. Edit.
Vd. 12 ( 1 9 7 3 )
1 No. 2
Без категории
Размер файла
148 Кб
environment, part, book, pesticide, edited, vol, review
Пожаловаться на содержимое документа