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Book Review Phase Diagrams Materials Science and Technology. Vol. II. The Use of Phase Diagrams in Metal Refractory Ceramic and Cement Technology. By A. M

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Physical Chemistry, an Advanced Treatise. Vol. IV: Molecular Properties. Edited by H. Eyring, D. Henderson,
and W Jost. Academic Press, New York-London 1970,
1st Edit., xx, 832 pp., numerous figures, $ 39.-.
All the important fields of physical chemistry are to be
covered in eleven volumes by well-known specialists for
scientists and advanced students. Three volumes deal with
properties of atoms and molecules: 111. Electronic Structure of Atoms and Molecules, IV. Molecular Properties,
and V. Valency. The present volume IV contains the
following chapters: 1. The Variety of Structures Which
Interest Chemists (S. H . Bauer); 2. Rotation of Molecules (C. C. Costain); 3. The Vibrations of Molecules
(G. W King) ; 4. Vibrational Spectra of Molecules ( J . R.
Hall); 5. Spectra of Radicals (D. E. Milligan and M . E .
Jacox) ; 6. The Molecular Force Field (T. Shimanouchi) ;
7. Interactions among Electronic, Vibrational, and
Rational Motions ( J . 7: Hougen); 8. Electric Moments of Molecules ( A .D. Buckingham) ; 9. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( R . M . Golding) ; 10. ESR
Spectra ( H . G. Hecht) ;11.Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance
Spectroscopy (E. Schempp and P.J. Bray). 12. Mossbauer
Spectroscopy ( N . N . Greenwood) ; 13. Molecular-Beam
Spectroscopy (C. R. Mueller) ; 14. Diffraction of Electrons
by Gases (S. H . Bauer).
Many chemists successfully apply physical methods to
the determination of molecular properties. However,
their theoretical knowledge is at best superficial, since
many detailed discussions are incomprehensible to them
and seem difficult to apply on the basis of their earlier
training. This series is therefore very welcome in its aim
of guiding the chemist to a high level in the fields of physical
chemistry. Most of the authors do in fact manage to make
the theory accessible, in as much detail as is necessary,
by means of useful formulas and examples. Experimental
data are kept very brief, while the range of applications
is outlined with typical examples, numerous tables, and
comprehensive literature lists. The book is excellent and
stimulating, and I hope that it will be widely used, with
many advanced students among its readers.
Bernhard Schrader
[NB 974 IE]
Phase Diagrams, Materials Science and Technology. Vol.
11. The Use of Phase Diagrams in Metal, Refractory,
Ceramic and Cement Technology. By A. M . Alper.
Academic Press, New York-London 1970,lst Edit., viii,
354 pp., numerous figures, bound S 16.-.
Whereas Volume I[’] was concerned mainly with the
thermodynamic principles and the theoretical aspects, the
emphasis in Volume I1 is entirely on practicaI applications.
It begins with a short section by A. Muan on the influence
of the oxygen partial pressure on the formation of oxides
of the types A,O, AO, etc. This section is made easy to
understand by the fact that general diagrams for the
binary, ternary, etc. cases are given first and are then
discussed further for particular systems such as wiistitemagnetite etc. The equations in this section are not entirely
free from errors, but this should not trouble the user too
much.
This section is followed by nine monographs. The relation
between the phase equilibrium and the constitution and
fine structure in ceramic-metal systems ( J . White) and the
[I]Cf. Angew. Chem. internat. Edit. 10,205 (1971).
Angew. Chem. internat. Edit.
1 Vol. 10
(1971)
1 No.8
use of these systems in cement chemistry ( F . P. Glasser;
D. L. Johnson. and I . B. Cutler), in the industrial bonding
of different metals or of metals and ceramic materials
( A . Prince), and for the production of refractory materials
(H.M.KranerandA.M.Alper;R.C.Domn,R.N.McNally,
and H. C. E h ) are discussed. Heat treatment for the production of alloys having given properties (G. Krauss and
J . F. Libsch) and its relation to phase equilibria in multicomponent systems are discussed here, as is the application
to extraction metallurgy ( J . Taylor). Special mention
should be made of a detailed thermodynamic and molecular-theoretical article by 7:B. Massalski and H . Pops on
the stability and classification of intermetallic phases, which
satisfactorily shows the significance of the atomic structure
in the consideration of the diagrams.
Like the first volume, the present second volume can be
warmly recommended, to all those involved in scientific
and practical studies in the field in question.
Klaus Schafer
[NB 970a IE]
Phase Diagrams, Materials Science and Technology. Vol.
111. The Use of Phase Diagrams in Electronic Materials
and Glass Technology. By A. M . Alper. Academic Press,
New York-London 1970. 1st Edit., xviii, 325 pp, numerous figures, bound $16.50.
This third volume deals mainly with applications of phase
diagrams to the production of substances having predetermined properties. The substances in question are mainly
semiconductors, but nonconductors such as glass are also
discussed.
The volume begins with a fairly long article on crystal
growth ( J . PV Nielsen and R. R. Monchamp). The techniques for the production of very pure semiconductor
materials are briefly described, and the aptness of one
method or another is discussed on the basis of the phase
diagram, e. g. the production of single crystals in the neighborhood of and at a “greater” distance from a stoichiometric composition. Closely related to this are applications
to the synthesis of semiconductor materials consisting of
two or more components ( M . B. Punish).
A short article (b! F. Zackay, M . F. Merriam, and K. M .
Ralls) is devoted to the recently used superconduction in
rapidly cooled systems for the characterization of new
crystalline states in alloys ; the superconduction is also
discussed in the more general section on rapidly cooled
metastable alloy phases (B. C. Giessen and R. H. Wllensj.
The last four chapters deal with the miscibility gaps in
liquid metal oxides (E. M . Levin), the relations between
phase diagrams and the structure of glass-forming oxide
melts (E. F. Riebling), cryoscopy in salt melts (T R. Kozlowski), and the kinetics of the dissolution of solid phases
in solvents (A.R. Cooper). In this last section, the phase
diagrams are used as an excellent source of the data that
characterize a solution; they may thus be regarded as a
means of predicting the final solution behavior. The section, though only short, gains special importance through
the contributions on glass formation and cryoscopy.
This volume, which is entirely written by leading scientists
closely connected with industry, is almost more important
than the previous two to industrial engineers or chemists.
Klaus Schajer
[NB 970b IE]
587
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