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Book Review Photochemistry on Solid Surfaces. (Series Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis Vol. 47). Edited by M. Anpo and T

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the more effectively control its operation. Without a highly
developed sensor technology it is impossible to be at the
forefront of measurement and control technology and to
manufacture high-technology products. VCH has just published the first two volumes of an eight-volume handbook on
sensors, which sets out to describe the most important types
of sensors and to present a comprehensive survey of the
latest developments in this fast-moving field. The handbook
is thus very much in tune with current trends and with the
economic importance of such measuring devices.
The eight volumes deal with the following topics:
1. Fundamentals and General Aspects, 2/3. Mechanical Sensors, 4. Thermal Sensors, 5. Magnetic Sensors, 6. Optical
Sensors, 7/8. Chemical and Biochemical Sensors. Following
the appearance of Volumes 1 and 5 the editors and publishers
are to be congratulated on a series which is (up to now)
turning out very well. The authors engaged for the work are
acknowledged experts, and they have generally covered the
literature up to 1988/89 in their respective special fields. Unnecessary overlapping of subject matter, which is often an
annoying feature of multi-author works, has been largely
avoided. Where overlapping does occur, a different point of
view is presented, thereby adding significantly to the description.
The first chapter of Volume 1 deals with the general principles of sensors, definitions, sensor characteristics and models, and includes useful information on the design of integrated-circuit chips and their encapsulation. Chapter 2 is
concerned with the basic technology used in manufacturing
modern sensors. The practically-orientated descriptions of
the manufacture of integrated circuit chips, of thin-film and
thick-film technologies, and of integrated optics are impressively good, and will provide newcomers to the field with
some detailed know-how. Chapter 3 deals with sensor interfaces, including signal processing and data treatment. The
suggested approaches to sensors or sensor arrays that are
self-correcting undoubtedly represent a good way of obtaining improved reliability in the measurement of physical
quantities. However, in the field of trace analysis of gases by
chemical sensors, a method which is only used in low concentration ranges and is therefore very susceptible to trouble, so
that it is seldom possible to identify all trace substances or to
rule out their presence, the computation method described as
a way of correcting for inadequate chemical selectivity only
works with a little luck on one’s side, to use the words of one
of the authors of this volume. The disastrous results obtained in comparative trace analysis trials on the same
sample using instruments from different manufacturers or
based on different principles speak for themselves, and regularly illustrate the dangers of underestimating the difficulties
of trace analysis problems. The final chapter of Volume 1
describes some typical applications of sensors, including examples of their use in automobiles, in domestic equipment,
for process control in the chemical industry and in powerstation technology, for environmental protection purposes,
for medical technology, and for aerospace applications, together with indications of other potential uses. Although
some of the contributions here seem rather trivial from the
analytical chemist’s viewpoint, they will serve to impress on
non-specialist readers the many different types of sensors
that are still waiting to be developed.
Volume 5 contains twelve articles on magnetic sensors,
starting from the basic physical principles and continuing
through to trends for the future. The subjects of the individual articles are : magnetogalvanic, magnetoresistive and
magnetoelastic sensors, fluxgate sensors, inductive loop sensors, Wiegand and pulse-wire sensors, superconducting
Angew. Chem. Inr. Ed. Engl. 30 (1991)No. i
0 VCH
quantum interference devices (SQUIDS), and applications
for each of these types of devices.
This monograph, written by authors drawn from both
industry and universities, is a highly informative work, even
for the non-specialist. It describes in a compact form all the
modern magnetic sensors that are of practical importance. It
also makes easy reading, not least because of the excellent
standard of presentation of this series, in which the numerous figures and tables greatly facilitate finding the required
information. Also extremely useful are the references to the
most recent published work, dissertations, company reports
and other material.
If the remaining volumes turn out to be equally well edited
and competently written, the result will be a series that no
library should be without. This standard work can be recommended unreservedly for scientists in the fields of chemistry,
electronics, process technology and measurement and control technology. A more up-to-date review of such quality in
a rapidly developing field is unlikely to be found anywhere.
Karl Cummann [NB 1089 IE]
Lehrstuhl fur Analytische Chemie
der Universitat Munster (FRG)
Photochemistry on Solid Surfaces. (Series: Studies in Surface
Science and Catalysis, Vol. 47). Edited by M . Anpo and T.
Matsuura. Elsevier, Amsterdam 1989. xx, 585 pp., hardcover DFI 360.00.--ISBN 0-444-8741 3-5
In the Elsevier series “Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis”, which began in 1975, Volume 47 “Photochemistry
on Solid Surfaces” has now appeared under the editorship of
M . Anpo and T. Matsuuru. This work must be compared with
the review article “Radiation and Photoeffects at Gas/Solid
Interfaces” by J. Cunningham, which appeared five years
earlier in Comprehensive Chemical Kinetics, Vol. 19 (also
published by Elsevier). The present volume sets out to give a
review of the latest developments in photochemistry on solid
surfaces. This field is in fact developing very rapidly, especially with regard to high-technology industrial applications,
which according to the editors are now profiting from a
major governmental research project in Japan. To help stimulate further progress in this area, 69 authors have been
engaged to report on this many-faceted field, which they
have done in 35 articles grouped in 9 chapters with a total of
581 pages. The preponderance here of Japanese (52 %) and
North American (29%) authors should not be allowed to
obscure the fact that European workers have made and continue to make fundamental contributions in this area; in
many of the articles the European contributions are underrepresented in the literature citations, and of course this imbalance is not corrected when one refers back to the earlier
review. Despite this, the volume is also of interest to European research workers as a means of keeping informed
about work in Japan and North America, although more
complete information is, of course, available from CASONLINE and from data banks on patents.
Following a short introductory chapter (13 pages), Chapter 2 (1 04 pages) discusses time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, the spectroscopy of transient absorbed species, laser flash photolysis at solid surfaces, excimer formation on
silica gel surfaces, and photoacoustic measurements on adsorbed species. The descriptions of the techniques and of the
types of information that can be expected from them are
elucidated by numerous block diagrams, by presentation of
Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, W-6940 Weinheim, 1991
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the basic equations, and by diagrams which are mainly redrawn from earlier publications.
In Chapter 3 (77 pages) specific surface effects on photochemical reactions are discussed. Most of these are free radical reactions, which can be carried out on surfaces of glass,
silica gel, semiconductors and metal oxides at various temperatures, The presence of defects with electron acceptor
properties can cause chemiluminescence.
New developments in organic photochemistry at solid surfaces are described in Chapter 4 (57 pages). Surfaces that can
function as electron transfer partners include those of zeolites, micelles and organic crystals.
Chapter 5 (62 pages) is devoted to inorganic photochemistry at solid surfaces. Metal complexes and metal carbonyls
can be illuminated on low temperature matrices, crystal surfaces, porous Vycor glass or silica gel; metal oxides and
metal carbonyl catalysts are prepared on supports.
Chapter 6 (36 pages) gives a short introduction to the
industrially important processes of photodeposition and
photoablation on solid surfaces (often using lasers). These
high-technology applications (e.g. in microelectronics) have
not been adequately covered here. In this area especially,
extensive industrial research and development programs are
under way in Europe, e.g. the ESPRIT project (European
Strategic Programme for Research and Development in Information Technologies), which go far beyond those reported in this book.
Similarly in Chapter 7 (65 pages) on photochemistry at
semiconductor surfaces, it is not possible in so few pages to
do justice to the topic. Although the chapter offers some
useful thoughts on fractal surfaces, area-selective illumination, photoluminescence of CdS and fluorescence of adsorbed dyes, it is advisable to first obtain an overview of the
topic by looking through the published proceedings of
major international conferences on photochemistry, which
usually contain numerous contributions on photoelectrochemistry.
The application of photochemistry to optical information
storage media such as laser-CDs is an area of great importance, which is treated in Chapter 8 (50 pages). The topics
that are sketchily covered here include IR-absorbing dyes for
DRAW disks, photoinduced phase transitions in liquid crystals, and the application of surface reactions of polymers in
lithography. Here again it is regrettable that European laser
research is not represented.
Finally Chapter 9 (97 pages) deals with photochemistry in
crystals (very briefly, and restricted to ketones), liquid crystals, chiral crystals (absolute asymmetric syntheses), and
proteins (picosecond dynamics, energy transfer). The book
ends with a subject index (15 double-column pages).
Thus the book is a collection of short articles which exemplify most aspects of the field described by the title, but these
are not of a genuine review character. In fact many of the
individual topics are covered elsewhere in monographs.
The book is likely to be useful to libraries as an aid to the
newcomer entering the field and as a source of ideas for the
specialist in his more advanced research. Although it does
not cover every topic, it provides an indication of the breadth
of this rapidly developing field of research. Future publications of this type should have their subject matter more precisely defined, and should also include contributions from
industry.
The economies made by the publishers through reproducing typescripts in (more or less) camera-ready form are unfortunately not reflected in the price; at DFI 360, despite the
use of glossy paper, it is too expensive, especially for individual purchasers.
Gerd Kaupp P B 1078 IE]
Fachbereich Chemie
der Universitat Oldenburg (FRG)
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Angew. Chem. I n t . Ed. Engl. 30 (1991) N o . 1
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