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Book Review Practical Optical Crystallography. By N. H. Hartshorne and A Stuart

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By far the largest portion of the presentation is devoted to
introductions to the methods and to the prerequisites for
work with radioactive substances. It is emphasized that
application of the methods given to solve problems in
analytical chemistry demands n o or only insignificant radiation precautions, and that thus radiometric work can be
done in any well equipped laboratory without any great
additional expenditure. It is commendable that data are given
for the permissible concentrations and amounts of radioactive wastes that may be present in effluent in England.
It is to be hoped that the book will be read by many analysts,
for they will certainly be thankful to the author for his fine
presentation, which goes into all the essential points.
H . Go‘tte
[NB 363/221 IE]
Practical Optical Crystallography. By N. H . Hartshorne and
A . Stuart. Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd., London 1964.
1st edit., VI + 326 pp., numerous illustrs., linen G2.0.0
(about $ 5.50).
The present volume offers a very comprehensive introduction
to the application of crystal optics to the investigation of
crystalline structures. Not only are experimental methods
discussed, but the fundamentals of geometrical optics and
crystallography are also dealt with. However, the treatment
in some parts assumes dimensions that are no longer in
keeping with the prime purpose of the book. For example,
allocation of 30 pages t o crystal morphology tends to
overemphasize this topic. The same may be said of the
presentation of structural theory, which is also rather subjective in nature. On the other hand, a section is lacking
which goes into more detail on the relation between crystal
optics and crystalline structure. The book does not place
high demands on the background of its reader and should
therefore serve students well as an introduction to the subject.
All the important methods for examining crystals with the
polarization microscope are presented, but U-table methods
are omitted.
The book contains some elementary errors. For example, on
pp. 37 and 98 it is stated that crystals with mirror planes
cannot be optically active, but every textbook of crystal
physics quotes m, mm 2, and 32 m as crystal classes in this
category which may possess optical activity. Recent publications on the treatment of the Becke line are
overlooked; this phenomenon is now known to be an effect
of diffraction optics rather than of geometric optics.
Apart from these flaws, the new book offers a most useful
opportunity for becoming acquainted with the fundamentals
of geometrical crystal optics. The theoretical fundamentals
should be improved in a later edition.
H . Jagodzinski
[NB 3471205 IE]
Surface Properties of Silicate Glasses. By G. Korhnyi. Akadtmiai Kiado, publisher for the Hungarian Academy of
Sciences, Budapest 1963. 1st edit., 104 pp., 39 figs., linen
D M 15.20 (about $ 3.90).
Almost simultaneously with L. Holland’s book on “The
Properties of Glass Surfaces”, this short monograph by the
Hungarian author on the same topic has appeared. I t can be
appreciated just how much literature is available today o n
the physical and chemical properties of glass surfaces from
the fact that apart from the numerous articles reviewed by
both authors, there are many publications which are dealt
with in only one or the other of the two books. I n Koranyi’s
work, these are mainly numerous contributions from the
eastern hemisphere and about 200 patents, which indicate
his preferential consideration of technological aspects. The
presentation is terse, despite the abundance of the literature
reviewed, but often the personal opinions and experiences of
the author shine through. The content is divided up as follows.
I . Morphology of glass surfaces (as a result of mechanical or
chemical processing); 2. surface hardness; 3. sorption
properties compared with liquid, dissolved, and gaseous
materials - coating of glass surfaces for technical improvement; 4. wetting properties and adhesion; 5. and 6 . surface
conductivity and interactions with electrons and ions; 7. dealkalization and leaching.
The book provides a good survey of the complete field for
the practical worker and is also a useful vade-mecum for the
H. Schroder
[NB 348/206 IE]
b Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds. By R. Me
Silverstein and G. C. Rassler. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
New York-London 1963. 1st edit., 177 pp., linen S 5.60.
Mass spectrometry, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy,
and infrared and ultraviolet spectroscopy are invaluable aids
in organic chemistry nowadays. Every chemistry student
becomes acquainted with the fundamentals of these methods
during his studies, but this is generally not enough. More
exercises in the practical applications of these methods to
chemicai problems should be included in study courses than
has hitherto been the case. A relatively easy way in which an
important step in this direction can be taken is revealed in
this book by Silverstein and Rossler, which provides an
excellent guide to the interpretation of the spectra of organic
The book contains only the basic essentials of the theory and
of the instrumental techniques of mass spectrometry, and
infrared, ultraviolet, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. However, adequately detailed data o n the relationships between the spectra and molecular structure are
given for each method, and the main stress is laid upon
empirical facts and the information that is of use for practical
In the second part of the book, twenty examples are taken to
illustrate with a detailed discussion how the mass, PMR,
infrared, and ultraviolet spectra of various types of organic
substances (containing the elements C , H, 0, N, S, and
halogens, with molecular weights of up to 250) can be used
without elemental analysis and without any other chemical
information to derive the structural formulae of the compounds in question. Naturally one cannot expect to obtain
such definitive structural knowledge from the spectra of all
compounds, but the examples demonstrate impressively just
how much information can be derived from exhaustive
interpretation of spectra alone - especially mass spectra.
For ten further substances, only the spectra are given; their
appraisal is left to the reader, who can however check his
conclusions by consulting Beilstein’s handbook, for references
for the pertinent compounds are given. The last ten examples
are given without such references. Anyone who works through
these 40 examples with care, even if he does not perhaps find all
the correct answers, will have learned something of great
importance, namely, routine in dealing with spectra, and
this, together with the information given in the first part of
the book, will aid him immensely in the solution of other
There are of course more complete, more systematic, and, as
far as details are concerned, even more competent books o n
each of the methods dealt with here, even on their practical
application in organic chemistry. However, the present
volume is outstanding in that it i s a book for learning and for
practice which teaches with method and in a minimum of
space how to combine all four techniques. This approach
seems to be of great importance a? a time when the trend
towards specialization has brought about the situation where
an expert o n mass spectrometry, for instance, cannot be an
authority on proton magnetic resonance. Only the mutual
support of the individual methods increases their efficiency
to the extent that affords the greatest value to the organic
chemist interested in structural problems.
The Silverstein-Bassler monograph can be highly recornmended to any student interested in these topics and above
all, to lecturers and demonstrators for use in practical Classes
and seminars.
H . A . Stoah
Angew. G e m . internat. Edit.
( N B 4081265 lE3
Vol. 4 (1965) 1 No. 8
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practical, crystallographic, book, optical, hartshorne, stuart, review
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