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Book Review Quasicrystals Networks and Molecules of Fivefold Symmetry. By I

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use of proline-derived chiral auxiliaries for the stereoselective reduction of ketones and for the stereoselective addition
of organometallic reagents to carbonyl compounds is yet
another achievement of Mukaiyama’s group.
That the author succeeds in accurately and impartially
describing all these results and many more which have been
accomplished in his laboratories is an astonishing achievement. Personal views intrude only rarely, and the results are
reported in essentially chronological order. Only in the prologue and in the epilogue does Mukaiyama allow himself
some personal remarks. In the first, poetic sentence of his
prologue he proclaims the importance of purely exploratory
experimentation. He advocates the importance of the unpredictable as a tool to achieve major breakthroughs in chemical research. One of the most fascinating parts of his book is
the well-documented change of Mukaiyama’s interest from
mechanistic questions to the development of synthetic methods. A series of unexpected results led him to develop the
oxidation-reduction condensation. In spite of the clear distinction made between the different research projects described in the individual chapters, a Western reader is surprised to find how all the innumerable experimental results
seem to be connected by an invisible network of associations.
The fact that most of Mukaiyama’s inventions of new reactions can be traced to the concept of “dehydration” may be
astonishing for Western chemists, but perhaps reflects some
of the Japanese traditions.
Keeping this in mind, the book is not only a source book
for the synthetic chemist about the results of one of the most
successful research groups in Japan, but also affords some
insights into the Japanese way of doing research.
Reinhard Neier [NB 1163 IE]
Institut fur Organische Chemie
der Universitat Fribourg (Switzerland)
Atomic and Molecular Clusters. Edited by E. R. Bernstein.
Elsevier, Amsterdam 1990. 806 pp., hardcover DFI
495.00.--ISBN 0-444-88193-X
Although research on clusters is still a relatively young
field, its close connections with atomic and molecular
physics, solid state physics, and not least with chemistry,
have resulted in it already becoming an extensive field of
study in its own right. This book does not attempt to present
a superficial review of all the different areas of cluster
physics. Instead some of the most important aspects of cluster physics have been selected and described in detail in eight
independent chapters. Each chapter is carefully constructed
and thoughtfully worked out, presenting valuable information in a clearly comprehensible style.
The first chapter, by R. E. Smalley, gives a comprehensive
62-page review of studies on clusters of carbon atoms. Special attention is devoted to the cluster c,,, which according
to the author will possibly “come to be recognized as one of
the most abundant and most important molecules in the
universe”. If this raises some doubts in the reader’s mind, he
or she will presumably feel a need to read this fascinating
chapter.
The next chapter is a comprehensive and well-written account of clusters of main group elements. In preparing this
the authors, M . L. Mandich, u! D . Reents, Jr. and V. E.
Bondybey, have performed an important service for the clusters research community. This substantial 290-page review is
packed with useful information, and contains nearly 500
literature references. It is the only such report in the clusters
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Ver~Rgsgese#schRflmbH, W-6940 Weinheim, 1991
literature, and is enough in itself to make the book a worthwhile purchase.
Chapter 3 is devoted to a specialist topic, the structures of
weakly bound complexes. In this 34-page article S. E.
Novick, K . R. Leopold, and u! Klemperer have tabulated the
most important properties of 144 complexes.
In Chapter 4 R. 0. Watts reports on recent advances in the
IR spectroscopy of van der Waals clusters. Reducing the
temperature of such clusters by adiabatic expansion and
laser cooling makes it possible to obtain IR spectra of previously unattainable resolution.
The following chapter is also concerned with van der
Waals clusters, though in this case with a special class, namely clusters made up of inert gas atoms and halogen atoms.
K. C. Janda and C. R. Bieler describe how such clusters exhibit a wealth of interesting effects, including the so-called
“rotational rainbows” and quantum interference effects associated with vibrational predissociation.
In Chapter 6 A. W Castlemann, Jr. and R. G. Keese describe a number of important techniques for observing clusters in a cluster beam, together with the interpretation of the
results from such measurements. Special attention is given to
the technique of resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization
of clusters followed by detection in a time-of-flight mass
spectrometer.
Chapter 7 represents another substantial contribution by
this book. In this 200-page article the editor, E. R . Bernstein,
describes the properties of a special class of molecular clusters consisting of two or more different molecular species,
usually organic, one of which is spectroscopically active. By
applying absorption and emission spectroscopy to molecular
clusters of this type, together with computer simulations, one
can investigate the ground and excited states.
The eighth and final chapter is a well-written review by
R. L. Whetten and M . I:Hahn of the spectroscopy of large
molecular clusters. It includes discussions of the liquid drop
model, the elementary excitations, and the liquid-solid transition in molecular clusters.
This book succeeds in the aim of filling the gap between
international conference reports and general reviews. The
wealth of information that it contains should make it a welcome addition to the library of every cluster physicist.
Thomas Lunge and T Patrick Martin [NB 1114 IE]
Max-Planck-Institut fur Festkorperforschung,
Stuttgart (FRG)
Quasicrystals, Networks, and Molecules of Fivefold Symmetry. By I. Hargittai. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/
VCH Publishers, New York 1990. xiii, 314 pp., hardcover,
DM 14%.00.--ISBN 3-527-27927-X/O-89573-723-X
The discovery by Shechtman et al. in 1984 of a material
that exhibited the diffraction properties of an ordinary crystal (Bragg peaks) and yet seemed to display perfect fivefold
rotational symmetry has brought on a surge of activity in
solid state chemistry and physics. The output of the scientific
community in this area has been very large indeed, and the
need for monographs, both as introductions to the field and
as overviews, is obvious. The present book is therefore timely
(although not unique, as a fair number of monographs on
the subject have already appeared).
The book covers an area ranging from pure mathematics
to organic chemistry, thus providing a good overview to
newcomers and experts alike. Like any monograph consisting of a number of papers by different authors, it suffers
0570-0833/9//1010-1382$3.S0i.2.F~0
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 30 (1991) No. 10
from a certain amount of disjointedness, but this is well
counterbalanced by the thus widened scope of the book.
In the first chapter Mackay reviews the history of fivefold
symmetry in crystallography and discusses its philosophical
implications. The chapter is a good introduction to the general problem of the meaning of the terms order and disorder
in flat and curved spaces of different dimensionalities.
Senechal discusses the impact of the one-dimensional quasicrystal, pointing out that even this, the simplest of cases, is
very incompletely elucidated, and that our understanding of
noncrystallographic symmetry is indeed rather poor. In the
excellent second chapter current knowledge of the onedimensional case is summarized in a clear and thorough way.
Chapter 3 is an account of the connections between stochastic web mappings and quasicrystalline symmetry. The authors Sagdeev and Zaslavsky exploit the connections between the chaotic behavior of self-similar fractals and the
self-similarity of quasicrystalline systems.
Chapters 4 to 6 deal more closely with experimental chemistry. High resolution electron microscopic (HREM) images
of quasicrystals have been published by many authors, and
to build models of the atomic arrangement in these materials
based on the information from HREM images has been the
method of choice for many. In Chapter 4 Lin and Bursill
show how computer-simulated images of clusters of different
sizes can be compared to experimental images. The other
major method to get structural information from quasicrystals is by X-ray diffraction studies. This is used on a single
crystal by Dtnoyer et al. in Chapter 5 to characterize a slowly
cooled icosahedral alloy and on a powder by Dunlap et al. in
Chapter 6 to distinguish between the cubic crystal model and
the quasicrystal model for aluminum based samples.
There exist a number of different ways of generating
quasilattices. One of these is to use a set of substitution rules
on a finite lattice that generates the infinite lattice. This procedure is well known for the Fibonacci sequence, and it has
recently been generalized to higher dimensions. In Chapter 7
Allouche and Salon prove that such a 2-D substitution can
generate the Robinson tiling. Chapters 8 to 10 deal with the
connection between quasilattices and higher space. Whittaker and Whittaker give a general overview of symmetry in
higher space; Baake et al. discuss 2-D quasilattices as projections from regular 4-D root lattices; and McMullen deals
with nondiscrete regular apeirotopes. The grid method is
discussed by Nissen in Chapter 11 and Stampjli in Chapter 12.
The rest of the articles in the monograph deal with fivefold
symmetry in a rather different concept. Potential energy hypersurfaces have been studied extensively by Mezey, and in
Chapter 13 he discusses the impact of fivefold symmetry on
these structures.
The last six chapters are devoted to the C,, carbon cluster
found by Kroto et al. in laser vaporized graphite and christened buckminsterfullerene, a somewhat more manageable
name than that which IUPAC nomenclature would require.
This molecule, which takes the form of a truncated icosahedron, has prompted an avalanche of theoretical papers and
further experimental work. In this volume Klein and Schmalz
give an introductory overview.
As early as 1910, astronomers analyzing light received
from stars found diffuse absorption bands whose origin was
later proved to be interstellar. The source of these bands has
long been a matter of controversy, and Liger et al. argue
here in favor of buckminsterfullerene as a possible source.
The buckminsterfullerene molecule poses some rather interesting theoretical problems. In the present volume Brendsdal et al. analyze its Huckel energy levels, Elser et al. study
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the Kekule structures (there are exactly 12 500 of them), and
Brendsdal et al. discuss the vibrational spectrum of the molecule. The last chapter is devoted to the subject of polyindans, organic systems of fused five-membered rings. The
author, Kuck, discusses several different features of the
centropolyindans: classification, synthesis, and structural
aspects.
In all the present monograph covers a very wide scope
indeed, and it prompts the reader to go far beyond the narrower interests of one’s own field. The book should be a
valuable addition to the library of anyone with an interest in
the implications of fivefoldedness.
Sven Lidin [NB 1150 IE]
Inorganic Chemistry 2
Chemical Centre
Lund (Sweden)
Basic One- and Two-Dimensional NMR Spectroscopy. By H .
Friebolin. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim/VCH Publishers, New York 1991. xxi, 344 pp., hardcover
DM 58.00-ISBN 3-527-28108-8/0-89573-972-0
This book is intended to provide a simple introduction to
the world of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy,
taking the reader from a limited knowledge base to a general
understanding of the NMR methods and applications available today. There are fourteen chapters ranging from a general introduction, through spectral parameters, relaxation,
simple pulsed methods, and the nuclear Overhauser effect
(NOE) to finally medical applications.
The general introduction discusses the basic theory and
principles behind the NMR phenomenon and briefly introduces the spectral parameters of shift and scalar coupling.
This, as always, is important groundwork to cover initially.
Some of the figures in this section are less than adequate. In
particular the resolution in the spectra in some cases is so
poor that it is difficult to decide whether the discrepancies in
peak heights are due to this or to potential strong coupling
effects. As with other introductory texts, a more detailed
description of the rotating frame transformation and its consequences would be beneficial. Certainly, it seems that those
people learning this subject for the first time have a good deal
of difficulty in grasping the impact of this point.
Chapters 2 and 3 dealing with chemical shift and spinspin coupling respectively follow on well from Chapter 1.
Throughout Chapter 2 there are an unusually large number
of excellent examples, and substituent effects and stereochemical aspects are covered in precise detail. Chapter 3 continues along the same lines with many useful tables of coupling constants. A particularly useful inclusion is the
in-depth description of dihedral angle effects and Karplus
curves, vital in much structure determination work. The section on the “theory” of coupling would, however, have been
much better suited at the beginning of this chapter than at
the end. A useful chapter on spectral analysis (two, three,
and four spin systems) is followed by Chapter 5 outlining
double resonance procedures. Homonuclear spin decoupling
is covered, but it should be noted that this technology has
been all but eclipsed by the ease and speed of running COSYtype spectra. Most importantly, proton decoupling in
carbon experiments is addressed. Chapter 6 deals with the
assignments of proton and carbon shifts and the prediction
of shifts by empirical methods.
Chapter 7, covering relaxation processes, appears to be
directed almost exclusively towards the study of carbon-1 3
VerlagsgesellschaJt mbH, W-6940 Weinheim, 1991
0570-0833~91/1010-1383$3.50+ ,2510
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